A CD single (sometimes abbreviated to CDS) is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm (3 inch) CD (or Mini CD). It now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size, particularly the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased.
Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs (an A side and B side, in the tradition of 7" 45rpm records) up to six songs like an EP. Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs (known as remixes), in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, and in some cases, they may also contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts.
Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" (1985) is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in '85, and a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in '86. Containing four tracks, it had a very limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, and the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody (Who Loves Me)" by Whitney Houston in May 1987.
The Mini CD single CD3 format was originally created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success, particularly in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US (replaced by the 5-inch CD single, called CD-5).
It was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track (usually "remix") maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would also release two CDs but, usually, these consisted of three tracks or more each.
During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were often released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums. Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single ever being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which very few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained extremely popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based solely on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has largely been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, and most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales.
In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single often selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide. While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most recently, Delta Goodrem, whose recent singles ("What Happened to Us", "Put Your Hands Up (If You Feel Love)" and "Sitting on Top of the World" respectively) were released on CD in limited quantities. The ARIA Singles Chart are now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", and ARIA also stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart, Target and Big W, who then concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has also ceased selling CD singles.
In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare ever since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, and most of the time singles have generally been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have also occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play (EP) in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart (before it abandoned tracking altogether) with songs released as singles.
|Mini CD single|
Mini CD single
|Media type||Optical disc|
|Capacity||80 mm holds up to 24 minutes of music, or 210 MiB (210 × 220 bytes) of data.|
|Dimensions||8 Centimeters (3.1Inch)|
The original CD single (sometimes mini CD single or 3-inch CD or CD3 in the US) is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm (4.7 in). They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, and can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives.
The format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, West Germany, and Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels (partly due to their incompatibility with many slot-loading CD players), they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, often consisting of a single edit and an instrumental version in the same way as 7-inch vinyl singles.
These were released in both a 5" size slim jewel case and long flip-out sleeve snap-packs or (Japanese: tanzaku) as they are known in Japan. These sleeves could be 'snapped' and folded into a small 3" (8cm) square, rather than the original 6" by 3" inch (15×8 cm) length when originally sold.
Beginning in 1999 some labels began to package mini CDs in 12cm slimline cases. As the "tanzaku" sleeves slowly morphed into the use of slimline jewel cases, the mini CD single was haulted from production in the early 2000s.
As popularity diminished, one of the last Japanese 8cm CD single released was a reissue and repackaging of "I Was Born to Love You" by Queen in 2004. Many of the artists who released 3" CDs are from that era, including Wink, Madonna, Phil Collins, Michael Jackson, Queen, U2, Prince, Metallica, Bros, Huey Lewis and the News, Bon Jovi, Kylie Minogue, Falco and George Michael. Some singles packaged in 5" single jewel cases contained a 5" CD adapter.
However, there has been a small revival in the mini CD single with Japanese artists such as ベッド・イン（Bed In) releasing a 2017 single in long sleeve "tanzaku" form, by the record company King Records.
US versions were often packaged in cardboard slipcases, either 3" square or 6" by 3" gatefold. Others were released in 5" slimline single cases, which allowed an adapter to be included with the CD. At the time of first release in 1987, their retail price was between $4 and $6 at least $3 less than even the least-expensive 5-inch discs. Delos Records, a small, independent label, issued the first commercially available 3-inch CDs in 1987 with 20 classical and jazz titles. The Massachusetts-based Rykodisc issued Frank Zappa’s “Peaches en Regalia” the first pop 3-inch CD. Initially when released, 300,000 of the discs were shipped to retail outlets.
UK 3" CDs were made mostly in a small square case/cover form only, some including a 5" CD adapter to use in normal compact disc players. Although the format was not widely available in the United Kingdom, several artists have released singles in the format.
From a technical standpoint, a 3-inch CD follows the Red Book standard for CD digital audio. The major difference is that the smaller physical size of the disc allows for fewer data sectors, meaning the disc can store less audio. The majority of audio CD players and CD-ROM drives have a smaller circular indentation in the CD tray for holding these discs. Most slot-loading drives, such as those found in some car CD players, are unable to manipulate the smaller discs or their adapters. Laptop drives generally only require the centre hole to hold the disc so the smaller diameter is irrelevant. In fact, software and drivers for some hardware are provided on the 3" discs.
In the United States and United Kingdom, the format barely lasted into the early 1990s, partly due to inconvenience of needing to attach an adapter on every disc (very few packages were issued with one) before playing. Sony remained in support of the 3-inch CD having had plans to launch a 3-inch CD player for the Japanese market in 1988. Also replaced by simply putting less music on a regular full-size CD, at least among major labels. The full-size discs are a more standard manufacturing process and so may end up being cheaper to press. The CD single format continued until 2000 for Japanese releases. Despite the unpopularity it survived with publishers adopting the 3-inch CD as an inexpensive way of presenting bonus material with books.
|January–December 1999||78 million||Probably 95%+|
|January–December 2004||Less than 50%||DL: more than 50%|
|January–December 2007||8 million||DL: 72.6 million|
|January–December 2008||4.6 million||DL: 110.3 million|
|January-1 October 2009||Less than 1.6 million||Less than 1.4%||DL: 115.4 million|
In September 2003, there was talk of ringtones for mobile phones outstripping CD singles sales for the year 2004.
Woolworths Group, which previously accounted for one third of all CD sales in the country, stopped selling CD singles in August 2008, citing the "terminal decline" of the format as customers moved to digital downloads as their preferred method of purchasing single tracks (the Woolworths chain itself would collapse the following November).
In July 2009, The Guardian reported that Florence + The Machine's single 'Rabbit Heart (Raise It Up)' sold a CD and 7" vinyl combined total of 64 copies, where it reached No. 16 in the Mid-Week Chart.
Aaron Sprinkle is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer from Seattle, Washington.All Falls Down
"All Falls Down" is a song by American hip hop artist Kanye West. It was released as the third single from his debut album, The College Dropout. The song was produced by West and features singer Syleena Johnson. It was released in February 2004 and entered the UK Singles Chart at number ten and peaked at number seven on the US Billboard Hot 100 on May 11, 2004, his first Top 10 in the USA. The song was nominated for Best Rap/Sung Collaboration at the 47th Grammy Awards, Viewer's Choice at the 2004 BET Awards and received nominations for a total of four awards at the 2004 MTV Video Music Awards.Ants Marching
"Ants Marching" is a song by American rock group Dave Matthews Band. It was released in September 1995 as the second single from their debut studio album Under the Table and Dreaming. It reached #18 on the Alternative chart and on the mainstream rock chart as well. The song was considered a successful hit single. A different recording of it was included on their prior album Remember Two Things. This version was significantly longer, clocking in at 6:08. According to DMBAlmanac.com, the song is possibly one of Dave Matthews Band's best known songs, and Dave Matthews described it as being "our anthem." Dave Mathews wrote the music and lyrics prior to its first performance in 1991.Bawitdaba
"Bawitdaba" is a song by Kid Rock. Released in 1998 on his fourth studio album, Devil Without a Cause, "Bawitdaba" helped push the success of the album. It became one of his most popular and acclaimed songs.Boom, Like That
"Boom, Like That" is a 2004 single by Mark Knopfler, from his album Shangri-La. It is – with "Darling Pretty" – one of only two Mark Knopfler solo singles to reach the UK Top 40, hitting no. 34.Change Clothes
"Change Clothes" was the first official single from rapper Jay-Z's studio album The Black Album. It featured additional vocals by Pharrell Williams (uncredited) and was produced by The Neptunes. The song reached #10 on the Billboard Hot 100 in December, 2003.In Danger Mouse's Grey Album remix, the cello and harpsichord arrangement from "Piggies", from the Beatles album The Beatles (more commonly known as The White Album), is mixed with this song.Change the World
"Change the World" is a song written by Tommy Sims, Gordon Kennedy, and Wayne Kirkpatrick whose best-known version was recorded by the English singer Eric Clapton for the soundtrack of the 1996 film, Phenomenon. The track was produced by R&B record producer Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds. The Clapton release, recorded for Reprise and Warner Bros. Records, reached the Top 40 in twenty countries and topped the charts in Canada, as well as Billboard magazine's Adult Contemporary and Adult Top 40 charts in the United States. The single won eight awards, including three Grammy Awards at the 39th annual ceremony in 1997.Cinnamon Girl (Prince song)
"Cinnamon Girl" is a song by Prince, from his 2004 album Musicology.
The single has been released in several formats. On September 6, 2004, the European CD single was released with four tracks: "Cinnamon Girl" (Album version), "Dear Mr. Man" (live at Webster Hall) "United States of Division" (which had been available only as a download) and an MPEG video of the "Dear Mr. Man" performance. Two weeks later, a similar single was released, but without the video. In November of the same year, Prince's NPG Music Club online retail store sold an Enhanced CD including the audio track, its music video, the lyrics and a five-minute segment of interviews and behind-the-scenes footage.
Despite not charting in the US, the single nearly cracked the Top 40 of the UK, reaching number 43.Dschinghis Khan (song)
Dschinghis Khan (English translation: "Genghis Khan") was the West German entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1979, performed in German by Dschinghis Khan. Cover versions by a number of other artists were subsequently released as singles and album tracks.Fury (song)
"Fury" is a song by Prince, from his 2006 album 3121. The single was debuted live on Saturday Night Live on February 4, 2006. It was also part of Prince's four song set at the 2006 BRIT Awards.
"Fury" is an "energy song", resembling those of the psychedelic rock influences performed by Jimi Hendrix. Its instrumental chorus consists of a repeated 4-chord keyboard segment. The track features live drumming and strong guitar work throughout, closing with continuous guitar noise. The title comes from the line "ain't no fury like a woman scorned", which itself is a lightly changed version of the old phrase "Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned".
The song was released as the third single from 3121 in the UK on May 30, 2006, and reached number sixty on the UK Singles Chart. The single's B-sides are a live version of the song, and "Te Amo Corazón", both performed at the 2006 BRIT Awards. In addition to being released as a CD single, it was also released on a 12" vinyl single as a picture disc. The CD single also had a video of the live performances. The single's cover is also reminiscent of the psychedelic rock era.Girlfriend/Boyfriend
"Girlfriend/Boyfriend" is a song by American R&B group Blackstreet. It was released in May 1999 as the second and final single from their third album Finally. Janet Jackson is also featured in the song as well as rappers Eve and Ja Rule. The song is co-written by R&B singer and Ja Rule's former associate Cynthia "Lil' Mo" Loving. It was a minor hit in the United States and achieved moderate success in some other countries.Mark Owen
Mark Anthony Patrick Owen (born 27 January 1972), is an English singer-songwriter. He is a member of pop-group Take That. As a solo artist, Owen had sold over 500,000 records worldwide and 45 million with Take That.Queen CD Single Box
The CD Single Box was a CD compilation box set by the English rock band Queen released exclusively in Japan on 26 April 1991 by EMI Records.Suspicion (R.E.M. song)
"Suspicion" is the fourth and final single released by R.E.M. from their album Up. Unlike previous singles from Up, "Suspicion" was the only single from the album not to chart.
A live version of the song, recorded at Toast Studios in San Francisco, CA 1998, was released as a B-side to the second single from Up, "Lotus", released the following year and peaked at #26 on the UK Singles Chart. This version was included in the German releases of the CD.Toby Dammit
Toby Dammit (born Lawrence Edward Crooke, December 13, 1966, Knoxville, Tennessee), is an American producer, composer and percussionist. He has often been credited as Larry Mullins, his adopted name. He is mostly known for his work with Iggy Pop, Swans, The Residents, Iggy and The Stooges and Silver Apples. In 2015 he began performing live as multi-keyboardist with Nick Cave and continues performing with Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds during their world tour for the album Skeleton Tree. He stars as the big band drummer Willy Schuricke in the German cable series Babylon Berlin .Who Wants to Live Forever
"Who Wants to Live Forever" is a song by the British rock band Queen. It is the sixth track on the album A Kind of Magic, released in June 1986, and was written by lead guitarist Brian May for the soundtrack to the film Highlander. Queen was backed up by an orchestra, with orchestrations by the co-composer of the film's score, Michael Kamen. The song peaked at No. 24 in the UK charts.Since its release, the song has been covered by many artists. In 2014, Rolling Stone readers voted it their fifth favourite song by Queen.Women of Ireland (Mike Oldfield instrumental)
"Women of Ireland" is an instrumental piece by musician Mike Oldfield, originally released in 1996. It is a version of the folk song, "Mná na hÉireann" (Women of Ireland), credited as traditional but actually written by Seán Ó Riada.
Originally from the 1996 album Voyager, it also appeared on the compilation XXV: The Essential. The single release "Women of Ireland XXV" includes two mixes of the song along with a reel tune, similar to the ending pieces of the first two Tubular Bells albums.Woollim Entertainment
Woollim Entertainment (Hangul: 울림 엔터테인먼트; RR: Ullim Enteoteinmeonteu) is a South Korean entertainment company founded in 2003 by Lee Jung-yeop.
The label's current roster of artists includes Infinite, Rphabet, Lovelyz, Golden Child, Joo, as well as actors like Park Joo Hwan, Lee Jae Ahn, Byun Jun Seok, and entertainers like Oh Hyun-min. It was formerly home to hip-hop group Epik High, Indie-rock band Nell and actor such as Kim Min-seok.