Cabira or Kabeira (/kəˈbaɪrə/; Greek: τὰ Κάβειρα) was a town of ancient Pontus in Asia minor, at the base of the range of Paryadres, about 150 stadia south of Eupatoria or Magnopolis, which was at the junction of the Iris and the Lycus. Eupatoria was in the midst of the plain called Phanaroea, whereas Cabira, as Strabo says was at the base of the Paryadres.[1] Mithridates the Great built a palace at Cabira; and there was a water-mill there (Greek: ὑδραλέτης), and places for keeping wild animals, hunting grounds, and mines. Less than 200 stadia from Cabira was the remarkable rock or fortress called Caenon (Greek: Καινόν [χωρίον]), where Mithridates kept his most valuable things. Cn. Pompeius took the place and its treasures, which, when Strabo wrote, were in the Roman Capitol. In Strabo's time a woman, Pythodoris, the widow of King Polemon, had Cabira with the Zelitis and Magnopolitis. Pompeius made Cabira a city, and gave it the name Diospolis (Διόσπολις). Pythodoris enlarged it, gave it the name Sebaste (Σεβαστή), which is the Greek equivalent to Augusta, and used it as her royal residence. Near Cabira probably at a village named Ameria, there was a temple with a great number of slaves belonging to it, and the high priest enjoyed this benefice.[2] The god Men of Pharnaces (Μήν Φαρνάκου) was worshipped at Cabira. Mithridates was at Cabira during the winter that L. Lucullus was besieging Amisus and Eupatoria.[3] Lucullus afterwards took Cabira.[4] There are some autonomous coins of Cabira with the epigraph "Καβηρων".[5]

Strabo, a native of Amasia, could not be unacquainted with the site of Cabira. The only place that corresponds to his description is Niksar, on the right bank of the Lycus, nearly 43 km from the junction of the Iris and the Lycus. But Niksar is the ancient Neocaesarea, a name which first occurs in Pliny, who says that it is on the Lycus.[6] There is no trace of any ancient city between Niksar and the junction of the two rivers, and the conclusion that Niksar is a later name of Cabira, and a name more recent than Sebaste, seems certain.[7] Neocaesarea seems to have arisen under the early Roman emperors. John Cramer states that the earliest coins of Neocaesarea bear the effigy of Tiberius;[8] but Sestini, quoted by Albert Forbiger, assigns the origin of Neocaesarea to the time of Nero, about 64 CE, when Pontus Polemoniacus was made a Roman province.[9] The simplest solution of this question is that Neocaesarea was a new town, which might be near the site of Cabira. It was the capital of Pontus Polemoniacus, the birthplace of Gregorius Thaumaturgus, and the place of assembly of a church council in 314. Ammianus Marcellinus calls it the most noted city of Pontus Polemoniacus: it was, in fact, the metropolis.[10] According to Paulus Diaconus the place was destroyed by an earthquake.[5]

Cramer supposes that Neocaesarea is identical with Ameria, and he adds that Neocaesarea was the principal seat of pagan idolatry and superstitions, which affords another presumption that it had risen on the foundation of Ameria and the worship of Men Pharnaces. But Ameria seems to have been at or near Cabira; and all difficulties are reconciled by supposing that Cabira, Ameria, Neocaesarea were in the valley of the Lycus, and if not on the same spot, at least very near to one another. Stephanus of Byzantium adds to our difficulties by saying or seeming to say that the inhabitants were also called Adrianopolitae, suggesting that Adrianopolis or Hadrianopolis was still another name of the city in his time.[11] Where he got this from, nobody can tell.[5] Modern scholars identify Hadriane as a name borne by the town.[7][12]

Hamilton was informed at Niksar that on the road from Niksar to Sivas, and about fourteen hours from Niksar, there is a high perpendicular rock, almost inaccessible on all sides, with a stream of water flowing from the top, and a river at its base. This is exactly Strabo's description of Caenon.[5]

Modern scholars fix its site at modern Niksar, Asiatic Turkey.[7][12]

See also


  1. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 556. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^ the text of Strabo is a little uncertain, and not quite clear; Groskurd, transl. vol. ii. p. 491, n.
  3. ^ Appian, Mithrid. c. 78.
  4. ^ Plutarch, Lucullus, c. 18.
  5. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Cabira". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  6. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 6.3.
  7. ^ a b c Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 87, and directory notes accompanying.
  8. ^ John Cramer Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 315.
  9. ^ Albert Forbiger, Geog. vol. ii. p. 428.
  10. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus 27.12.
  11. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Νεοκαισάρεια.
  12. ^ a b Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

Coordinates: 40°35′22″N 36°57′18″E / 40.58956°N 36.95501°E

Acraea (genus)

As invalidly established by Hübner in 1819, Acraea refers to butterflies currently placed in Actinote.

Acraea is a genus of brush-footed butterflies (family Nymphalidae) of the subfamily Heliconiinae. It seems to be highly paraphyletic and has long been used as a "wastebin taxon" to unite about 220 species of anatomically conservative Acraeini. Some phylogenetic studies show that the genus Acraea is monophyletic if Bematistes and Neotropical Actinote are included (see Pierre & Bernaud, 2009). Most species assembled here are restricted to the Afrotropic ecozone, but some are found in India, Southeast Asia, and Australia.

Acraea cabira

Acraea cabira, the yellow-banded acraea, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae that is native to Africa.


Ameria may refer to:

Amelia, Umbria

site of a temple near Cabira, Pontus


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Battle of Cabira

The Battle of Cabira was fought in 72 or 71 BC between forces of the Roman Republic under proconsul Lucius Licinius Lucullus and those of the Kingdom of Pontus under Mithridates the Great. It was a decisive Roman victory.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), and CD115 (Cluster of Differentiation 115), is a cell-surface protein encoded, in humans, by the CSF1R gene (known also as c-FMS). It is a receptor for a cytokine called colony stimulating factor 1.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Ken Yamaguchi

Ken Yamaguchi (山口 健, Yamaguchi Ken, March 24, 1956 – October 24, 2011) was a Japanese voice actor. He was represented by OYS Produce. His son is a fellow voice actor Kiyohiro Yamaguchi (山口キヨヒロ, Yamaguchi Kiyohiro).

He was most known for the roles of Ashuraman, The Omegaman, Prisman (Kinnikuman: Scramble for the Throne), Genji Togashi (Sakigake!! Otokojuku), Flazzard (Dragon Quest: Dai's Great Adventure), Black Dragon (Saint Seiya), and Ein (Fist of the North Star).

Yamaguchi died on October 24, 2011, due to acute heart failure.

List of piscine and amphibian humanoids

Piscine and amphibian humanoids (people with the characteristics of fish or amphibians) appear in folklore and fiction.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mithridatic Wars

The Mithridatic Wars were three conflicts fought by Rome against the Kingdom of Pontus and its allies between 88 BC and 63 BC. They are named after Mithridates VI, the King of Pontus who initiated the hostilities after annexing the Roman province in Asia into its Pontic Empire (that came to include most of Asia Minor) and committing massacres against the local Roman population known as the Asian Vespers. As Roman troops were sent to recover the territory, they faced an uprising in Greece organized and supported by Mithridates. Mithridates was able to mastermind such general revolts against Rome and played the magistrates of the optimates party off against the magistrates of the populares party in the Roman civil wars. Nevertheless, the first war ended with a Roman victory, confirmed by the Treaty of Dardanos signed by Lucius Sulla and Mithridates. Greece was restored to Roman rule and Pontus was expected to restore the status quo ante bellum in Asia Minor.

As the treaty of Dardanos was barely implemented in Asia Minor, the Roman general Murena (in charge of retaking control of Roman territory in Asia) decided to wage a second war against Pontus. The second war resulted in a Roman defeat and gave momentum to Mithridates, who then forged an alliance with Tigranes the Great, the Armenian King of Kings. Tigranes was the son-in-law of Mithridates and was in control of an Armenian empire that included territories in the Levant. Pontus won the Battle of Chalcedon (74 BC), gave support to Cilician pirates against Roman commerce, and the third war soon began.

For the third war, the Romans sent the consul Lucullus to fight against Armenia and Pontus. Lucullus won the Battle of Cabira and the Battle of Tigranocerta but his progress was nullified after the Battle of Artaxata and the Battle of Zela. Meanwhile, the campaign of Pompey against the Cilician pirates in the Mediterranean was successful and Pompey was named by the senate to replace Lucullus. Pompey's subsequent campaigns caused the collapse of the Armenian Empire in the Levant (with Roman forces taking control of Syria and Palestine) and the affirmation of Roman power over Anatolia, Pontus and nearly all the eastern Mediterranean. Tigranes surrendered and became a client king of Rome. Hunted, stripped of his possessions, and in a foreign country, Mithridates had a servant kill him. His former kingdom was combined with one of his hereditary enemies, Bithynia, to form the province of Bithynia and Pontus, which would forestall any future pretender to the throne of Pontus.


Niksar /'niksar/ (Greek: Νεοκαισάρεια, Neokaisáreia) is a city in Tokat Province, Turkey. It was settled by many empires, being once the capital city of the province. Niksar is known as "Çukurova of the North-Anatolia" due to its production of many kinds of fruits and vegetables except citrus fruits. On 02 Mai 2018 Niksar was included in the World Heritage tentative list.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Taxiles (general)

Taxiles (in Greek Tαξιλης; lived 1st century BC) was a general in the service of Mithridates VI of Pontus, and one of those in whom he reposed the highest confidence. He is first mentioned in 86 BC, when he was sent by Mithridates, with an army of not less than 110,000 men, to Europe, to make his way, through Thrace and Macedonia, to the assistance of Archelaus in Greece. This task he successfully accomplished, reduced Amphipolis, which had at first defied his arms, and having thus struck terror into the Macedonians, advanced without further opposition, through that country and Thessaly, into Phocis. Here he at first laid siege to Elateia, but was foiled in his attacks, and relinquished the enterprise, in order to form a junction with Archelaus in Boeotia. This object lie effected: but though the two generals now found themselves at the head of a formidable host, their combined forces were defeated in 86 BC by Sulla near Chaeronea, with great slaughter.From this time we hear no more of Taxiles till 74 BC, when he commanded (together with Hermocrates) the great army with which Mithridates invaded Paphlagonia and Bithynia, in the autumn of that year. During the subsequent operations at the siege of Cyzicus, he is mentioned as giving the king the most judicious advice. After the defeat of the king and his retreat into his own territories, we again find Taxiles sharing with Diophantus the actual command of the army which Mithridates opposed to Lucullus near Cabira, 72 BC, where their skilful arrangements for a time held the balance of success doubtful, and reduced the Roman general to considerable straits for provisions. At length, however, the campaign was terminated by a total rout, in which the royal camp fell into the hands of the enemy.Taxiles accompanied Mithridates on his flight into Armenia, and we subsequently (69 BC) find him mentioned as present with Tigranes at the great battle of Tigranocerta, on which occasion he in vain endeavoured to restrain the overweening confidence of the Armenian monarch. This is the last time that his name occurs in history.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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