The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 99th edition (ISBN 978-1-1385-6163-2 with 1532 pages, 1000 black-and-white illustrations, June 18, 2018, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble). It is sometimes nicknamed the "Rubber Bible" or the "Rubber Book", as CRC originally stood for "Chemical Rubber Company".
As late as the 1962–1963 edition (3604 pages) the Handbook contained myriad information for every branch of science and engineering. Sections in that edition include: Mathematics, Properties and Physical Constants, Chemical Tables, Properties of Matter, Heat, Hygrometric and Barometric Tables, Sound, Quantities and Units, and Miscellaneous. Earlier editions included sections such as "Antidotes of Poisons", "Rules for Naming Organic Compounds", "Surface Tension of Fused Salts", "Percent Composition of Anti-Freeze Solutions", "Spark-gap Voltages", "Greek Alphabet", "Musical Scales", "Pigments and Dyes", "Comparison of Tons and Pounds", "Twist Drill and Steel Wire Gauges" and "Properties of the Earth's Atmosphere at Elevations up to 160 Kilometers". Later editions focus almost exclusively on chemistry and physics topics and eliminated much of the more "common" information.
In addition to an extensive line of engineering handbooks and references and textbooks across virtually all scientific disciplines, CRC is today also known as a leading publisher of books related to forensic sciences, forensic pathology, criminology, and police sciences.
Acid salts are a class of salts that produce an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent. Its formation as a substance has a greater electrical conductivity than that of the pure solvent. An acidic solution formed by acid salt is made during partial neutralization of diprotic or polyprotic acids. A half-neutralization occurs due to the remaining of replaceable hydrogen atoms from the partial dissociation of weak acids that have not been reacted with hydroxide ions (OH−) to create water molecules. Acid salt is an ionic compound consisted of an anion, contributed from a weak parent acid, and a cation, contributed from a strong parent base.Aluminium fluoride
Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium. This colorless solid can be prepared synthetically but also occurs in nature as minerals rosenbergite and oskarssonite.Butane (data page)
This page provides supplementary chemical data on n-butane.Caesium fluoride
Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound usually encountered as a hygroscopic white solid. It is used in organic synthesis as a source of the fluoride anion.Dichloromethane (data page)
Please find below supplementary chemical data about dichloromethane.Gallium(I) oxide
Gallium(I) oxide or gallium suboxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Ga2O.Handbook
A handbook is a type of reference work, or other collection of instructions, that is intended to provide ready reference. The term originally applied to a small or portable book containing information useful for its owner, but the Oxford English Dictionary defines the current sense as "any book...giving information such as facts on a particular subject, guidance in some art or occupation, instructions for operating a machine, or information for tourists."A handbook is sometimes referred to as a vade mecum (Latin, "go with me") or pocket reference. It may also be referred to as an enchiridion.
Handbooks may deal with any topic, and are generally compendiums of information in a particular field or about a particular technique. They are designed to be easily consulted and provide quick answers in a certain area. For example, the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers is a reference for how to cite works in MLA style, among other things. Examples of engineering handbooks include Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, and the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.Krypton
Krypton (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, translit. kryptos "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. With rare exceptions, krypton is chemically inert.
Krypton, like the other noble gases, is used in lighting and photography. Krypton light has many spectral lines, and krypton plasma is useful in bright, high-powered gas lasers (krypton ion and excimer lasers), each of which resonates and amplifies a single spectral line. Krypton fluoride also makes a useful laser medium. From 1960 to 1983, the official length of a meter was defined by the 605 nm wavelength of the orange spectral line of krypton-86, because of the high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes.Lattice energy
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is a measure of the energy released when ions are combined to make a compound. It is a measure of the cohesive forces that bind ions. Lattice energy is relevant to many practical properties including solubility, hardness, and volatility. The lattice energy is usually deduced from the Born–Haber cycle.M-Xylene (data page)
This page provides supplementary chemical data on m-Xylene.Magnesium oxide
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding. Magnesium hydroxide forms in the presence of water (MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2), but it can be reversed by heating it to separate moisture.
Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba (literally, the white mineral from magnesia – other sources give magnesia alba as MgCO3), to differentiate it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese.
While "magnesium oxide" normally refers to MgO, magnesium peroxide MgO2 is also known as a compound. According to evolutionary crystal structure prediction, MgO2 is thermodynamically stable at pressures above 116 GPa (gigapascals), and a semiconducting suboxide Mg3O2 is thermodynamically stable above 500 GPa. Because of its stability, MgO is used as a model system for investigating vibrational properties of crystals.O-Xylene (data page)
This page provides supplementary chemical data on o-Xylene.Promethium(III) chloride
Promethium(III) chloride is a chemical compound of promethium and chlorine with the formula PmCl3.Rhodium
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. It is a noble metal and a member of the platinum group. It has only one naturally occurring isotope, 103Rh. Naturally occurring rhodium is usually found as the free metal, alloyed with similar metals, and rarely as a chemical compound in minerals such as bowieite and rhodplumsite. It is one of the rarest and most valuable precious metals.
Rhodium is found in platinum or nickel ores together with the other members of the platinum group metals. It was discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston in one such ore, and named for the rose color of one of its chlorine compounds, produced after it reacted with the powerful acid mixture aqua regia.
The element's major use (approximately 80% of world rhodium production) is as one of the catalysts in the three-way catalytic converters in automobiles. Because rhodium metal is inert against corrosion and most aggressive chemicals, and because of its rarity, rhodium is usually alloyed with platinum or palladium and applied in high-temperature and corrosion-resistive coatings. White gold is often plated with a thin rhodium layer to improve its appearance while sterling silver is often rhodium-plated for tarnish resistance.
Rhodium detectors are used in nuclear reactors to measure the neutron flux level.Ruthenium hexafluoride
Ruthenium hexafluoride, also ruthenium(VI) fluoride (RuF6), is a compound of ruthenium and fluorine and one of the seventeen known binary hexafluorides.Saline water
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl). The salt concentration is usually expressed in parts per thousand (permille, ‰) or parts per million (ppm). The United States Geological Survey classifies saline water in three salinity categories. Salt concentration in slightly saline water is around 1,000 to 3,000 ppm (0.1–0.3%), in moderately saline water 3,000 to 10,000 ppm (0.3–1%) and in highly saline water 10,000 to 35,000 ppm (1–3.5%). Seawater has a salinity of roughly 35,000 ppm, equivalent to 35 grams of salt per one liter (or kilogram) of water. The saturation level is dependent on the temperature of the water. At 20 °C one liter of water can dissolve about 357 grams of salt, a concentration of 26.3%. At boiling (100 °C) the amount that can be dissolved in one liter of water increases to about 391 grams, a concentration of 28.1%.Some industries make use of saline water, such as mining and thermo-electric power.Samarium(II) bromide
Samarium(II) bromide is a crystalline compound with the chemical formula SmBr2. Samarium(II) bromide is a brown crystal at room temperature.Standard Gibbs free energy of formation
The standard Gibbs free energy of formation of a compound is the change of Gibbs free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 bar of pressure and the specified temperature, usually 298.15 K or 25 °C).
The table below lists the Standard Gibbs function of formation for several elements and chemical compounds and is taken from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry. Note that all values are in kJ/mol. Far more extensive tables can be found in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and the NIST JANAF tables. The NIST Chemistry WebBook (see link below) is an online resource that contains standard enthalpy of formation for various compounds along with the standard absolute entropy for these compounds from which the Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation can be calculated.Zinc telluride
Zinc telluride is a binary chemical compound with the formula ZnTe. This solid is a semiconductor material with a direct band gap of 2.26 eV. It is usually a p-type semiconductor. Its crystal structure is cubic, like that for sphalerite and diamond.