CERN

Coordinates: 46°14′03″N 6°03′10″E / 46.23417°N 6.05278°E

European Organization
for Nuclear Research
Organisation européenne
pour la recherche nucléaire
Logo of CERN
CERN-aerial 1
CERN's main site, from Switzerland looking towards France
CERN member states
Member states
FormationSeptember 29, 1954[1]
HeadquartersMeyrin, Canton of Geneva, Switzerland
Membership
Official languages
English and French
Council President
Ursula Bassler[2]
Fabiola Gianotti
Websitehome.cern

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (/sɜːrn/; French pronunciation: ​[sɛʁn]; derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border and has 23 member states.[3] Israel is the only non-European country granted full membership.[4] CERN is an official United Nations Observer.[5]

The acronym CERN is also used to refer to the laboratory, which in 2016 had 2,500 scientific, technical, and administrative staff members, and hosted about 12,000 users. In the same year, CERN generated 49 petabytes of data.[6]

CERN's main function is to provide the particle accelerators and other infrastructure needed for high-energy physics research – as a result, numerous experiments have been constructed at CERN through international collaborations. The main site at Meyrin hosts a large computing facility, which is primarily used to store and analyse data from experiments, as well as simulate events. Researchers need remote access to these facilities, so the lab has historically been a major wide area network hub. CERN is also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.[7][8]

History

Cernfounders
The 12 founding member states of CERN in 1954[1]

The convention establishing CERN was ratified on 29 September 1954 by 12 countries in Western Europe.[1] The acronym CERN originally represented the French words for Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Council for Nuclear Research), which was a provisional council for building the laboratory, established by 12 European governments in 1952. The acronym was retained for the new laboratory after the provisional council was dissolved, even though the name changed to the current Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1954.[9] According to Lew Kowarski, a former director of CERN, when the name was changed, the abbreviation could have become the awkward OERN, and Werner Heisenberg said that this could "still be CERN even if the name is [not]".

CERN's first president was Sir Benjamin Lockspeiser. Edoardo Amaldi was the general secretary of CERN at its early stages when operations were still provisional, while the first Director-General (1954) was Felix Bloch.[10]

The laboratory was originally devoted to the study of atomic nuclei, but was soon applied to higher-energy physics, concerned mainly with the study of interactions between subatomic particles. Therefore, the laboratory operated by CERN is commonly referred to as the European laboratory for particle physics (Laboratoire européen pour la physique des particules), which better describes the research being performed there.

Founding members

At the sixth session of the CERN Council, which took place in Paris from 29 June - 1 July 1953, the convention establishing the organization was signed, subject to ratification, by 12 states. The convention was gradually ratified by the 12 founding Member States: Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.[11]

Scientific achievements

Several important achievements in particle physics have been made through experiments at CERN. They include:

In September 2011, CERN attracted media attention when the OPERA Collaboration reported the detection of possibly faster-than-light neutrinos.[19] Further tests showed that the results were flawed due to an incorrectly connected GPS synchronization cable.[20]

The 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer for the developments that resulted in the discoveries of the W and Z bosons. The 1992 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to CERN staff researcher Georges Charpak "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber". The 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to François Englert and Peter Higgs for the theoretical description of the Higgs mechanism in the year after the Higgs boson was found by CERN experiments.

Computer science

First Web Server
This NeXT Computer used by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN became the first Web server.
Ciscosystemsrouteratcern
This Cisco Systems router at CERN was one of the first IP routers deployed in Europe.
Where the WEB was born
A plaque at CERN commemorating the invention of the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau

The World Wide Web began as a CERN project named ENQUIRE, initiated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and Robert Cailliau in 1990.[21] Berners-Lee and Cailliau were jointly honoured by the Association for Computing Machinery in 1995 for their contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.

Based on the concept of hypertext, the project was intended to facilitate the sharing of information between researchers. The first website was activated in 1991. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone. A copy[22] of the original first webpage, created by Berners-Lee, is still published on the World Wide Web Consortium's website as a historical document.

Prior to the Web's development, CERN had pioneered the introduction of Internet technology, beginning in the early 1980s.[23]

More recently, CERN has become a facility for the development of grid computing, hosting projects including the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) and LHC Computing Grid. It also hosts the CERN Internet Exchange Point (CIXP), one of the two main internet exchange points in Switzerland.

Particle accelerators

Current complex

CERN accelerator complex
Cern-accelerator-complex
List of current particle
accelerators at CERN
Linac 2Accelerates protons
Linac 3Accelerates ions
Linac 4Accelerates negative hydrogen ions
ADDecelerates antiprotons
LHCCollides protons or heavy ions
LEIRAccelerates ions
PSBAccelerates protons or ions
PSAccelerates protons or ions
SPSAccelerates protons or ions
Location Large Hadron Collider
Map of the Large Hadron Collider together with the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN

CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator. Currently active machines are:

Large Hadron Collider

Many activities at CERN currently involve operating the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the experiments for it. The LHC represents a large-scale, worldwide scientific cooperation project.

Construction of LHC at CERN
Construction of the CMS detector for LHC at CERN

The LHC tunnel is located 100 metres underground, in the region between the Geneva International Airport and the nearby Jura mountains. The majority of its length is on the French side of the border. It uses the 27 km circumference circular tunnel previously occupied by the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP), which was shut down in November 2000. CERN's existing PS/SPS accelerator complexes are used to pre-accelerate protons and lead ions which are then injected into the LHC.

Seven experiments (CMS, ATLAS, LHCb, MoEDAL,[25] TOTEM, LHC-forward and ALICE) are located along the collider; each of them studies particle collisions from a different aspect, and with different technologies. Construction for these experiments required an extraordinary engineering effort. For example, a special crane was rented from Belgium to lower pieces of the CMS detector into its underground cavern, since each piece weighed nearly 2,000 tons. The first of the approximately 5,000 magnets necessary for construction was lowered down a special shaft at 13:00 GMT on 7 March 2005.

The LHC has begun to generate vast quantities of data, which CERN streams to laboratories around the world for distributed processing (making use of a specialized grid infrastructure, the LHC Computing Grid). During April 2005, a trial successfully streamed 600 MB/s to seven different sites across the world.

The initial particle beams were injected into the LHC August 2008.[26] The first beam was circulated through the entire LHC on 10 September 2008,[27] but the system failed 10 days later because of a faulty magnet connection, and it was stopped for repairs on 19 September 2008.

The LHC resumed operation on 20 November 2009 by successfully circulating two beams, each with an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV). The challenge for the engineers was then to try to line up the two beams so that they smashed into each other. This is like "firing two needles across the Atlantic and getting them to hit each other" according to Steve Myers, director for accelerators and technology.

On 30 March 2010, the LHC successfully collided two proton beams with 3.5 TeV of energy per proton, resulting in a 7 TeV collision energy. However, this was just the start of what was needed for the expected discovery of the Higgs boson. When the 7 TeV experimental period ended, the LHC revved to 8 TeV (4 TeV per proton) starting March 2012, and soon began particle collisions at that energy. In July 2012, CERN scientists announced the discovery of a new sub-atomic particle that was later confirmed to be the Higgs boson.[28] In March 2013, CERN announced that the measurements performed on the newly found particle allowed it to conclude that this is a Higgs boson.[29] In early 2013, the LHC was deactivated for a two-year maintenance period, to strengthen the electrical connections between magnets inside the accelerator and for other upgrades.

On 5 April 2015, after two years of maintenance and consolidation, the LHC restarted for a second run. The first ramp to the record-breaking energy of 6.5 TeV was performed on 10 April 2015.[30][31] In 2016, the design collision rate was exceeded for the first time.[32] A second two-year period of shutdown is scheduled to begin at the end of 2018.

Decommissioned accelerators

Possible future accelerators

CERN, in collaboration with groups worldwide, is investigating two main concepts for future accelerators: A linear electron-positron collider with a new acceleration concept to increase the energy (CLIC) and a larger version of the LHC, a project currently named Future Circular Collider.[33]

Sites

Bldng40cropped
Interior of office building 40 at the Meyrin site. Building 40 hosts many offices for scientists from the CMS and ATLAS collaborations.

The smaller accelerators are on the main Meyrin site (also known as the West Area), which was originally built in Switzerland alongside the French border, but has been extended to span the border since 1965. The French side is under Swiss jurisdiction and there is no obvious border within the site, apart from a line of marker stones.

The SPS and LEP/LHC tunnels are almost entirely outside the main site, and are mostly buried under French farmland and invisible from the surface. However, they have surface sites at various points around them, either as the location of buildings associated with experiments or other facilities needed to operate the colliders such as cryogenic plants and access shafts. The experiments are located at the same underground level as the tunnels at these sites.

Three of these experimental sites are in France, with ATLAS in Switzerland, although some of the ancillary cryogenic and access sites are in Switzerland. The largest of the experimental sites is the Prévessin site, also known as the North Area, which is the target station for non-collider experiments on the SPS accelerator. Other sites are the ones which were used for the UA1, UA2 and the LEP experiments (the latter are used by LHC experiments).

Outside of the LEP and LHC experiments, most are officially named and numbered after the site where they were located. For example, NA32 was an experiment looking at the production of so-called "charmed" particles and located at the Prévessin (North Area) site while WA22 used the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) at the Meyrin (West Area) site to examine neutrino interactions. The UA1 and UA2 experiments were considered to be in the Underground Area, i.e. situated underground at sites on the SPS accelerator.

Most of the roads on the CERN Meyrin and Prévessin sites are named after famous physicists, such as Richard Feynman, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein.

Participation and funding

Member states and budget

Since its foundation by 12 members in 1954, CERN regularly accepted new members. All new members have remained in the organization continuously since their accession, except Spain and Yugoslavia. Spain first joined CERN in 1961, withdrew in 1969, and rejoined in 1983. Yugoslavia was a founding member of CERN but quit in 1961. Of the 23 members, Israel joined CERN as a full member on 6 January 2014,[34] becoming the first (and currently only) non-European full member.[35]

The budget contributions of member states are computed based on their GDP.[36]

Member state Status since Contribution
(million CHF for 2019)
Contribution
(fraction of total for 2019)
Contribution per capita[note 1]
(CHF/person for 2017)
Founding Members[note 2]
 Belgium 29 September 1954 30.7 2.68% 2.7
 Denmark 29 September 1954 20.5 1.79% 3.4
 France 29 September 1954 160.3 14.0% 2.6
 Germany 29 September 1954 236.0 20.6% 2.8
 Greece 29 September 1954 12.5 1.09% 1.6
 Italy 29 September 1954 118.4 10.4% 2.1
 Netherlands 29 September 1954 51.8 4.53% 3.0
 Norway 29 September 1954 28.3 2.48% 5.4
 Sweden 29 September 1954 30.5 2.66% 3.0
  Switzerland 29 September 1954 47.1 4.12% 4.9
 United Kingdom 29 September 1954 184.0 16.1% 2.4
 Yugoslavia[note 3] 29 September 1954[39][40] 0 0% 0.0
Acceded Members[note 4]
 Austria 1 June 1959 24.7 2.16% 2.9
 Spain[note 5] 1 January 1983[40][42] 80.7 7.06% 2.0
 Portugal 1 January 1986 12.5 1.09% 1.3
 Finland 1 January 1991 15.1 1.32% 2.8
 Poland 1 July 1991 31.9 2.79% 0.8
 Hungary 1 July 1992 7.0 0.609% 0.7
 Czech Republic 1 July 1993 10.9 0.950% 1.1
 Slovakia 1 July 1993 5.6 0.490% 1.0
 Bulgaria 11 June 1999 3.4 0.297% 0.4
 Israel 6 January 2014[34] 19.7 1.73% 2.7
 Romania 17 July 2016[43] 12.0 1.05% 0.6
 Serbia 24 March 2019[44] 2.5 0.221% 0.1
Associate Members in the pre-stage to membership
 Cyprus 1 April 2016[45] 1.0 N/A N/A
 Slovenia 4 July 2017[46][47] 1.0 N/A N/A
Associate Members
 Turkey 6 May 2015[48] 5.7 N/A N/A
 Pakistan 31 July 2015[49] 1.7 N/A N/A
 Ukraine 5 Oct 2016[50] 1.0 N/A N/A
 India 16 Jan 2017[51] 13.8 N/A N/A
 Lithuania 8 Jan 2018[52] 1.0 N/A N/A
Total Members, Candidates and Associates 1,146.0[36] 100.0% N/A
  1. ^ Based on the population in 2017.
  2. ^ 12 founding members drafted the Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for Nuclear Research which entered into force on 29 September 1954.[37][38]
  3. ^ Yugoslavia left the organization in 1961.
  4. ^ Acceded members become CERN member states by ratifying the CERN convention.[41]
  5. ^ Spain was previously a member state from 1961 to 1969

Enlargement

Associate Members, Candidates:

  • Turkey signed an association agreement on 12 May 2014[53] and became an associate member on 6 May 2015.
  • Pakistan signed an association agreement on 19 December 2014[54] and became an associate member on 31 July 2015.[55][56]
  • Cyprus signed an association agreement on 5 October 2012 and became an associate Member in the pre-stage to membership on 1 April 2016.[45]
  • Ukraine signed an association agreement on 3 October 2013. The agreement was ratified on 5 October 2016.[50]
  • India signed an association agreement on 21 November 2016.[57] The agreement was ratified on 16 January 2017.[51]
  • Slovenia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state in the pre-stage to membership on 16 December 2016.[46] The agreement was ratified on 4 July 2017.[47]
  • Lithuania was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 16 June 2017. The association agreement was signed on 27 June 2017 and ratified on 8 January 2018.[58][52]
  • Croatia was approved for admission as an Associate Member state on 28 February 2019. [59]

International relations

Three countries have observer status:[60]

  • Japan – since 1995
  • Russia – since 1993
  • United States – since 1997

Also observers are the following international organizations:

Non-Member States (with dates of Co-operation Agreements) currently involved in CERN programmes are:[61]

  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Argentina – 11 March 1992
  • Armenia – 25 March 1994
  • Australia – 1 November 1991
  • Azerbaijan – 3 December 1997
  • Bangladesh
  • Belarus – 28 June 1994
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil – 19 February 1990 & October 2006
  • Canada – 11 October 1996
  • Chile – 10 October 1991
  • China – 12 July 1991, 14 August 1997 & 17 February 2004
  • Colombia – 15 May 1993
  • Croatia – 18 July 1991
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt – 16 January 2006
  • Estonia – 23 April 1996
  • Georgia – 11 October 1996
  • Iceland – 11 September 1996
  • Iran – 5 July 2001
  • Jordan - 12 June 2003.[62] MoU with Jordan and SESAME, in preparation of a cooperation agreement signed in 2004.[63]
  • Lithuania – 9 November 2004
  • Macedonia – 27 April 2009
  • Malta – 10 January 2008[64][65]
  • Mexico – 20 February 1998
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro – 12 October 1990
  • Morocco – 14 April 1997
  • New Zealand – 4 December 2003
  • Peru – 23 February 1993
  • Saudi Arabia – 21 January 2006
  • South Africa – 4 July 1992
  • South Korea – 25 October 2006
  • United Arab Emirates – 18 January 2006
  • Vietnam

CERN also has scientific contacts with the following countries:[61]

  • Cuba
  • Ghana
  • Ireland
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Madagascar
  • Malaysia
  • Mozambique
  • Palestine
  • Philippines
  • Qatar
  • Rwanda
  • Singapore
  • Sri Lanka
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Tunisia
  • Uzbekistan

International research institutions, such as CERN, can aid in science diplomacy.[66]

Associated institutions

ESO and CERN sign cooperation agreement
ESO and CERN have a cooperation agreement.[67]

Open access publishing

CERN has initiated an open access publishing project to convert scientific articles in high energy physics into gold open access by redirecting subscription fees. In the first phase from 2014-2016 3,000 libraries, consortia, research organisations, publishers and funding agencies in various countries participated.[68] All publications by CERN authors are published with gold open access.[69]

Public exhibits

Facilities at CERN open to the public include:

CERN also provides daily tours to certain facilities such as the Synchro-cyclotron (CERNs first particle accelerator) and the superconducting magnet workshop.

In popular culture

Shiva's statue at CERN engaging in the Nataraja dance
The statue of Shiva engaging in the Nataraja dance presented by the Department of Atomic Energy of India.
CERN Tram, line number 18
Line 18 goes to CERN
  • The band Les Horribles Cernettes was founded by women from CERN. The name was chosen so to have the same initials as the LHC.[70][71]
  • CERN's Large Hadron Collider is the subject of a (scientifically accurate) rap video starring Katherine McAlpine with some of the facility's staff.[72][73]
  • Particle Fever, a 2013 documentary, explores CERN throughout the inside and depicts the events surrounding the 2012 discovery of the Higgs Boson
  • CERN is depicted in an episode of South Park (Season 13, Episode 6) called "Pinewood Derby". Randy Marsh, the father of one of the main characters, breaks into the "Hadron Particle Super Collider in Switzerland" and steals a "superconducting bending magnet created for use in tests with particle acceleration" to use in his son Stan's Pinewood Derby racer. Randy breaks into CERN dressed in disguise as Princess Leia from the Star Wars saga. The break-in is captured on surveillance tape which is then broadcast on the news.[74]
  • John Titor, a self-proclaimed time traveler, alleged that CERN would invent time travel in 2001.
  • CERN is depicted in the visual novel/anime series Steins;Gate as SERN, a shadowy organization that has been researching time travel in order to restructure and control the world.
  • In Dan Brown's mystery-thriller novel Angels & Demons and film of the same name, a canister of antimatter is stolen from CERN.[75]
  • In the popular children's series The 39 Clues, CERN is said to be an Ekaterina stronghold hiding the clue hydrogen.
  • In Robert J. Sawyer's science fiction novel Flashforward, at CERN, the Large Hadron Collider accelerator is performing a run to search for the Higgs boson when the entire human race sees themselves twenty-one years and six months in the future.
  • In season 3 episode 15 of the TV sitcom The Big Bang Theory titled "The Large Hadron Collision", Leonard and Raj travel to CERN to attend a conference and see the LHC.
  • The 2012 student film Decay, which centers on the idea of the Large Hadron Collider transforming people into zombies, was filmed on location in CERN's maintenance tunnels.[76]
  • The Compact Muon Solenoid at CERN was used as the basis for the Megadeth's Super Collider album cover.
  • In Super Lovers, Haruko (Ren's mother) worked at CERN, and Ren was taught by CERN professors
  • CERN forms part of the back story of the massively multiplayer augmented reality game Ingress.[77]
  • In season 10 episode 6 of the BBC TV show Doctor Who titled "Extremis", CERN and its physicists are involved in a mysterious plot involving a book that causes everyone who reads it to kill themselves.
  • In 2015, Sarah Charley, US communications manager for LHC experiments at CERN with graduate students Jesse Heilman of the University of California, Riverside, and Tom Perry and Laser Seymour Kaplan of the University of Wisconsin, Madison created a parody video of “Collide” a song by American artist Howie Day.[78] The lyrics were changed to be from the perspective of a proton in the Large Hadron Collider. After seeing the parody, Day re-recorded the song with the new lyrics and in February, 2017 Day released this new version of "Collide" in a video created during his visit to CERN.[79]

See also

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External links

Cernfounders

1954 (12 members): CERN is founded a[›] (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1959

1959 (13 members): Austria joins (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1961and1983

1961 (13 members): Spain joins and Yugoslavia leaves (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1969

1969 (12 members): Spain leaves (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1961and1983

1983 (13 members): Spain re-joins (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1985

1985 (14 members): Portugal joins (1954-1990 borders)

CERN1991

1991 (16 members): Poland and Finland join, and Germany has been reunified (post 1993 borders)

CERN1992

1992 (17 members): Hungary joins (post 1993 borders)

CERN1993

1993 (19 members): Czech Republic and Slovakia join (post 1993 borders)

CERN1999

1999 (20 members): Bulgaria joins (post 1993 borders)

CERN-Membership-History

Animated map showing changes in CERN membership from 1954 until 1999 (borders are as at dates of change)

CERN Axion Solar Telescope

The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment in astroparticle physics to search for axions originating from the Sun. The experiment, sited at CERN in Switzerland, came online in 2002 with the first data-taking run starting in May 2003. The successful detection of solar axions would constitute a major discovery in particle physics, and would also open up a brand new window on the astrophysics of the solar core.

If the axions exist, they may be produced in the Sun's core when X-rays scatter off electrons and protons in the presence of strong electric fields. The experimental setup is built around a 9.26 m long decommissioned test magnet for the LHC capable of producing a field of up to 9.5 T. This strong magnetic field is expected to convert solar axions back into X-rays for subsequent detection by X-ray detectors. The telescope observes the Sun for about 1.5 hours at sunrise and another 1.5 hours at sunset each day. The remaining 21 hours, with the instrument pointing away from the Sun, are spent measuring background axion levels.

CAST began operation in 2003 searching for axions up to 0.02 eV. In 2005, Helium-4 was added to the magnet, extending sensitivity to masses up to 0.39 eV, then Helium-3 was used during 2008–2011 for masses up to 1.15 eV. CAST then ran with vacuum again searching for axions below 0.02 eV.

As of 2014, CAST has not turned up definitive evidence for solar axions. It has considerably narrowed down the range of parameters where these elusive particles may exist. CAST has set significant limits on axion coupling to electrons and photons.A 2017 paper using data from the 2013-2015 run reported a new best limit on axion-photon coupling of 0.66E-10 / GeV.Built upon the experience of CAST, a much larger, new-generation, axion helioscope, the International Axion Observatory (IAXO), has been proposed and is now under preparation.

CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso

The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project was a physics project of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The aim of the project was to analyse the hypothesis of neutrino oscillation by directing a beam of neutrinos from CERN's facilities to the detector of the OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), located in the Gran Sasso mountain in Italy. The CNGS facility was housed in a tunnel which diverged from one of the SPS–LHC transfer tunnels, at the Franco–Swiss border near Geneva. It used the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator as a source of high-energy protons.

CERN httpd

CERN httpd (later also known as W3C httpd) is an early, now discontinued, web server (HTTP) daemon originally developed at CERN from 1990 onwards by Tim Berners-Lee, Ari Luotonen and Henrik Frystyk Nielsen. Implemented in C, it was the first ever web server software.

Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, one of the fields in particle physics theory. It is named after physicist Peter Higgs, who in 1964, along with five other scientists, proposed the mechanism which suggested the existence of such a particle. Its existence was confirmed in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on collisions in the LHC at CERN.

On December 10, 2013, two of the physicists, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical predictions. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory (the Higgs mechanism), several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 independently developed different parts of it.

In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic, although the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs himself, who regard it as sensationalism.

History of the World Wide Web

The World Wide Web ("WWW" or the "Web") is a global information medium which users can read and write via computers connected to the Internet. The term is often mistakenly used as a synonym for the Internet itself and often called "the Internet", but the Web is a service that operates over the Internet, just as email (also e-mail) and Usenet also does. The history of the Internet dates back significantly further than that of the World Wide Web. Web is the global information system.

Jack Steinberger

Jack Steinberger (born May 25, 1921) is an American physicist who, along with Leon M. Lederman and Melvin Schwartz, received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the muon neutrino.

Large Electron–Positron Collider

The Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP) was one of the largest particle accelerators ever constructed.

It was built at CERN, a multi-national centre for research in nuclear and particle physics near Geneva, Switzerland. LEP collided electrons with positrons at energies that reached 209 GeV. It was a circular collider with a circumference of 27 kilometres built in a tunnel roughly 100 m (300 ft) underground and passing through Switzerland and France. LEP was used from 1989 until 2000. Around 2001 it was dismantled to make way for the LHC, which re-used the LEP tunnel. To date, LEP is the most powerful accelerator of leptons ever built.

Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record. After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: Lead–lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

Line Mode Browser

The Line Mode Browser (also known as LMB,, WWWLib, or just www) is the second web browser ever created.

The browser was the first demonstrated to be portable to several different operating systems.

Operated from a simple command-line interface, it could be widely used on many computers and computer terminals throughout the Internet.

The browser was developed starting in 1990, and then supported by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as an example and test application for the libwww library.

OPERA experiment

The Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus (OPERA) was an instrument used in a scientific experiment for detecting tau neutrinos from muon neutrino oscillations. The experiment is a collaboration between CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Gran Sasso, Italy and uses the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) neutrino beam.

The process started with protons from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN being fired in pulses at a carbon target to produce pions and kaons. These particles decay to produce muons and neutrinos.The beam from CERN was stopped on 3 December 2012, ending data taking, but the analysis of the collected data has continued.

Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC; Urdu: ادارہ جوہری توانائی پاکستان) is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.Since its establishment in 1956, the PAEC has overseen the extensive development of nuclear infrastructure to support the economical uplift of Pakistan by founding institutions that focus on development on food irradiation and on nuclear medicine radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PAEC organizes conferences and directs research at the country's leading universities.

Since the 1960s, the PAEC is also a scientific research partner and sponsor of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where Pakistani scientists have contributed to developing particle accelerators and research on high-energy physics. PAEC scientists regularly pay visits to CERN while taking part in projects led by CERN.In 2001, the PAEC was integrated with the National Command Authority (Pakistan) which is under the Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Robert Cailliau

Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer, computer scientist and author who proposed the first (pre-www) hypertext system for CERN in 1987 and collaborated with Tim Berners-Lee on www from before it got its name. He designed the historical logo of the WWW, organized the first International World Wide Web Conference at CERN in 1994 and helped transfer Web development from CERN to the global Web consortium in 1995. Together with Dr. James Gillies, Cailliau wrote How the Web Was Born, the first book-length account of the origins of the World Wide Web.

Scientific Linux

Scientific Linux (SL) is a Linux distribution produced by Fermilab, CERN, DESY and by ETH Zurich. It is a free and open-source operating system based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux.This product is derived from the free and open-source software made available by Red Hat, but is not produced, maintained or supported by them. It is built from the source code for Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions, under the terms and conditions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux's end-user license agreement and the GNU General Public License.

Simon van der Meer

Simon van der Meer (24 November 1925 – 4 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.

Super Proton Synchrotron

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN. It is housed in a circular tunnel, 6.9 kilometres (4.3 mi) in circumference, straddling the border of France and Switzerland near Geneva, Switzerland.

Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is currently a professor of computer science at the University of Oxford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He made a proposal for an information management system on 12 March 1989, and he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the internet in mid-November the same year.Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the continued development of the Web. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In 2011, he was named as a member of the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation. He is a founder and president of the Open Data Institute, and is currently an advisor at social network MeWe.In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work. In April 2009, he was elected a Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. Named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, Berners-Lee has received a number of other accolades for his invention. He was honoured as the "Inventor of the World Wide Web" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium. He tweeted "This is for everyone", which instantly was spelled out in Liquid-crystal display (LCD) lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Berners-Lee received the 2016 Turing Award "for inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, and the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale".

WorldWideWeb

WorldWideWeb (later renamed to Nexus to avoid confusion between the software and the World Wide Web) was the first web browser and editor. It was discontinued in 1994. At the time it was written, it was the sole web browser in existence, as well as the first WYSIWYG HTML editor.

The source code was released into the public domain on April 30, 1993. Some of the code still resides on Tim Berners-Lee's NeXT Computer in the CERN museum and has not been recovered due to the computer's status as a historical artifact. To coincide with the 20th anniversary of the research centre giving the web to the world, a project began in 2013 at CERN to preserve this original hardware and software associated with the birth of the Web.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as https://www.example.com/), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible over the Internet. The resources of the WWW may be accessed by users by a software application called a web browser.

English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while employed at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland. The browser was released outside CERN in 1991, first to other research institutions starting in January 1991 and then to the general public in August 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information Age and is the primary tool billions of people use to interact on the Internet.Web resources may be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that have been formatted in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Such formatting allows for embedded hyperlinks that contain URLs and permit users to navigate to other web resources. In addition to text, web pages may contain images, video, audio, and software components that are rendered in the user's web browser as coherent pages of multimedia content.

Multiple web resources with a common theme, a common domain name, or both, make up a website. Websites are stored in computers that are running a program called a web server that responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on a user's computer. Website content can be largely provided by a publisher, or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends upon the users or their actions. Websites may be provided for a myriad of informative, entertainment, commercial, governmental, or non-governmental reasons.

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
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