Caboclo

A caboclo (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɐˈboklu], also pronounced "caboco"; from Brazilian Portuguese, perhaps ultimately from Tupi kaa'boc, means a "person having copper-coloured skin"[1]) (English: cabloke) is a person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and European ancestry (the first, most common use), or a culturally assimilated person of full Amerindian descent. In Brazil, a caboclo generally refers to this specific type of mestiço. A person of mixed Indigenous Brazilian and sub-Saharan black ancestry is known as a "cafuzo".

In the 1872 and 1890 censuses, 3.90% and 9.04% of the population self-identified as caboclos, respectively. Since then, caboclos are counted as pardos, along with mulattoes (mixed Black-White) and cafuzos (mixed Amerindian-Black).[2]

A survey performed in Rio de Janeiro showed that 14% of Whites and 6% of Pardos reported a mixed Amerindian and White ancestry.[3]

According to the Mexican researcher Lizcano, based on a non genetic based estimation, caboclos (mestizos) would be 12% of Brazilian population.[4]

Nascimento Caboclo
Statues showing the birth of a Caboclo.

Etymology

The term caboclo (which in the Amazon Basin and in Candomblé is usually pronounced without the l, as caboco) is said to come from the Tupi word kari'boka, meaning "deriving from the white". Its primary meaning is mestizo, "a person of part Amerindian and part European descent." But it may also be used to refer to any Indigenous Brazilian who is assimilated.[5] The term Indian should not be confused with people originating from India in South Asia.

The king of Portugal, D. Joseph I, encouraged marriages between European colonists and Indians in the 18th century; this enabled the European men to settle into families, and resulted in the birth of the first caboclo children. Similarly, in the 19th century during the time of rubber soldiers, the government recruited young, primarily white and mestiço Brazilian men from Northeastern Brazil and transported them into the Amazonian interior to harvest rubber. The men were never granted permission to leave, and married local native women, fathering more generations of mestiços.

The caboclo populations in the Amazon region of Brazil are noted as voracious eaters of the açaí palm fruit, which is basic to the traditional diet of the natives. In one study, açaí palm was described as the most important plant species because the fruit makes up such a major component of diet (up to 42% of the total food intake by weight) and is economically valuable in the region (Murrieta et al., 1999).

The term caboco is also used as an alternate term for the Orishas of the Candomblé religion. The caboclo is also an Orisha.

Days celebrating racial groups in Brazil

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Caboclo". WordReference. WordReference.com. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  2. ^ Araújo, Tereza Cristina N. "A classificação de "cor" nas pesquisas do IBGE". p. 14.
  3. ^ Edward Eric Telles (2004). "Racial Classification". Race in Another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton University Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 0-691-11866-3.
  4. ^ Lizcano, Francisco. "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, UAEM. p. 225.
  5. ^ Wafer, James William. The Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomblé. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991, p. 55.

Books

  • Adams, C., Murrieta, R., & Neves, W. A. (2006). Sociedades caboclas amazônicas: modernidade e invisibilidade (1a ed.). Sâo Paulo: Annablume. ISBN 85-7419-644-4 and ISBN 978-85-7419-644-2
  • Nugent, S. (1993). Amazonian Caboclo Society: An Essay on Invisibility and Peasant Economy. Providence, RI: Berg. ISBN 0-85496-756-7

Journal articles

  • Murrieta, R. S. S., Dufour, D. L., & Siqueira, A. D. (1999). "Food consumption and subsistence in three Caboclo populations on Marajo Island, Amazonia, Brazil," Human Ecology, 27(3), 455–475.

External links

2013 FIBA Intercontinental Cup

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A Mis Amigos

A Mis Amigos is a 1959 studio album by Nat King Cole, arranged by Dave Cavanaugh and recorded in Rio de Janeiro.This was Cole's second album of Spanish themed music (despite that it also features three songs in Portuguese, "Suas Mãos", "Caboclo Do Rio" and "Não Tenho Lágrimas"), following Cole Español (1958) and preceding More Cole Español (1962).

Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park

The Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park (Portuguese: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira) is a state park is the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

It protects a mountainous area of Atlantic Forest. It is known for its many caves.

Berimbau

The berimbau (Portuguese pronunciation: [beɾĩˈbaw]) is a single-string percussion instrument, a musical bow, from Brazil. Originally from Africa where it receives different names, the berimbau was eventually incorporated into the practice of the Afro-Brazilian martial art capoeira, the berimbau (the soul of capoeira) leads the capoeiristas movement in the roda—the faster the berimbau is playing the faster the capoeirista moves in the game. The instrument is known for being the subject matter of a popular song by Brazilian guitarist Baden Powell, with lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes. The instrument is also a part of Candomblé-de-caboclo tradition.

Black Awareness Day

In Brazil, Black Awareness Day or Black Consciousness Day (Portuguese: Dia da Consciência Negra) is observed annually on November 20 as a day "to celebrate a regained awareness by the black community about their great worth and contribution to the country".Black Awareness Day has been celebrated since the 1960s and has amplified its events in the last few years. Originally, it was celebrated on May 13 (the date of abolition of slavery in Brazil). It was later moved to November 20 to honour Zumbi's death, and is sometimes called Zumbi Day. It is an official state holiday in Alagoas, Amazonas, Amapá, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro, and marked elsewhere by multiple city councils.

Brazilian Western

Brazilian Western (Portuguese: Faroeste Caboclo) is a 2013 Brazilian crime drama film directed and produced by René Sampaio, starring Fabrício Boliveira, Isis Valverde and César Trancoso. It is based on the song of same name released by Brazilian rock band Legião Urbana in their 1987 Que País É Este album.

Originally set for a 2011 release, the film's production suffered many delays. Shootings for the film took place primarily in the Jardim ABC neighbourhood of Cidade Ocidental, Goiás, in which the city of Ceilândia, Distrito Federal was recreated as it was in the 1970s. Shootings of other cities and places mentioned in the song could be done in loco. The film was screened in the Contemporary World Cinema section at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival.

Brazilian corvette Caboclo (V19)

Cv Caboclo (V19) is an Imperial Marinheiro-class corvette of the Brazilian Navy. Caboclo was the fifth of ten of the class ordered by the Brazilian Navy in 1953. Caboclo was launched on 19 August 1954, and commissioned on 16 July 1955.

Brazilian traditional medicine

Traditional Brazilian medicine (Portuguese: Medicina indígena) includes many native South American elements, and imported African ones. It is predominant where indigenous groups and among the black-Native American mestizo population, and in the Northeast coast, nearly all interior regions including Amazon regions, savannahs, rainforest, foothills, and Pantanal. According to Dr. Romulo R. N. Alves, "although Brazil's health system is public...use of traditional remedies and rituals provide an economical way of healing for much of the populace, but that also does not mean that wealthy Brazilians don't seek it out as well. Traditional medicine is a deep part of Brazilian heritage."The Aruak, Tupi, Yamomami, Krahô, Guarani and other Indians groups are among the native tribes that together with isolated descendants of Africans or Quilombola, and Indians integrated (Caboclo) that are known to almost exclusively practice traditional medicine. Among the plants include edible foods like the cashew, peppers, mangosteen and coconut, but often include inedible parts like the fruits, leaves, husk, bark. Neighboring nations like the Patamona of Guyana also use the cashew.There is growing interest in Brazilian medicine as the Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical forest in the world, and is home to immense biodiversity, including cures or treatments for many ailments. Japanese scientists have found strong anticancer activity in Brazilian traditional remedies. In one study in 1997 published in The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, only 122 species existing in Brazil could be related to the Chinese species (or 14.35% of the samples)., which means the vast majority of species are not known to Chinese traditional medicine. Thousands and possibly millions of species remain unstudied and/or susceptible to extinction by habitat destruction.

Bruno Caboclo

Bruno Correa Fernandes Caboclo (born September 21, 1995) is a Brazilian professional basketball player for the Memphis Grizzlies of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Standing at 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m), he plays the small forward position.

Caboclo (disambiguation)

Caboclo means a person having copper-coloured skin in Brazilian Portuguese. Caboclo may also refer to

Bruno Caboclo (born 1995), Brazilian basketball player

Faroeste Caboclo, a 1979 song recorded by Brazilian rock band Legião Urbana

Brazilian corvette Caboclo (V19) , an Imperial corvette of the Brazilian Navy

Faroeste Caboclo

"Faroeste Caboclo" (English: Caboclo Western) is a song composed by Renato Russo and recorded by Brazilian rock band Legião Urbana. Written in 1979, the song was released in 1987 in the album Que País É Este.The song is a lengthy ballad, in the vein of Bob Dylan, that tells the story of João de Santo Cristo, a poor man from the Brazilian Northeast who moves to Brasília in search of a better life, gets involved in drug trafficking, briefly abandons the life of crime for the love of a woman and is finally murdered by a rival.Despite its unusual characteristics for a folk song (168 different lines, no chorus and 9 minutes of playing time), "Faroeste Caboclo" was a smash hit.

It is widely regarded as a Brazilian rock classic. A film adaptation was released in 2013.

Iara (mythology)

Iara, also spelled Uiara or Yara (Portuguese pronunciation: [iˈjaɾɐ], [iˈaɾɐ], [ˈjaɾɐ], [wiˈjaɾɐ], [ujˈjaɾɐ]) or Mãe das Águas ([ˈmɐ̃j dɐˈz aɣwɐs], "mother of waters"), is a figure from Brazilian mythology based on ancient Tupi and Guaraní mythology. The word derives from Old Tupi yîara = y + îara (water + lord/lady) = lady of the lake (water queen). She is seen as either a water nymph, siren, or mermaid depending upon the context of the story told about her. The Brazilian town of Nova Olinda claims the Cama da Mãe D’água as the home of Iara.Iara is a beautiful young woman, sometimes described as having green hair, light brown or copper-colored skin (as that of an Indigenous Amerindian from Brazil, or of a caboclo) and brown eyes, connected to a freshwater dolphin, manatee or fish body (the Tupi word y did not have a distinct meaning, being used in general for any riverine or freshwater lacustrine place) who would sit on a rock by the river combing her hair or dozing under the sun. When she felt a man around she would start to sing gently to lure him. Once under the spell of the Iara a man would leave anything to live with her underwater forever, which was not necessarily a bad thing, as she was pretty and would cater for all needs of her lover for the rest of his life.

It is often claimed that, until the 18th century, the Iara legend was originally about an aggressive monstrous river merman known as Ipupiara ("freshwater monster", [ipupiˈaɾɐ] in Portuguese phonological rules; by that [Pre-Pombaline] time, most Brazilians still spoke línguas gerais), that would readily devour fishers, rather than that of a seducing, docile river mermaid.

Iaras are immortal (like the nymphs of Greek mythology), but her lovers do age and die, which means that they live most of eternity alone.

The legend of the Iara was one of the usual explanations for the disappearance of those who ventured alone in the jungle.

Iara (or Yara) is also a very popular female name in Brazil.

The Iara is similar in nature to several other female figures of folklore from other regions such as La Llorona from Mexico and the Southwestern United States, the Colombian creatures La Patasola and the Tunda and the Deer Woman of North America. All are females who at times function as sirens leading men to their death.

In the 1969 film version of the novel Macunaíma, the protagonist of the same name meets his death at the hands of an Iara. He embraces her eagerly and sees too late the blow hole in the back of her neck that gives her away as the creature she is and not the beautiful woman he mistook her for.

This physical deformity marking an otherwise perfect woman is a common theme among siren figures in the Americas but it is usually one of the feet. Deer Woman has hooves for feet, La Patasola and the Tunda have deformed feet and La Llorona is often said to have no feet by those who see her.

José Carvalho

José Carvalho (born June 11, 1964 in Salvador, Brazil) is a Brazilian screenwriter, script doctor and dramaturgy professor. He has written scripts for the big and small screens since the early 90s. Some of his most well-known works include Castelo Rá-Tim-Bum, Bruna Surfistinha, Faroeste Caboclo and the classic soap opera Xica da Silva. With an MA in Literature from PUC-Rio, Carvalho has taught courses at not only his alma-mater, but also renowned Brazilian production houses such as O2 Filmes (co-owned by Brazilian film director Fernando Meirelles) and Globo.Carvalho is set to open his own screen/television writing school, Roteiraria, alongside partner Edu Ribeiro in April 2016.

List of Brazilian films of 2013

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Malachi Richardson

Malachi Richardson (born January 5, 1996) is an American professional basketball player. He played one season of college basketball for Syracuse before being selected by the Charlotte Hornets with the 22nd overall pick in the 2016 NBA draft.

Mestiço

Mestiço, in Colonial Brazil, the Portuguese-speaking part of Latin America, was initially used to refer to mamelucos, persons born from a couple in which one was an Indigenous American and the other a European. It literally translates as "mameluke", probably referring to the common Iberian comparisons of swarthy people to North Africans (cf. moreno, "tawny, swarthy, tanned" but also "dark colored" or "dark-haired human", from mouro, "Moor").

The term mameluco fell in disuse in Brazil and was replaced by the much more familiar-sounding caboclo (formerly caboco, from Tupi ka'abok, "the ones coming from the wilderness") or cariboca/curiboca (from kari'boka, "what comes from the white man"; could also mean the child of a caboclo and a white person, equivalent to the Spanish castizo, or to the child of a caboclo and an Indigenous person, equivalent to the Spanish cholo), given the fact that most Brazilians, even those living in ubiquitously Christian villages and towns, spoke Tupi and the Tupi-derived línguas gerais until the 18th century, when they were banned by the Marquis of Pombal in 1777. A young Indigenous or caboclo boy would be a piá, from Tupi pyã, "heart", the way Indigenous mothers referred to their children. In modern-day Brazil (most particularly in the south), nevertheless, this word became general slang for any boy, regardless of race.

Even before the use of the Portuguese language in public became mandatory for Brazilians, nevertheless, other categories of mestiço appeared, with the introduction of African slavery by the Portuguese to Brazil and subsequent assimilation of them, whether enslaved, free or runaway, in both Portuguese settlements and Indigenous villages, as well as the Portuguese colonization of Africa and Asia.

A mulato (from muladi) was a person of simultaneous visible European and African descent. A cafuzo, cafuso, cafuz, carafuz, carafuzo, cafúzio, cabo-verde, caburé or caboré (the last three from Tupi caá-poré, "forest dweller") was a person of Amerindian and African descent, with jíbaro being someone who was a quarter Amerindian and three quarters African, and a juçara would be a visibly tri-racial person of mixed African, European and Amerindian descent (from Tupi yi'sara, "palm tree", "thorny one(s)", possibly by comparison of their phenotype with açaí berries, produced by the juçara palm tree). Any person of mixed African descent could be referred to as cabrocha (lit. "young, small goat"; with cabra, "goat", being a common synonym of man in Brazilian Portuguese, particularly in the northeast), which initially referred to a young child of a black and a white person.

Pardo, the Portuguese word for a light brown color ("the color of a leopard", particularly in the context of complexion), evolved to mean any visibly mixed-race person that would not pass for any other race, to the exception of those of lighter complexion, who could be morenos (if dark-haired) or sararás (if light-haired, from Tupi sara-ra, "red-haired"; nevertheless, sarará evolved to mean only those of African descent more recently).

Mixed Race Day

In Brazil, "Mixed Race Day" (Dia do Mestiço) is observed annually on June 27, three days after the Day of the Caboclo, in celebration of all mixed-race Brazilians, including the caboclos. The date is an official public holiday in three Brazilian states.

Mixed Race Day marks the election of twenty-seven mixed-race representatives during the 1st Conference for the Promotion of Racial Equality, which occurred in the city of Manaus from April 7 to 9, 2005.

It also recognizes the month of June, in which caboclo activist Helda Castro was registered as the only mixed-race representative in the 1st National Conference for the Promotion of Racial Equality, which was held in Brasília (June 30 to July 2, 2005) and was sponsored by the Government of Brazil.

Manaus established "Mixed Race Day" as an official day of the city on January 6, 2006. The recognition was adopted by other cities and four States: 2006, by the Brazilian State of Amazonas and by the city of Boa Vista, in State of Roraima; 2007, by the State of Roraima and the State of Paraíba; 2016, by the State of Mato Grosso.

Umbanda

Umbanda (Portuguese pronunciation: [ũˈbɐ̃dɐ]) is a syncretic Afro-Brazilian religion that blends African traditions with Roman Catholicism, Spiritism, and Indigenous American beliefs. Although some of its beliefs and most of its practices existed in the late 19th century in almost all Brazil, it is assumed that Umbanda originated in Niterói and surrounding areas in the early 20th century, mainly due to the work of a psychic (medium), Zélio Fernandino de Moraes, who practiced Umbanda among the poor Afro-Brazilians slave descendants. Since then, Umbanda has spread across mainly southern Brazil and neighboring countries like Argentina and Uruguay.

Umbanda has many branches, each one with a different set of beliefs and practices. Some common beliefs are the existence of a Supreme Creator known as Olodumare. Other common beliefs are the existence of deities called Orixás, most of them syncretized with Catholic saints that act as divine energy and forces of nature; spirits of deceased people that counsel and guide practitioners through troubles in the material world; psychics, or mediums, who have a natural ability that can be perfected to bring messages from the spiritual world of Orixás and the guiding spirits; reincarnation and spiritual evolution through many material lives (karmic law) and the practice of charity and social fraternity.

Whatever It May Take

Whatever It May Take is the second studio album released by German heavy metal band Heaven Shall Burn.

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