Cadaqués (Catalan pronunciation: [kəðəˈkes]) is a town in the Alt Empordà comarca, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. It is on a bay in the middle of the Cap de Creus peninsula, near Cap de Creus cape, on the Costa Brava of the Mediterranean. It is two-and-a-quarter-hour drive from Barcelona, and thus it is accessible not only to tourists but also to people who want a second home for weekends and summers. In 2002, Cadaqués had an official population of 2,612, but up to ten times as many people can live in the town during the peak of the summer tourism season.
Cadaqués has a special place in art history. Commanding charcoals, by local artist Eliseu Meifrèn, of the 19th century Cadaqués beleaguered by a winter tramontane, can be seen at the Cadaqués museum. Fren was the first modern artist to live in Cadaqués and gave the town many of his works and a marble top table on which he sketched many of its turn-of-the-century fishermen.
Salvador Dalí often visited Cadaqués in his childhood, and later kept a home in Port Lligat, a small village on a bay next to the town. A summer holiday here in 1916, spent with the family of Ramon Pichot is seen as especially important to Dalí's artistic career. Other notable artists, including Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Richard Hamilton, Albert Ràfols-Casamada, Antoni Pitxot, Henri-François Rey, Melina Mercouri and Maurice Boitel also spent time here. Cadaqués is mentioned in the story "Tramontana" by Gabriel García Márquez.
The interesting submarine life of this sleepy fishing village was studied for several years by phycologist Françoise Ardré, long before Cadaqués was discovered and transformed into a tourism destination. On Mondays there is a travelling market in Cadaqués, located near the parking lot. This market has a wide variety of products.
Location in Catalonia
|• Mayor||Josep Lloret Parellada (2015) (ERC)|
|• Total||26.4 km2 (10.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||23 m (75 ft)|
|• Density||110/km2 (280/sq mi)|
In the early 20th century a large number of inhabitants of Cadaqués travelled or emigrated to Cuba (the figure has been estimated as one third of a village of approximately 1200 people). Many of these immigrants were financially successful in Cuba and returned to Cadaqués where they constructed large and ornate houses. These houses can still be seen in the town (for example; the "Casa Blava", "Blue House" in English). A person returned from Cuba was referred to as an "Americano" among other names.
The village of Cadaqués has its own variant or dialect of the Catalan language. One of the most notable features is that the definite articles are different from standard Catalan, namely, they are "sa" (feminine) and "es" masculine instead of the normal Catalan definite articles "la" and "el". This feature is shared with the variant of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands. The explanation for this (see "El Vocabulari de Cadaqués", Ernesta Sala i Bruses) is that when the Catalan ruler Jaume I conquered the Balearic Islands in the Middle Ages he re-colonized the islands with people from the Empordà region of Catalonia. Because Cadaqués has remained relatively isolated from the surrounding region (owing to its geography), the mediaeval speech patterns have been preserved.
Another aspect of the speech variant of Cadaqués is the alteration of the first person singular of certain verbs: conjugations that normally end in "o" end in "i" in the Cadaqués variant. For example, "a vegades agafi molt per Cala Nans" (informant was an approximately 90-year-old fisherman). In standard Catalan this would be "a vegades agafo molt per Cala Nans" (meaning: sometimes I catch a lot at Cala Nans) The speech variant of Catalan has most similarities with the Catalan spoken in Ibiza (Balearic Islands).
The Catalan variant of Cadaqués is referred to as "cadaquesenc" by the local people and also has many lexical items. Examples include:
Women of the village traditionally fetched water using a glazed earthenware jug called a "doll". The colour of the glazing was green. Similar earthenware can still be seen used as decorations. A number of photos exist showing women carrying these "dolls" on their heads (covered with a protective cloth).
Owing to Cadaqués's proximity to the French border and its isolation by land, the village had a tradition of running contraband. See the writings of Josep Pla.
Cadaqués and the surrounding peninsula known as the Cap de Creus owes its beauty in part to its complex geology. The rocks here were pushed up when the Pyrenees (or Pirineus in Catalan) were formed, and are mostly metamorphic schists which turn a golden colour in the Mediterranean sun.
Add to that the weather: this is one of the wildest spots on the Costa Brava in the winter (Costa Brava means "wild coast"), so the migmatites and schists are battered and eroded by the Tramuntana wind which whips off the mountains and by a sea that appears as if it is boiling in the force 8 winds.
The Cadaqués migmatites formed under extreme pressure and temperatures: a partial melt. They are halfway between an igneous and metamorphic rock. The area also contains a lot of schist: a medium grade metamorphic rock that has been flattened into sheets. White blocks of pegmatite mark where molten rock was squeezed through the older metamorphics at the end of the orogeny or mountain building.
The geological history has been exposed by erosion from wind and sea, and many geologists have mapped the area for this reason.
In 2010, a Chinese developer, China Merchants Zhangzhou, announced its intention to build a near-exact copy of Cadaqués on more than 100 acres (0.40 km2) of land on Xiamen Bay in China. The replica village is projected to house some 15,000 Chinese holidaymakers. Building is reported to begin in September or October 2010.
Alt Empordà (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈalt əmpuɾˈða], "Upper Empordà") is a comarca (county) in Girona, Catalonia, Spain, one of two into which Empordà was divided by the comarcal division of Catalonia in 1936, the other one being Baix Empordà.Angel Planells
Àngel Planells i Cruañas (Cadaqués, December 2, 1901 - Barcelona, July 23, 1989) was a Spanish Catalan surrealist painter.
Born in Cadaqués, where he met artists like Eliseu Meifrèn, Joan Roig i Soler and Salvador Dalí. In 1918 he went to Barcelona to study painting, lithography and engraving, but he returned home due to economic problems. In 1928 he published his first surrealist poems and some art criticism articles.
Between 1928 and 1929, Planells participated in his first collective exhibitions in the Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona (1929) and in Girona. In Cadaqués he met René Magritte and other surrealist artists. Planells's first individual exhibition took place in 1930, in the Dalmau Galleries.
In 1936, Planells formed a part of the Logicofobista group, together with artists Artur Carbonell i Carbonell, Leandre Cristòfol i Peralba, Àngel Ferrant, Esteve Francés, A. Gamboa-Rothwoss, A. G. Lamolla, Ramon Marinello, Joan Massanet, Maruja Mallo, Jaume Sans, Nàdia Sokalova, Remedios Varo and Joan Ismael, and art critic and theorist Magí Cassanyes. The first Logicofobista Exhibition took place in Barcelona, in 1936. Same year, three works of Planells were shown at the London International Surrealist Exhibition. Since 1929 Planells lived in Blanes, where he worked as a professor at the School of Arts.
After the Spanish Civil War, Planells painted landscapes and still lifes, and in 1974 he returned to surrealism.Antoni Pitxot
Antoni Pitxot (Catalan pronunciation: [ənˈtɔni piˈtʃɔt]; Figueres, Girona, January 5, 1934 – June 12, 2015) was a Spanish Catalan painter and a longtime friend and collaborator of Salvador Dalí.Pitxot was born into a family with many artists in its ranks, among them, his uncle Ramon Pichot. He began studying drawing at the age of thirteen, and he exhibited regularly in Lisbon, Bilbao, Barcelona, and Madrid in his twenties and thirties, winning many prizes, including the Gold Medal painting prize in Barcelona's La Punyalada competition in 1965.At the beginning of the 1960s, he was a close friend of the French painter Maurice Boitel, who painted many pictures on the Pitxot family's property in Cadaqués, a small port town on the Mediterranean Sea near the French border, that was also painted by Pablo Picasso and André Derain.In 1966, Pitxot took up permanent residence in Cadaqués, where his family had owned a summer house since the end of the 19th century. He began to experiment with surrealism: in particular, he became focused on anthropomorphic figures composed of the stones that lined the seashores near his home. Pitxot worked in a unique way: he would build sculptures from stones, and then paint those sculptures in oil.
Much of Pixtot's work is concerned with allegory and myth, including the figure of Mnemosyne, the mother of the nine muses who personified memory, and a series of works about The Tempest.
Pitxot's association with Salvador Dalí began before his birth, because their families were acquainted. But Dalí became an early supporter of Antonio Pitxot's work, and eventually asked him to co-design the Dalí Theatre and Museum (Teatre-Museu Dalí) in Figueres, Spain. There is also a permanent exhibition of Pitxot's work on one floor of that museum.
Pitxot and Dalí were nearly inseparable in the last years of Dalí's life: designing Dalí's museum, teaching art and exchanging ideas about their work. Pitxot was a protector of Dalí's legacy after his death: He was a member of the board of the Gala Salvador Dalí Foundation, and he has led, and sat on the board, of several other Dalí foundations.
He became the museum's director after Dalí's death.
It is however alleged that Pitxot is one of the greatest forgers of Dali's work.Pitxot was a respected international Catalan artist in his own right. In the year 2000, he was appointed corresponding academician for Cadaqués of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint George. In the 2004, he received the Gold Medal of Merit in Fine Arts from the King of Spain as a recognition for his work. In 2014 the City hall of Figueres (Girona) grants him the "Fulla de Figuera de Plata" and in 2015 was nominated “The Favorite Son of the Cadaqués city" (Girona) . Works are held in private collections and in various museums.His grandson is the Spanish actor, singer and comedian Bruno Oro Pichot.He died on 12 June 2015 at the age of 81.Cadaqués Orchestra
The Cadaqués Orchestra (Orquesta de Cadaqués [Spanish]; Orquestra de Cadaqués [Catalan]) is a chamber orchestra based in Cadaqués, Catalonia, Spain. Founded in 1988 to be the resident orchestra of the Cadaqués Festival, the orchestra has since become an established orchestra with a regular concert season. The orchestra hosts the Cadaqués Orchestra International Conducting Competition, which occurs every two years. The orchestra gives concerts in several cities and venues in Spain, including the following:
Gianandrea Noseda became principal conductor of the orchestra in 1994, after winning the Cadaqués Orchestra International Conducting Competition in the same year. The orchestra's principal guest conductor was Sir Neville Marriner. In February 2011, the orchestra announced the appointment of Jaime Martín, a founding member of and flutist in the orchestra, as co-chief conductor, in tandem with Noseda.Cadaqués Orchestra International Conducting Competition
The Cadaqués Orchestra International Conducting Competition, is a music competition for young conductors organized by the Cadaqués Orchestra in Catalonia, Spain.Cap de Creus
Cap de Creus (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkab də ˈkɾɛws]) is a peninsula and a headland located at the far northeast of Catalonia, some 25 kilometres (16 mi) south from the French border. The cape lies in the municipal area of Cadaqués, and the nearest large town is Figueres, capital of the Alt Empordà and birthplace of Salvador Dalí. Cap de Creus is the easternmost point of Catalonia and therefore of mainland Spain and the Iberian Peninsula.
The area is now a Natural Park.The peninsula has an area of 190 square kilometres (73 sq mi) of an extraordinary landscape value; a windbeaten very rocky dry region, with almost no trees, in contrast with a seaside rich in minuscule creeks of deep blue sea to anchor. Mountains are the eastern foothills of the Pyrenees, the natural border between France and Spain. The region is frequently swept by awful north wind "tramontana" (beyond mountains) which has caused many naval disasters. Cadaqués is the most well known village, home of artists and writers, with sophisticated atmosphere, near Port Lligat where Dalí built his home in a paradise small bay. (Dalí depicted the peninsula in his paintings The Persistence of Memory and The Great Masturbator.) El Port de la Selva, with a little fishing harbour, is less exploited, with good gastronomic resources and pleasant terraces.
Sant Pere de Rodes stands out at 500 metres (1,600 ft) of altitude, with views of the Cap and the Pyrenees. It is an 11th-century monastery whose first structures date from about 750 AD.
One legend tells that the Cap de Creus was hewn by Hercules.Costa Brava
The Costa Brava (Catalan: [ˈkɔstə ˈβɾaβə], Spanish: [ˈkosta ˈβɾaβa]; "Wild Coast" or "Rough Coast") is a coastal region of Catalonia in northeastern Spain, consisting of the comarques (counties) of Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà and Selva in the province of Girona. Costa Brava stretches from the town of Blanes, 60 km (37 mi) northeast of Barcelona, to the French border.
In the 1950s, the Costa Brava was identified by the Spanish government and local entrepreneurs as being suitable for substantial development as a holiday destination, mainly for package holiday tourists from Northern Europe and especially, the United Kingdom and France. The combination of a very good summer climate, nature, excellent beaches and a favourable foreign exchange rate before the creation of the single European currency, which made Costa Brava an attractive tourist destination, was exploited by the construction of large numbers of hotels and apartments in such seaside resorts as Blanes, Tossa de Mar and Lloret de Mar. Tourism rapidly took over from fishing as the principal business of the area.El Masnou
El Masnou (pronounced [əl məzˈnɔw]; Catalan for "the new farmhouse") is a municipality in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the coast between Montgat and Premià de Mar, to the north-east of the city of Barcelona, in the comarca (county) of el Maresme. The town is both a tourist centre and a dormitory town in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area.
The main N-II road and a RENFE railway line run through the town, while a local road links it with the A-19 autopista at
The town center has buildings in a wide range of styles: neoclassical, modernista, noucentista
and simply eclectic. The municipal museum has collections of archeology and of Catalan ceramics, and there is also a private
museum of pharmacy and medicine. A Roman village called Cal Ros de les Cabres was one of the first settlements located on the site of the current
The agriculture of El Masnou is mainly of flowers, especially carnations, and the industry has a predominance of textile, with several industries about ceramics, glass and pharmaceutical products.
Famous Catalan Cellist Pablo Casals lived in El Masnou, and current basketball star Ricky Rubio is a native. Also, Bruno, a professional footballer who plays for Brighton & Hove Albion, was born in El Masnou.
Other famous people who were born in El Masnou are:
Antoni Llampallas Alsina (1855-1923) Attorney and delegate to the Union Catalanista in the House of Manresa (1892).
Fèlix Oliver (Masnou, 1856 - Montevideo (Uruguay), 1932), a pioneer of cinema in Uruguay.
Jordi Pagans i Monsalvatje (1932): One of the most important Catalan contemporary figurative painters. Cousin of the renowned classical music composer Xavier Montsalvatge i Bassols. In his paintings the influence of the Empordà coast, especially the people of Cadaqués, can be seen clearly.
Lluís Millet i Pagès (1867-1941): musician, founder of the Catalan choir.
Pau Estape i Maristani: mayor of El Masnou.Gianandrea Noseda
Gianandrea Noseda (born 23 April 1964) is an Italian conductor.
Noseda studied piano and composition in Milan. He began conducting studies at age 27. He furthered his conducting studies with Donato Renzetti, Myung-Whun Chung and Valery Gergiev. His professional conducting debut was in 1994 with the Orchestra Sinfonica di Milano Giuseppe Verdi.In 1994, Noseda won the Cadaqués Orchestra International Conducting Competition and became principal conductor of the Cadaqués Orchestra in the same year. He became principal guest conductor at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg in 1997. He has also served as principal guest conductor of the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra and artistic director of the Settimane Musicali di Stresa e del Lago Maggiore Festival in Italy. In 2001, he became artistic director of the Stresa Festival in Italy. In 2007, Noseda became Music Director of the Teatro Regio di Torino. Noseda led the Teatro Regio di Torino on its first North American tour in December 2014. In April 2018, Noseda submitted his resignation from the Teatro Regio music directorship.In December 2001, Noseda was named principal conductor of the BBC Philharmonic, and assumed the post in September 2002. In July 2003, Noseda extended his contract with the orchestra to 2008. He and the BBC Philharmonic participated in a 2005 BBC Radio 3 project which made live performances in Manchester of the nine symphonies of Beethoven available for download. In October 2006, Noseda extended his contract for another two years and his title was changed to Chief Conductor. He concluded his BBC Philharmonic tenure after the 2010-2011 season and subsequently took the title of conductor laureate. In February 2016, the London Symphony Orchestra announced the appointment of Noseda as its new co-principal guest conductor, effective with the 2016-2017 season.Outside of the UK, Noseda held the Victor de Sabata Guest Conductor Chair with the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, for a designated term of 4 seasons. He has served as principal guest conductor of the Israel Philharmonic since May 2011. In 2011, Noseda first guest-conducted the National Symphony Orchestra (NSO; Washington, D.C.), and returned in November 2015 for an additional guest engagement. In January 2016, the NSO appointed Noseda as its next music director, effective with the 2017-2018 season, with an initial contract of 4 seasons. In September 2018, the NSO announced the extension of Noseda's contract through the 2024-2025 season.Noseda first conducted at the Zurich Opera in May 2017, in a production of Prokofiev's The Fiery Angel, and subsequently returned for a further guest engagement with Verdi's Macbeth. In July 2018, Zurich Opera announced the appointment of Noseda as its next Generalmusikdirektor, effective in 2021.Noseda has conducted several recordings with the BBC Philharmonic for the Chandos label, of Prokofiev, Dallapiccola (including the world premiere recording of Dallapiccola's Partita), Dvořák, Liszt, Karłowicz, Casella, Shostakovich, Rachmaninoff, and Respighi.Noseda holds the honour of Cavaliere Ufficiale al Merito della Repubblica Italiana, for his contributions to the artistic life of Italy. He was the recipient of the 'Conductor of the Year' award from Musical America, for 2015.Jaime Martín
Jaime Martín (born 1 September 1965, Santander, Spain) is a Spanish conductor and flautist.
Martín began his music studies on the flute at age 8, and became a member of the National Youth Orchestra of Spain at age 13. He was a pupil of Antonio Arias, in Madrid, and later with Paul Verhey in The Hague. He began his career as a flautist. He attained posts as principal flute with the Academy of St Martin in the Fields, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra, the last post with the LPO for 3 years. He also worked regularly as a member of the Chamber Orchestra of Europe. In 1991, he made his debut as soloist at Carnegie Hall with the Flute Concerto by Nielsen. He has recorded chamber music with the Gaudier Ensemble, the Brindisi String Quartet, Pinchas Zukerman and others. He is a founder member of the Cadaqués Orchestra. In 1998, he became a flute teacher at the Royal College of Music, London.
In July 2012, Martín became artistic adviser of the Gävle Symphony Orchestra. One year later, as of 1 July 2013, he became the orchestra's principal conductor, with an initial contract of 4 years. In September 2015, the orchestra extended his contract through 2020. He has recorded commercially with the Gävle Symphony Orchestra for such labels as Ondine. Martín also has the title of chief conductor (director titular) of the Orquesta de Cadaqués, since 2011.
In September 2017, Martín first guest-conducted the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra (LACO). On the basis of this appearance, in February 2018, the LACO named Martín its next music director, effective with the 2019-2020 season, with an initial contract of 3 years.Martín and his family, which includes two sons, make their home in London.Jordi Pagans i Monsalvatje
Jordi Pagans i Monsalvatje (18 April 1932 – 4 January 2017) was a Catalan and Spanish painter.Leda Atomica
Leda Atomica is a painting by Salvador Dalí, made in 1949. The picture depicts Leda, the mythological queen of Sparta, with the swan. Leda is a frontal portrait of Dalí's wife, Gala, who is seated on a pedestal with a swan suspended behind and to her left. Different objects such as a book, a set square, two stepping stools and an egg float around the main figure. In the background on both sides, the rocks of Cap Norfeu (on the Costa Brava in Catalonia, between Roses and Cadaqués) define the location of the image.
The painting is exhibited in the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres.Mae West Lips Sofa
The Mae West Lips Sofa is a surrealist sculpture in the form of a sofa by Salvador Dalí. The light red, 86.5 x 183 x 81.5 cm (34 x 72 x 32 in) sized seating furniture made of wood and satin was shaped in 1937 after the lips of actress Mae West, whom Dalí apparently found fascinating. Dalí never intended for the sofa to serve a functional use. He also claimed that he partly based the design of the sofa on a pile of rocks near Cadaqués and Portlligat, where he stayed for many years with his wife, Gala Éluard Dalí.
Edward James, a rich British patron of the Surrealists in the 1930s, originally commissioned this piece from Dalí. It is now part of the art collections at the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam. Another version is on display at the Dalí Theatre and Museum in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain. A version is owned by the Victoria and Albert Museum, having exhibited another example at the 2007 exhibition Surreal Things: Surrealism and Design, while another version is on display at Brighton Museum.
Since 1970, Italian design furniture company Gufram is producing an updated version of Dalí's Mae West Lips Sofa designed by group Studio 65 and title Bocca (meaning: "mouth" in Italian) or most known in US as "Marilyn sofa" in honor of actress and sex symbol Marilyn Monroe. Unlike Dalí's original work, the Marilyn Bocca Sofa has a more practical use in the home, and has become an icon of classic modern design.Michael Lederer
Michael Lederer (born July 9, 1956 in Princeton, New Jersey) is an American novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter and essayist currently living in Berlin, Germany. Die Welt has called him "an archaeologist among the great American writers."Port Lligat
Port Lligat or Portlligat is a small village located in a small bay on Cap de Creus peninsula, on the Costa Brava of the Mediterranean Sea, in the municipality of Cadaqués in the Alt Empordà comarca, in Girona province, Catalonia, Spain. The Island of Port Lligat (or Island of Portlligat) is located at the entrance of the bay, separated from the mainland by a narrow 30-metre-wide canal.
Salvador Dalí lived in the village and his house has been converted into the Casa-Museo Salvador Dalí. Both the bay and the island have been represented in several of Dalí's paintings, such as The Madonna of Port Lligat, Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus), and The Sacrament of the Last Supper.Quima Jaume i Carbo
Quima Jaume i Carbó (1934–1993) was a Catalan Spanish poet. She was born in Cadaqués, Girona, Catalonia, and graduated from university with a degree in Catalan philology.
Quima Jaume i Carbó was influenced by fellow female poets Marta Pessarrodona and Rosa Leveroni, and the main theme of her poetry was love. Prominent in feminist and literary associations, she died in Barcelona. She was the author of Pels camins remolosos de la mar (1990) and the collection of verses, El temps passa a Cadaqués (Time Passes in Cadaqués) (1988).Ramon Pichot
Ramon Pichot Gironès (Catalan pronunciation: [rəˈmom piˈtʃɔt]; 1871 – 1 March 1925) was a Catalan and Spanish artist. He painted in an impressionist style.
He was a good friend of Pablo Picasso and an early mentor to young Salvador Dalí. Dalí met Pichot in Cadaqués, Spain, when was only 10 years old. Pichot also made many trips to France. Once in a while, Dalí and his family would go on a trip with Pichot and his family.
He married Germaine Pichot, a well-known artist's model, in 1906. Together they had a restaurant near the Bateau Lavoir, called La maison rose. Pichot left Paris after World War I but returned often to buy books, as he had turned into a bibliophile. On such a trip, he suddenly died on 1 March 1925. Picasso was so shaken by this that he included Pichot's figure in the painting "Three Dancers", on which he was working at the time.In The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, Gertrude Stein describes Pichot as follows:
...spanish painter Pichot, [...] was rather a wonderful creature, he was long and thin like one of those primitive Christs in spanish churches and when he did a spanish dance which he did later at the famous banquet to Rousseau, he was awe inspiringly religious.Stephen Wesley Gorton
Stephen Wesley Gorton (13 August 1952 – 23 October 2015) was an internationally renowned Australian artist and the founder of the Paddington Art School. He lived in Sydney, Australia.