CIA University (CIAU) is the primary education facility of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Founded in 2002 and located in Chantilly, Virginia, the school holds courses on various intelligence-related subjects, ranging from chemical weapons manufacturing to foreign languages. Students include CIA new hires, experienced officers, support staff, and individuals from other U.S. intelligence agencies. CIAU does not issue degrees.
The CIA was founded in 1947 and in 1950 created its first training establishment, the Office of Training and Education. In the 1990s, following the end of the Cold War, budget cuts forced the CIA to drastically reduce the size and scope of its education programs. During his tenure as Director of Central Intelligence, George Tenet decided the agency needed an expanded training program in order to help retain talented staff. Tenet authorized the creation of a new training school soon after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, and thus CIAU was established in 2002. Today, the CIAU campus is located within the Dulles Discovery office buildings in Chantilly, Virginia, which were constructed in 2007 and 2010.
CIAU is the primary education facility of the CIA, working in partnership with the National Intelligence University, and serving as a hub that links other CIA education programs, such as the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis. It does not issue degrees.
The school holds between 200 and 300 courses each year. Each course typically runs for two weeks or less, except for the basic training of new hires (designated "CIA 101"), which lasts several weeks, and language courses, which run between 21 and 44 weeks. CIA officers receive training throughout their agency careers, and course offerings are continuously updated to keep pace with current events. Courses are held in a traditional classroom setting or may be conducted either online, via videoconference, or through podcasts. Subjects taught at the school have included chemical weapons manufacturing, communication skills, defensive driving, dirty bombs, geography of critical regions, information technology, intelligence community, money laundering, project management, terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, weapons proliferation, and weapons training. Additionally, 16 language courses are taught at the school. At one time, students were taught how to draft the President's Daily Brief (PDB); however, responsibility for producing the PDB was transferred from the CIA to the Director of National Intelligence in 2005.
CIAU trains agency new hires as well as experienced intelligence officers, including intelligence analysts, intelligence operations officers, and intelligence scientists and engineers. The school also trains CIA support officers, such as those in finance, human resources, or logistics. Up to 15 percent of the school's enrollment consists of employees from other U.S. intelligence agencies such as the Defense Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. CIAU does not enroll spies, who are typically foreign individuals not considered intelligence officers.
The school's faculty consists of professional educators along with intelligence experts drawn from within the agency. Many of the school's case studies and exercises are drawn from the CIA's historical experience.
Albert James Wohlstetter (December 19, 1913 – January 10, 1997) was an influential and controversial nuclear strategist during the Cold War. He and his wife Roberta Wohlstetter, an accomplished historian and intelligence expert, received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Ronald Reagan on November 7, 1985.CIAU
The letters CIAU may mean any of the following:
CIAU-FM 103.1, a radio station in Radisson, Quebec
Canadian Interuniversity Athletics Union, now known as U Sports
CIA University, a training facility of the U.S. Central Intelligence AgencyCamp Peary
Camp Peary is an approximately 9,000 acre U.S. military reservation in York County near Williamsburg, Virginia. Officially referred to as an Armed Forces Experimental Training Activity (AFETA) under the authority of the Department of Defense, Camp Peary hosts a covert CIA training facility known as "The Farm", which is used to train officers of the CIA's Directorate of Operations, as well as those of the DIA's Defense Clandestine Service, among other intelligence entities. Camp Peary has a sister facility, "The Point", located in Hertford, North Carolina.
Porto Bello, the historic hunting lodge of Lord Dunmore, last royal governor of Virginia, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is located on the grounds of Camp Peary.Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA ) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community (IC), the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States.
Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), which is a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is mainly focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U.S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President. It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division.Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community; today, the CIA is organized under the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates.The CIA has increasingly expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center (IOC), has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations.Cord Meyer
Cord Meyer Jr. (; November 10, 1920 – March 13, 2001) was a US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) official. After serving in World War II as a Marine officer in the Pacific War where he was both injured and decorated, he led the United World Federalists in the years after the war. In about 1949, he began work with the CIA where he became a high-level operative, retiring in 1977. He married Mary Pinchot in 1945; the couple divorced in 1958, and she was subsequently romantically linked to President John F. Kennedy. Her 1964 murder remains both unsolved and controversial.
After his retirement from intelligence work, Meyer wrote as a columnist and book author.Edward Snowden
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments.
In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, and in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and Ewen MacAskill. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including Der Spiegel and The New York Times.
On June 21, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property, following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days later, he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U.S. passport had been cancelled, and he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia ultimately recognized his right of asylum, with a visa for residence for one year. Repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance. As of 2017, he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow.Gaza Strip
The Gaza Strip (; Arabic: قطاع غزة Qiṭāʿ Ġazzah [qɪˈtˤɑːʕ ˈɣazza]), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) and Israel on the east and north along a 51 km (32 mi) border. Gaza and the West Bank are claimed by the State of Palestine.
The territories of Gaza and the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory. Both fell under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but Gaza has since June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian Islamic organization which came to power in free elections in 2006. It has been placed under an Israeli and U.S.-led international economic and political boycott from that time onwards.The territory is 41 kilometers (25 mi) long, and from 6 to 12 kilometers (3.7 to 7.5 mi) wide, with a total area of 365 square kilometers (141 sq mi). With around 1.85 million Palestinians on some 362 square kilometers, Gaza ranks as the 3rd most densely populated polity in the world. An extensive Israeli buffer zone within the Strip renders much land off-limits to Gaza's Palestinians. Gaza has an annual population growth rate of 2.91% (2014 est.), the 13th highest in the world, and is often referred to as overcrowded. The population is expected to increase to 2.1 million in 2020. By that time, Gaza may be rendered unliveable, if present trends continue. Due to the Israeli and Egyptian border closures and the Israeli sea and air blockade, the population is not free to leave or enter the Gaza Strip, nor allowed to freely import or export goods. Sunni Muslims make up the predominant part of the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip.
Despite the 2005 Israeli disengagement from Gaza, the United Nations, international human rights organisations, and the majority of governments and legal commentators consider the territory to be still occupied by Israel, supported by additional restrictions placed on Gaza by Egypt. Israel maintains direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza: it controls Gaza's air and maritime space, and six of Gaza's seven land crossings. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its military and maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. Gaza is dependent on Israel for its water, electricity, telecommunications, and other utilities. The system of control imposed by Israel is described as an "indirect occupation". Some other legal scholars have disputed the idea that Israel still occupies Gaza. In addition, the extent of self-rule exercised in the Gaza Strip has led some to describe the territory as a de facto independent state.
When Hamas won the Palestinian legislative election, 2006, Palestinian political party Fatah refused to join the proposed coalition, until a short-lived unity government agreement was brokered by Saudi Arabia. When this collapsed under joint Israeli and United States pressure, the Palestinian Authority instituted a non-Hamas government in the West Bank while Hamas formed a government on its own in Gaza. Further economic sanctions were imposed by Israel and the European Quartet against Hamas. A brief civil war between the two groups had broken out in Gaza when, apparently under a U.S.-backed plan, Fatah contested Hamas’s administration. Hamas emerged the victor and expelled Fatah-allied officials and members of the PA's security apparatus from the Strip, and has remained the sole governing power in Gaza since that date.Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity
The Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity facility, owned by the Department of Defense, is located on a peninsula in Perquimans County, North Carolina, along the Albemarle Sound, near the city of Hertford, NC. It was established in World War II as Naval Auxiliary Air Station Harvey Point, an operating base for sea planes conducting anti-submarine surveillance off the Atlantic coast. A close-by naval facility, Naval Air Station Weeksville, served as a blimp base from 1941 to 1957, while another former naval air facility remains active as Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City..
To comply with various procurement regulations, the Department of the Navy holds the title to and budgetary responsibility for the facility. Agencies such as the ATF, CIA, and FBI have used the facility for complex training relating to overseas counterterrorism and asset-protection training.Its sister facility is Camp Peary.History of the Central Intelligence Agency
The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created on July 26, when Harry S. Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947 into law. A major impetus that has been cited over the years for the creation of the CIA was the unforeseen attack on Pearl Harbor, but whatever Pearl Harbor's role, in the twilight of World War II it was considered clear in government circles that there was a need for a group to coordinate government intelligence efforts, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the State Department, and the War Department, and even the Post Office were all jockeying for that new power.
General William "Wild Bill" Donovan, head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on November 18, 1944, stating the need for a peacetime "Central Intelligence Service" "which will procure intelligence both by overt and covert methods and will at the same time provide intelligence guidance, determine national intelligence objectives, and correlate the intelligence material collected by all government agencies.", and have authority to conduct "subversive operations abroad", but "no police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad". The letter was prompted by a query from General Dwight Eisenhower's Chief of Staff about the nature of the role of the OSS in the military establishment. Following this, Roosevelt ordered his chief military aide to conduct a secret investigation of the OSS's World War II operations. Around this time, stories about the OSS began circulating in major papers including references to this OSS follow-on being an "American Gestapo". The report, heavily influenced by an FBI that saw itself as the future of American foreign intelligence, was starkly, and vividly negative, only praising a few rescues of downed airmen, sabotage operations, and its deskbound research and analysis staff; the pronouncement of the report was that any "use [of the OSS] as a secret intelligence agency in the postwar world [would be] inconceivable", but even before the report was finished the Joint Chiefs had been ordered, presumably under pressure from the press articles, by the president to shelve their plans for a Central Intelligence Service even before the April release of the report.On September 20, 1945, as part of Truman's dismantling of the World War II war machine, the OSS, at one time numbering almost 13,000, was eliminated over the span of ten days. A reprieve, though, was granted six days later by the Assistant Secretary of War, reducing it to a skeleton crew of roughly 15% of its peak force level, forcing it to close many of its foreign offices; at the same time the name of the service was changed from the OSS to the Strategic Services Unit.National Intelligence University
The National Intelligence University (NIU), formerly known as the National Defense Intelligence College and the Joint Military Intelligence College, is a federally-chartered research university in Bethesda, Maryland. NIU is the United States Intelligence Community's (IC) institution for higher learning in fields of study central to the profession of intelligence and national security. NIU awards undergraduate and graduate degrees, graduate certificates, and research fellowships to prepare personnel for senior positions in the IC and the broader national security enterprise. Since 1963, more than 80,000 military and civilian students have attended the university. Formerly located at the Defense Intelligence Agency headquarters in Washington, D.C., NIU's primary campus is now located at Intelligence Community Campus-Bethesda (ICC-B) with four additional locations around the world. The university's John T. Hughes Library is also located at ICC-B. NIU is the only university in the United States where students can study and complete research at the Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information level.
National Intelligence University's interdisciplinary programs emphasize education through scholarly and applied research designed to help U.S. intelligence officers better understand the diverse range of geopolitical, strategic, and technological threats and opportunities affecting intelligence and national security. The university is organized into two separate academic units: the College of Strategic Intelligence and the Oettinger School of Science and Technology Intelligence. Combined, the colleges cover a diverse and evolving range of international affairs issues and adversarial threats and capabilities, from cultural and religious conflicts to WMD proliferation, cybersecurity threats, terrorism, transnational crime, and more.Congressionally chartered and publicly-funded but with admissions restricted solely to current U.S. Intelligence officers holding a Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information clearance, NIU is a small, non-resident university. Admissions are highly selective, but tuition is paid by the United States Government.Office of Strategic Services
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The OSS was formed as an agency of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) to coordinate espionage activities behind enemy lines for all branches of the United States Armed Forces. Other OSS functions included the use of propaganda, subversion, and post-war planning. On December 14, 2016, the organization was collectively honored with a Congressional Gold Medal.Olanchito
Olanchito is a town and municipality in the Honduran department of Yoro. The municipality was founded in 1530 and today comprises 70 villages, over 300 hamlets, and around 100,000 inhabitants. It is 107 miles (172 km) North-East of Tegucigalpa, the country's capital. The local timezone is named "America / Tegucigalpa" with an UTC offset of -6 hours. The city is the birthplace of many exponents of Honduran literature, such as Ramón Amaya Amador. Olanchito has his manuscripts, his collection of books, the table at which he wrote, and even his ashes. Known locally as the Civic City, Olanchito's main industry is based around agriculture.Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program
The Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program (PRISP) is a program which "links undergraduate and graduate students with US security and intelligence agencies" by providing funding to selected US students entering university, in return for a commitment to join the agency for at least 18 months on graduation. PRISP is a decentralized program which funds students through various intelligence agencies. The program was established by the US Congress in 2004. In 2010 it became a permanent, authorized funded IC program. By 2011 most IC agencies participate in this program which is designated to recruit and train analysts and linguists. PRISP funding can be used to pay hiring incentives, such as a recruitment bonus or reimburse previous educational expenses for individuals who already possess the necessary skills (language, specialized scientific or geographical area expertise), or to provide additional education or training for those selected for the program. There is a service obligation of 18 months. IC agencies' websites should be consulted for specifics on any particular agency's PRISP program participation.
The brainchild of University of Kansas anthropologist Felix Moos, who was advocating it as early as 1995, PRISP was originally a $4m pilot project funded under section 318 of the 2004 Intelligence Authorization Act. In the pilot phase, between 100 and 150 students received funding. In June 2009 it was reported that Barack Obama's administration was planning to make PRISP a permanent program.Students are required not to reveal their funding, and must attend "summer military intelligence camps." There have been fears raised by academics in the US and UK that the program might put anthropology students at risk when they do overseas fieldwork in dangerous locations, by creating the possibility that students on fieldwork are linked with US intelligence agencies. The secrecy is "a reminder for some of the bad old days of the 1960s, when the FBI and CIA kept tabs on the political views of U.S. professors."PRISP is named after Senator Pat Roberts (the then Chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence). In April 2009, Citizens Against Government Waste gave PRISP a "Narcissist Award".In 2005, following PRISP, an additional, similar program (Intelligence Community Scholars Program, ICSP) was approved. "ICSP participants owe two years of intelligence agency work for every year of funded education."Richard Culatta
Richard E. Culatta is the CEO of the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Prior to holding this position, he was the chief innovation officer for the state of Rhode Island and the director of the Office of Educational Technology for the U.S. Department of Education.School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences
The School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (French: École des hautes études en sciences sociales; also known as EHESS) is a French grande école (élite higher-education establishment that operates outside the regulatory framework of the public university system) specialised in the social sciences and an associated college of Université PSL.
Originally a department of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, an institution created in 1868 with the purpose of training academic researchers, the EHESS became an independent institution in 1975. Today its research covers the fields of Economics and Finance (through the Paris School of Economics), Cognitive Sciences, Humanities, Political Sciences, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Development studies, Sociology, Anthropology, History, Musicology, and Philosophy of social science.
The institution is concentrated on scholarly research and some of its faculty (known as "directeurs d'études") have achieved international recognition in different areas: economics, Thomas Piketty and Nobel Prize Jean Tirole; historians such as Fernand Braudel and Lucien Febvre; anthropologists such as Claude Levi-Strauss, Eduardo Viveiros de Castro and Marcel Mauss, sociologists such as Pierre Bourdieu, Edgar Morin and Alain Touraine; philosophers such as Jacques Derrida, and interdisciplinary scholars such as Marcel Mauss and Raymond Aron. As a higher education institution under the jurisdiction of the French Ministry of Education, the EHESS trains academic researchers and professors specialised in the social sciences. It awards graduate degrees, such as the master of research and the doctorate, as well as a school diploma. Some of them are awarded conjointly with institutions such as the École Normale Supérieure, the École Polytechnique, the École pratique des hautes études, and some of the universities of Paris.
The EHESS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system. It evaluates students through a selection process based on the research project of the applicants. The scholars in training are free to choose their own curriculum among the large quantity of seminars offered by the school. The école has a small student-faculty ratio (830 researchers for 3000 students). Most faculty belong to other institutions, mostly within the CNRS but also other schools of Université PSL such as the ENS, the EPHE and the ENC, schools of Université Paris-Saclay such as Télécom ParisTech and the ENSAE, and some of the universities of Paris.Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis
The Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis is a training school for Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) intelligence analysts located in Reston, Virginia. Opened in May 2000, the school is housed on the second floor of a five-story structure of polished brick and smoked glass that is sheathed with special materials and contains sensors designed to prevent eavesdropping from outside. The school's study area is nicknamed "The Vault" due to the presence of numerous locks, alarms and guards.The school serves as the CIA Directorate of Intelligence's component of CIA University, a CIA-wide training program founded in 2002 in response to changing intelligence needs following the September 11 attacks. Courses include foreign languages, regional studies, satellite image analysis, wiretap transcript analysis, and media report analysis.The school is named for Sherman Kent, a Yale University history professor and CIA officer who pioneered many methods of intelligence analysis.Unmasking by U.S. intelligence agencies
Unmasking by U.S. intelligence agencies typically occurs after the United States conducts eavesdropping or other intelligence gathering aimed at foreigners or foreign agents, and the name of a U.S. citizen or entity is incidentally collected. Intelligence reports are then disseminated within the U.S. government, with such names masked to protect those U.S. citizens from invasion of privacy. The names can subsequently be unmasked upon request by authorized U.S. government officials under certain circumstances.Warrenton Training Center
Warrenton Training Center (WTC) is a classified United States government communication complex located in the state of Virginia. Established in 1951, it comprises four discrete stations located in Fauquier and Culpeper counties.
WTC has served multiple roles, most notably as a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) signals intelligence facility, numbers station, and communications laboratory. The center also houses at least one underground "relocation" bunker that serves U.S. continuity of government purposes, and is a communications and signals intelligence training school for various federal departments and agencies, including the CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), Department of Defense and Department of State. Additionally, it is a relay facility for the Department of State's Diplomatic Telecommunications Service. The United States Army administers WTC on behalf of the U.S. government.Winston M. Scott
Winston Mackinley Scott (1909 – 26 April 1971) was a Central Intelligence Agency officer who served as Mexico City station chief from 1956 to 1969, having joined the Office of Strategic Services in 1943 from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.