COnnecting REpositories

CORE (COnnecting REpositories) is a service provided by the Knowledge Media Institute, based at The Open University, United Kingdom. The goal of the project is to aggregate all open access content distributed across different systems, such as repositories and open access journals, enrich this content using text mining and data mining, and provide free access to it through a set of services.[1] The CORE project also aims to promote open access to scholarly outputs. It fully supports the taxpayer's entitlement to the research they have funded and facilitates the wide dissemination of the open access content. CORE works closely with digital libraries and institutional repositories.

Based on the open access fundamental principles, as they were described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the open access content not only must be openly available to download and read, but it must also allow its reuse, both by humans and machines. As a result, there was a need to exploit the content reuse, which could be made possible with the implementation of a technical infrastructure. Thus the CORE project started with the goal of connecting metadata and full-text outputs offering, via the content aggregation, value-added services, and opening new opportunities in the research process.

Currently there are existing commercial academic search systems, such as Google Scholar, which provide search and access level services, but do not support programmable machine access to the content, for example with the use of an API or data dumps. This limits the further reuse of the open access content, for example, with regards to text and data mining. Taking into consideration that there are three access levels to content: 1. access at the granularity of papers, 2. analytical access and granularity of collections and 3. programmable machine access to data[2] the programmable machine access is the main feature that distinguishes CORE from Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search.

CORE (COnnecting REpositories)
Type of projectOpen Access, Repositories, Harvesting
LocationOpen University
CountryUnited Kingdom
Key peoplePetr Knoth


The first version of CORE was created in 2011 by Petr Knoth with the aim to make it easier to access and text mine very large amounts of research publications.[3] The value of the aggregation was first demonstrated by developing a content recommendation system for research papers, following the ideas of literature-based discovery introduced by Don R. Swanson. Since its start, CORE has received financial support from a range of funders including Jisc and the European Commission. Although CORE aggregates from across the world, it has the status of the UK's national aggregator of open access content, aggregating metadata and full-text outputs from both UK publishers' databases as well as institutional and subject repositories.[4][5] The service operates as a one step search tool for UK's open access research outputs, facilitating easy discoverability, use and reuse. The importance of the service has been widely recognised by Jisc, which suggested that CORE should preserve the required resources to sustain its operation and explore an international sustainability model.[6] CORE is now one of the Repository Shared Services projects, along with Sherpa Services,[7] IRUS-UK,[8] Jisc Publications Router[9] and OpenDOAR.

Programmable access to CORE data

CORE data can be accessed through an API or downloaded as a pre-processed and semantically enriched data dump.

Searching CORE

CORE provides searchable access to a collection of over 125 millions of open access harvested research outputs. All outputs can be accessed and downloaded free of cost and have limited re-use restrictions. One can search the CORE content using a faceted search. CORE also provides a cross-repository content recommendation system based on full-texts. The collection of the harvested outputs is available either by looking at the latest additions[10] or by browsing[11] the collection at the date of harvesting. The CORE search engine has been selected as one of the top 10 search engines[12] for open access research, facilitating access to academic papers.[13][14] CORE ranks second among the most useful databases of searching electronic thesis and dissertations (ETDs).[15]

Analytical use of CORE data

The availability of data aggregated and enriched by CORE provides opportunities for the development of new analytical services for research literature. These can be used, for example, to monitor growth and trends in research, validate compliance with open access mandates and to develop new automatic metrics for evaluating research excellence.


CORE offers eight applications:

  • CORE API, provides an access point for those who want to develop applications making use of CORE's large collection of Open Access content. [16]
  • CORE Dataset, enables the accessibility of the data aggregated from repositories by CORE and allows their further manipulation.[17]
  • CORE Recommender, can link the institutional repository with the CORE service and it will recommend semantically related resources.[18]
  • CORE Repository Dashboard, is a tool designed specifically for repository managers or research output administrators. The aim of the Repository Dashboard is to provide control over the aggregated content and help in the management and validation of the repository collections and services. [19]
  • CORE Analytics Dashboard, helps institutions to understand and monitor the impact of their research.[20]
  • CORE Search, enables users to search and access research papers via a faceted search interface. [21]
  • CORE Publisher Connector, is a software providing seamless access to Gold and Hybrid Gold Open Access articles aggregated from non-standard systems of major publishers. Data is exposed via the ResourceSync protocol. [22]
  • CORE SDKs, provide seamless access to our content for programmers. The CORE SDK R is freely available and it is mainly community led. The aim is to maximise the productivity and data analysis, prototyping and effortless migration.

See also


  1. ^ "OU's full text search system makes huge leaps in widening access to academic papers". 24 October 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  2. ^ Knoth, Petr (December 2012), "CORE: Three Access Levels to Underpin Open Access", D-Lib Magazine, 1 (11/12)
  3. ^ "OUs full text search system makes huge leaps in widening access to academic papers". 24 October 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  4. ^ "CORE melds UK repositories". Times of Higher Education. 13 October 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  5. ^ "UK's first open access full-text search engine to aid research". The Research Centre. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  6. ^ Jacobs, Neil; Ferguson, Nicky (2014), Bringing the UK's open access research together: Barriers on the Berlin road to open access (PDF), Jisc
  7. ^ "SHERPA Services". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  8. ^ "IRUS UK". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Jisc Publications Router". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ "CORE Latest Additions". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  11. ^ "CORE Browsing". Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  12. ^ "Ten Search Engines for researchers that go beyond Google". Jisc Inform. Summer 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  13. ^ "OU widens access to academic papers". Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  14. ^ Else, Holly (14 August 2014). "'Dismal' start for Access to Research initiative". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  15. ^ "Top 100 Thesis and Dissertations on the Web". OnlinePhDProgram. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  16. ^ "CORE API". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  17. ^ "CORE Dataset". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  18. ^ "CORE Recommender". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  19. ^ "CORE Repository Dashboard". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  20. ^ "CORE Analytics Dashboard". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  21. ^ "CORE Search". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  22. ^ "CORE Publisher Connector". Retrieved 6 March 2018.

Further reading

External links

BASE (search engine)

BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is a multi-disciplinary search engine to scholarly internet resources, created by Bielefeld University Library in Bielefeld, Germany. It is based on free and open-source software such as Apache Solr and VuFind. It harvests OAI metadata from institutional repositories and other academic digital libraries that implement the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), and then normalizes and indexes the data for searching. In addition to OAI metadata, the library indexes selected web sites and local data collections, all of which can be searched via a single search interface.

Users can search bibliographic metadata including abstracts, if available. However, BASE does not currently offer full text search. It contrasts with commercial search engines in multiple ways, including in the types and kinds of resources it searches and the information it offers about the results it finds. Results can be narrowed down using drill down menus (faceted search). Bibliographic data is provided in several formats, and the results may be sorted by multiple fields, such as by author or year of publication.

Paying customers include EBSCO Information Services who integrated BASE into their EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS). Non-commercial services can integrate BASE search for free using an API. BASE becomes an increasingly important component of open access initiatives concerned with enhancing the visibility of their digital archive collections.On 6 October 2016, BASE surpassed the 100 million documents threshold having indexed 100,183,705 documents from 4,695 content sources.


CORE may refer to:

Center for Operations Research and Econometrics at the University of Louvain (UCLouvain) in Belgium

Center for Organizational Research and Education

COnnecting REpositories

CORE (Brazil), Coordenadoria de Recursos Especiais, a SWAT unit

CAQH, Committee on Operating Rules for Information Exchange (CORE)

Caucus of Rand File Educators, a caucus of the Chicago Teachers Union

Central Organization for Railway Electrification, a subsidiary of Indian Railways

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Intel Core, stylized and marketed as Intel CORE as of 2009

Lutheran CORE

The last subarea of Hotland, known as the CORE, from Undertale

Canadian Journal of Bioethics

The Canadian Journal of Bioethics (French: Revue canadienne de bioéthique) is an online, peer-reviewed academic journal hosted by the Bioethics Program at the School of Public Health, Université de Montréal (Québec, Canada). To maximize accessibility, the journal is diamond open access, uses Open Journal Systems, and all texts are published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The journal is a member of COPE, and the editors follow the recommendations and procedures outlined in the COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.The journal uses a continuous publishing approach, and texts are published as they are ready in open issues, or in special issues that group together texts on particular themes.

Haridwar Kumbh Mela

The Kumbh Mela at Haridwar is a mela held every 12 years at Haridwar, India. The exact date is determined according to Hindu astrology: the Mela is held when Jupiter is in Aquarius and the sun enters Aries. An Ardh Kumbh ("Half Kumbh") Mela is held six years after a Kumbh Mela.

The fair has a religious significance to Hindus, but it has also attracted people from other faiths. Historically, it was an important commercial event, and was attended by merchants from as far as Arabia.The last Haridwar Kumbh Mela took place in 2010; the next one is scheduled in 2021 or 2022, with an Ardh Kumbh Mela scheduled in 2016.

Institutional repository

An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.An institutional repository can be viewed as a "...a set of services that a university offers to members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members." For a university, this includes materials such as monographs, eprints of academic journal articles—both before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review—as well as electronic theses and dissertations. An institutional repository might also include other digital assets generated by academics, such as datasets, administrative documents, course notes, learning objects, or conference proceedings. Deposit of material in an institutional repository is sometimes mandated by that institution.

Some of the main objectives for having an institutional repository are to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving in an open access repository, to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research, and to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature such as theses, working papers or technical reports.

Jan-Gunnar Isberg

Jan-Gunnar Isberg (born 7 April 1947) is a retired Swedish Army brigadier general. Isberg has served extensively abroad, in Cyprus, Lebanon, Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. His senior commands include commanding officer of the Norrbotten Engineer Corps and the Haparanda Border Regiment, deputy force commander of MONUC and brigade commander of the Ituri Brigade and the Kivu Brigade.


Johor (), formerly known as Johore, is a state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor has land borders with the Malaysian states of Pahang to the north and Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest. Johor shares maritime borders with Singapore to the south and Indonesia to both the west and east. Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, and Muar serves as the royal town of the state. The old state capital is Johor Lama. As of the 2015 census, the state's population is 3,553,600. Johor has highly diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate. The state's mountain ranges form part of the Titiwangsa Range, which is part of the larger Tenasserim Range connected to Thailand and Myanmar, with Mount Ophir being the highest point in Johor.

The state had early contact with Funan based on the exchange of gifts. After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and later Majapahit. Several decades later, with the emergence of the Malaccan Empire, Islam spread throughout the Malay Archipelago. After the fall of the empire to the Portuguese, remnants of the Malaccan royal family moved to a river in the southern Malay Peninsula known to the locals as the Johor River and establishing a new sultanate, which became the Johor Empire. Their attempts to retake Malacca resulted in a three-way war between Johor, the Portuguese, and Aceh, another rising sultanate in northern Sumatra. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), Johor ended the Portuguese rule and restore its own rule to many of its former dependencies in Sumatra, although Malacca continued to be held by foreign powers. Through an internal dispute within the Johor sultanate and the presence of the East India Company (EIC) in the northern Malay Peninsula, Dutch trade changed from being involved in local disputes to rapidly conquering much of Sumatra and signing the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 with the British to prevent further conflicts with the latter.

Under the treaty, the Malay Archipelago was divided under two spheres of influence; the British gained the entire Malay Peninsula while the Dutch surrendered their Malaccan possession in exchange for British Bencoolen and the rest of Sumatra and other territories such as Java located farther south. Under British rule, priority was given towards education and development and the Johor royal administration itself was reformed under a British-style monarchy. The three-year occupation by the Japanese in World War II halted modernisation. After the war, Johor became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya under certain terms and gaining full independence through the federation, and subsequently Malaysia on 16 September 1963.

Johor has high diversity in ethnicity, culture and language. The state is known for its traditional dance of zapin. The head of state is the Sultan of Johor, while the head of government is the Menteri Besar. The government system is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion per the 1895 Constitution of Johor, but other religions can be freely practised. Both Malay and English have been accepted as official languages for the state since 1914. The economy is mainly based on services and manufacturing.

List of open-access projects

Some of the most important open-access publishing projects or lists of such projects are listed below.

Open-access repository

An open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute. To facilitate open access such repositories must be interoperable according to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Search engines harvest the content of open access repositories, constructing a database of worldwide, free of charge available research.As opposed to a simple institutional repository or disciplinary repository, open-access repositories provide free access to research for users outside the institutional community and are one of the recommended ways to achieve the open access vision described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access. This is sometimes referred to as the self-archiving or "green" route to open access.

Timeline of the open-access movement

The following is a timeline of the international movement for open access to scholarly communication.


Vietnam (UK: , US: (listen); Vietnamese: Việt Nam pronounced [vîət nāːm] (listen)), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula. With an estimated 94.6 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the 15th most populous country in the world. Vietnam is bordered by China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, part of Thailand to the southwest, and the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast. Its capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976, while its most populous city is Ho Chi Minh City.

During the 3rd century BC, ancient Vietnamese people inhabited modern-day northern Vietnam and established the state of Âu Lạc. The independent state was annexed by Nam Việt in 179 BC. Nam Việt was subsequently annexed by the Han Empire and became part of Imperial China for over a millennium from 111 BC to 939 AD. An independent Vietnamese state emerged in 939 following Vietnamese victory in the battle of Bạch Đằng against the Southern Han. Successive Vietnamese imperial dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographically and politically into Southeast Asia, until the Indochina Peninsula was colonised by the French in the mid-19th century.

French Indochina saw the Japanese occupation in 1940 amidst the escalation of World War II. Following Japanese defeat in 1945, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the First Indochina War. On 2 September 1945, Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared Vietnam's independence from France and therefrom established a provisional communist state. After nine years of war, the Vietnamese declared victory in the decisive battle of Điện Biên Phủ in 1954. The nation was thereafter divided into two rival states, communist North—the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and anti-communist South—the Republic of Vietnam. Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War with extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1973. The war ended with North Vietnamese victory in 1975.

North and South Vietnam were then reunified under a communist government in 1976. The newly established country remained impoverished and politically isolated until 1986, when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into the world economy. By 2010, Vietnam had established diplomatic relations with 178 countries. Since 2000, Vietnam's GDP growth rate has been among the highest in the world. Its successful economic reforms resulted in its joining the WTO in 2007. Vietnam is also a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

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