CANDU Owners Group

CANDU Owners Group is a private, not-for-profit corporation funded voluntarily by CANDU operating utilities worldwide, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) and supplier participants. It is dedicated to providing programs for cooperation, mutual assistance and exchange of information for the successful support, development, operation, maintenance and economics of CANDU technology. All CANDU Operators in the world are members of COG.[2] This includes plants in Canada (Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station and Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station), Argentina (Embalse Nuclear Power Station), China (Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant), India (Rajasthan Atomic Power Station), Pakistan (Karachi Nuclear Power Complex), South Korea (Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant), and Romania (Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant). Its headquarters is in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

COG was formed in 1984 by an agreement among the Canadian CANDU-owning utilities Ontario Hydro (now Ontario Power Generation), Hydro-Québec and New Brunswick Power, plus Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It became a non-profit corporation in 1999 [3] .

CANDU Owners Group Inc.
IndustryNuclear power
HeadquartersToronto, Ontario, Canada
Key people
Fred Dermarkar, President & CEO
Revenue$74.44 million CAD (2017)[1]
Number of employees
55 (2017)


  1. ^ COG Annual Report 2016-17
  2. ^
  3. ^
CANDU reactor

The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power. The acronym refers to its deuterium oxide (heavy water) moderator and its use of (originally, natural) uranium fuel. CANDU reactors were first developed in the late 1950s and 1960s by a partnership between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Canadian General Electric, and other companies.

There have been two major types of CANDU reactors, the original design of around 500 MWe that was intended to be used in multi-reactor installations in large plants, and the rationalized CANDU 6 in the 600 MWe class that is designed to be used in single stand-alone units or in small multi-unit plants. CANDU 6 units were built in Quebec and New Brunswick, as well as Pakistan, Argentina, South Korea, Romania, and China. A single example of a non-CANDU 6 design was sold to India. The multi-unit design was used only in Ontario, Canada, and grew in size and power as more units were installed in the province, reaching ~880 MWe in the units installed at the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station. An effort to rationalize the larger units in a fashion similar to CANDU 6 led to the CANDU 9.

By the early 2000s, sales prospects for the original CANDU designs were dwindling due to the introduction of newer designs from other companies. AECL responded by cancelling CANDU 9 development and moving to the Advanced CANDU reactor (ACR) design. ACR failed to find any buyers; its last potential sale was for an expansion at Darlington, but this was cancelled in 2009. In October 2011, the Canadian Federal Government licensed the CANDU design to Candu Energy (a wholly owned subsidiary of SNC-Lavalin), which also acquired the former reactor development and marketing division of AECL at that time. Candu Energy offers support services for existing sites and is completing formerly stalled installations in Romania and Argentina through a partnership with China National Nuclear Corporation. SNC Lavalin, the successor to AECL, is pursuing new Candu 6 reactor sales in Argentina (Atucha 3), as well as China and Britain. Sales effort for the ACR reactor has ended.


Caesium (IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The most reactive of all metals, it is pyrophoric and reacts with water even at −116 °C (−177 °F). It is the least electronegative element, with a value of 0.79 on the Pauling scale. It has only one stable isotope, caesium-133. Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from waste produced by nuclear reactors.

The German chemist Robert Bunsen and physicist Gustav Kirchhoff discovered caesium in 1860 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy. The first small-scale applications for caesium were as a "getter" in vacuum tubes and in photoelectric cells. In 1967, acting on Einstein's proof that the speed of light is the most constant dimension in the universe, the International System of Units used two specific wave counts from an emission spectrum of caesium-133 to co-define the second and the metre. Since then, caesium has been widely used in highly accurate atomic clocks.

Since the 1990s, the largest application of the element has been as caesium formate for drilling fluids, but it has a range of applications in the production of electricity, in electronics, and in chemistry. The radioactive isotope caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years and is used in medical applications, industrial gauges, and hydrology. Nonradioactive caesium compounds are only mildly toxic, but the pure metal's tendency to react explosively with water means that caesium is considered a hazardous material, and the radioisotopes present a significant health and ecological hazard in the environment.


Candu or CANDU may refer to

CANDU reactor (CANada Deuterium Uranium), a Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor

Advanced CANDU reactor

CANDU Owners Group

Candu Energy Inc., a Canadian organization specializing in the design and supply of nuclear reactors and related products and services

Andrian Candu (born 1975), a Moldovan politician


Gyeongju (Korean: 경주, pronounced [kʲʌŋ.dʑu]), historically known as Seorabeol (Korean: 서라벌, pronounced [sʌ.ɾa.bʌl]), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea. It is the second largest city by area in the province after Andong, covering 1,324 km2 (511 sq mi) with a population of 264,091 people (as of December 2012.) Gyeongju is 370 km (230 mi) southeast of Seoul, and 55 km (34 mi) east of Daegu. The city borders Cheongdo and Yeongcheon to the west, Ulsan to the south and Pohang to the north, while to the east lies the coast of the Sea of Japan. Numerous low mountains—outliers of the Taebaek range—are scattered around the city.Gyeongju was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Silla (57 BC – 935 AD), which ruled about two-thirds of the Korean Peninsula at its height between the 7th and 9th centuries, for close to one thousand years. Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju was the fourth largest city in the world. A vast number of archaeological sites and cultural properties from this period remain in the city. Gyeongju is often referred to as "the museum without walls". Among such historical treasures, Seokguram grotto, Bulguksa temple, Gyeongju Historic Areas and Yangdong Folk Village are designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. The many major historical sites have helped Gyeongju become one of the most popular tourist destinations in South Korea.The city of Gyeongju was united with the nearby rural Gyeongju County in 1995 and is now an urban–rural complex. It is similar to 53 other small- and medium-sized cities with a population under 300,000 people in South Korea. As well as its rich historical heritage, Gyeongju today is affected by the economic, demographic, and social trends that have shaped modern South Korean culture. Tourism remains the major economic driver, but manufacturing activities have developed due to its proximity to major industrial centers such as Ulsan and Pohang. Gyeongju is connected to the nationwide rail and highway networks, which facilitate industrial and tourist traffic.

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station is a nuclear power station in India, which lies in the proximity of the city of Vyara in the state of Gujarat. It consists of two 220 MW pressurised water reactor with heavy water as moderator (PHWR). KAPS-1 went critical on 3 September 1992 and began commercial electricity production a few months later on 6 May 1993. KAPS-2 went critical on 8 January 1995 and began commercial production on 1 September 1995. In January 2003, CANDU Owners Group (COG) declared KAPS as the best performing pressurised heavy water reactor.KAPS-2 was shut down after a coolant channel leak in July 2015 and a similar issue forced the shutdown of KAPS-1 in March 2016. After a replacement of coolant channels and feeder tubes, KAPS-2 attained criticality in September 2018. Maintenance on KAPS-1 is scheduled to be completed by March 2019.

The construction costs originally were estimated to be ₹ 382.52 crore, the plant was finally finished at a price of ₹ 1,335 crore. Construction of units 3 & 4 started in November 2010.

Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is a Canadian nuclear power station located on the north shore of Lake Ontario in Pickering, Ontario. It is one of the oldest nuclear power stations in the world and one of Canada's largest, producing about 15% of Ontario's power and employing 3,000 workers.Co-located at the Pickering station is a single 1.8 MWe wind turbine named the OPG 7 commemorative turbine.

Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

The Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (秦山核电站) is a multi-unit nuclear power plant in Qinshan Town, Haiyan County, in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province, China.

Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant

The Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant, or Wolsong, is a nuclear power plant located on the coast near Nae-ri, Yangnm-myeon, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It is the only South Korean nuclear power plant operating CANDU-type PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors). Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power owns the plant. These reactors are capable of consuming multiple types of fuel, including wastes from South Korea's other nuclear plants.

The power plant site including Yangnam-myeon. Yangbuk-myeon and Gampo-eup was designated an industrial infrastructure development zone in 1976. Construction of Wolseong 1 started in 1976 and was completed in 1982. In the following year, the power plant began commercial operations. This PHWR reactor has a gross generation capacity of 678 MW. Wolseong reactors 2, 3 and 4 were completed in 1997, 1998 and 1999, respectively. Each of these reactors has a capacity of 700 MW. Wolseong Nuclear Plant has since operated successfully.Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant supplies about 5% of South Korea's electricity.

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