Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman (/ˈrɑːmən/; 7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in the former Madras Province in India (presently the state of Tamil Nadu), who carried out ground-breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. In 1954, the Indian government honoured him with India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.
Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman
Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman Commemorative Stamp
|Born||7 November 1888|
|Died||21 November 1970 (aged 82)|
|Alma mater||Presidency College, University of Madras|
|Known for||Raman effect|
|Spouse(s)||Lokasundari Ammal (1907–1970)|
|Awards||Matteucci Medal (1928)|
Knight Bachelor (1929)
Hughes Medal (1930)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1930)
Bharat Ratna (1954)
Lenin Peace Prize (1957)
Fellow of the Royal Society
|Institutions||Indian Finance Department|
University of Calcutta
Banaras Hindu University
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science
Indian Institute of Science
Raman Research Institute
|Doctoral students||G. N. Ramachandran|
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai
K. S. Viswanathan
|Other notable students||Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan|
K. R. Ramanathan
C. V. Raman was born in a family to Chandrashekaran Ramanathan Iyer and Parvathi Ammal.Raman’s family were Brahmins, the Hindu caste of priests and scholars. </ref> Raman's father was a lecturer who taught mathematics and physics in Mrs. A.V. Narasimha Rao College, Visakhapatnam (then Vishakapatnam) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, and later joined Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai).
He was born in Trichy, Tamil Nadu. Raman was the second child of his parents, Chandrasekhar and Parvati Ammal and was born in Tiruvanaikkaval, at his maternal grandfather's house. At an early age, Raman moved to the city of Visakhapatnam and studied at St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. Raman passed his matriculation examination at the age of 11 and he passed his F.A. examination (equivalent to today's Intermediate exam, PUCPDC and +2) with a scholarship at the age of 13.
In 1902, Raman joined Presidency College in Madras where his father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics. In 1904 he passed his Bachelor of Arts examination of University of Madras. He stood first and won the gold medal in physics. In 1907 he gained his Master of Sciences degree with the highest distinctions from University of Madras.
In the year 1917, Raman resigned from his government service after he was appointed the first Palit Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. At the same time, he continued doing research at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, where he became the Honorary Secretary. Raman used to refer to this period as the golden era of his career. Many students gathered around him at the IACS and the University of Calcutta. In 1926 Prof. Raman established the Indian Journal of Physics and he was the first editor. The second volume of the Journal published his famous article "A New Radiation", reporting the discovery of the Raman Effect.
On 28 February 1928, Raman led an experiment with K. S. Krishnan, on the scattering of light, when he discovered what now is called the Raman effect. A detailed account of this period is reported in the biography by G. Venkataraman. It was instantly clear that this discovery was of huge value. It gave further proof of the quantum nature of light. Raman had a complicated professional relationship with K. S. Krishnan, who surprisingly did not share the award, but is mentioned prominently even in the Nobel lecture.
Raman spectroscopy came to be based on this phenomenon, and Ernest Rutherford referred to it in his presidential address to the Royal Society in 1929. Raman was president of the 16th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1929. He was conferred a knighthood, and medals and honorary doctorates by various universities. Raman was confident of winning the Nobel Prize in Physics as well but was disappointed when the Nobel Prize went to Owen Richardson in 1928 and to Louis de Broglie in 1929. He was so confident of winning the prize in 1930 that he booked tickets in July, even though the awards were to be announced in November, and would scan each day's newspaper for announcement of the prize, tossing it away if it did not carry the news. He did eventually win the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect". He is the first Asian and first non-white to receive any Nobel Prize in the sciences. Before him Rabindranath Tagore (also Indian) had received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913.
Raman had association with the Banaras Hindu University in Varanasi; he attended the foundation ceremony of BHU and delivered lectures on "Mathematics" and "Some new paths in physics" during the lecture series organised at BHU from 5 to 8 February 1916. He also held the position of permanent visiting professor at BHU.
During his tenure at IISc, he recruited the talented electrical engineering student, G. N. Ramachandran, who later went on to become a distinguished X-ray crystallographer.
Raman also worked on the acoustics of musical instruments. He worked out the theory of transverse vibration of bowed strings, on the basis of superposition velocities. He was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the tabla and the mridangam. He was also interested in the properties of other musical instruments based on forced vibrations such as the violin. He also investigated the propagation of sound in whispering galleries. Raman's work on acoustics was an important prelude, both experimentally and conceptually, to his later work on optics and quantum mechanics.
Raman and his student, Nagendra Nath, provided the correct theoretical explanation for the acousto-optic effect (light scattering by sound waves), in a series of articles resulting in the celebrated Raman–Nath theory. Modulators, and switching systems based on this effect have enabled optical communication components based on laser systems.
Raman was succeeded by Debendra Mohan Bose as the Palit Professor in 1932. In 1933, Raman left IACS to join Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as its first Indian director. Other investigations carried out by Raman were experimental and theoretical studies on the diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies (published 1934–1942), and those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light.
He also started the company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (now known as TCM Limited) which manufactured potassium chlorate for the match industry in 1943 along with Dr. Krishnamurthy. The Company subsequently established four factories in Southern India. In 1947, he was appointed as the first National Professor by the new government of Independent India.
In 1948, Raman, through studying the spectroscopic behaviour of crystals, approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. He dealt with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behaviour of numerous iridescent substances (labradorite, pearly feldspar, agate, opal, and pearls). Among his other interests were the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.
Raman retired from the Indian Institute of Science in 1948 and established the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, a year later. He served as its director and remained active there until his death in 1970, in Bangalore, at the age of 82.
Raman was the paternal uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1983) for his discovery of the Chandrasekhar limit in 1931 and for his subsequent work on the nuclear reactions necessary for stellar evolution.
Throughout his life, Raman developed an extensive personal collection of stones, minerals, and materials with interesting light-scattering properties, which he obtained from his world travels and as gifts. He often carried a small, handheld spectroscope to study specimens. These are on display at the Raman Research Institute, where he worked and taught.
In the past, several questions were raised about Raman not sharing the Prize with the Russian scientists G.S. Landsberg and L.I. Mandelstam, who had observed the same effect in the case of crystals. According to the Physics Nobel Committee: (1) The Russians did not come to an independent interpretation of their discovery as they cited Raman's article. (2) They observed the effect only in crystals, whereas Raman and K.S. Krishnan in solids, liquids and gases. With that, he proved the universal nature of the effect. (3) The uncertainties concerning the explanation of the intensity of Raman- and Infrared lines in the spectra could be explained during the last year. (4) The Raman method has been applied with great success in different fields of molecular physics. (5) The Raman effect has effectively helped to check the actual problems of the symmetry – properties of molecules thus the problems concerning the nuclear-spin in the atomic physics." The Nobel Committee proposed Raman's name to the Swedish National Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, for the Nobel Prize for the year 1930.
"At the end of the 1930s and the beginning of the 1940s, scientists observed diffuse spots in X-ray Laue photographs that were difficult to explain theoretically. Already at this stage, Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman suggested a theory of his own and criticised alternative solutions that were largely based on thermal theories proposed by Max Born and Peter Debye. This led to a conflict between Born and Raman. In this dispute, Born received support from the British crystallographer Kathleen Lonsdale. The dispute between Raman and Born involved scientific as well as social elements. Whereas Raman's support came mainly from his own experiments and from his colleagues in Bangalore, Born used his social and professional network to enlist scientists as allies for his cause. Although initially, in the early 1940s, Born's theory was not generally accepted even in England, he eventually succeeded in marginalising the rival theory of Raman. The controversy has often been dealt with by physicists and historians of science, who, however, have too often relied on Born's autobiographical work. As has been shown, parts of this work, especially as it relates to Born's Indian visit and his contact with Raman, need careful and critical reading. In particular, the issue of Raman's resignation from the directorship of the IISc had nothing to do with Born's stay in India, such as indicated in his autobiography." Up to some extent, this controversy led to the fact that Max Born had to wait for the Nobel Prize.
During a voyage to Europe in 1921, Raman noticed the blue colour of glaciers and the Mediterranean sea. He was motivated to discover the reason for the navy blue colour. Raman carried out experiments regarding the scattering of light by water and transparent blocks of ice which explained the phenomenon.
Raman employed monochromatic light from a mercury arc lamp which penetrated transparent material and was allowed to fall on a spectrograph to record its spectrum. He detected lines in the spectrum, which were later called Raman lines. He presented his theory at a meeting of scientists in Bangalore on 16 March 1928, and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In Munich, some physicists were initially unable to reproduce Raman's results, leading to scepticism. However, Peter Pringsheim was the first German to reproduce Raman's results successfully. He sent spectra to Arnold Sommerfeld. Pringsheim was the first to coin the term "Raman effect" and "Raman lines."
Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies.
At the end of October 1970, Raman collapsed in his laboratory; the valves of his heart had given way. He was moved to the hospital and the doctors gave him four days to live. He survived and after a few days he refused to stay in the hospital as he preferred to die in the gardens of his Institute surrounded by his followers.
Two days before Raman died, he told one of his former students, "Do not allow the journals of the Academy to die, for they are the sensitive indicators of the quality of science being done in the country and whether science is taking root in it or not." That same evening, Raman met with the Board of Management of his Institute and discussed (from his bed) with them any proceedings with regards to the Institute's management. Raman died from natural causes early next morning on 21 November 1970.
C. V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar (CVRCE) is an engineering and management institution in the Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India which was established in 1997 under C.V. Raman Group of Institutions. The institute is accredited by National Board of Accreditation (NBA). The college certifies to ISO 9001:2000.The institute is rated as "A" by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and is affiliated to Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT). It ranks amongst the top 5 engineering colleges in Odisha.C. V. Raman Pillai
Channankara Velayudhan Pillai Raman Pillai (19 May 1858 – 21 March 1922), also known as C. V., was one of the major Indian novelists and playwrights and a pioneering playwright and novelist of Malayalam literature. He was known for his historical novels such as Marthandavarma, Dharmaraja and Ramaraja Bahadur; the last mentioned considered by many as one of the greatest novels written in Malayalam.CV Raman Nagar
CV Raman Nagar is a neighbourhood located in the eastern part of the city of Bangalore. It is at a distance of 13 km from Majestic. It is bounded by Indiranagar, Kaggadasapura and Baiyappanahalli.
The locality is named after C. V. Raman, a scientist who lived in Bangalore. Bagmane Tech Park is located here.
On Thursday, 15 April 2010, a road located in the boundary of CV Raman Nagar, was named after India's former President, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. The road runs through D.R.D.O. township where the Chief Controller of D.R.D.O., Eloangovan, completed formalities of naming of the road, in the presence of various dignitaries from the defence organisation.Dr. C.V. Raman University
Dr. C. V. Raman University is a private university located in Kota, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. Established in 3 November 2006 by All India Society for Electronics & Computer Technology. It is named after the first Nobel Laureate of the country, C.V. Raman.Dr. C.V. Raman University, Bihar
Dr. C.V. Raman University, Bihar (CVRU) is a private university located at Bhagwanpur in Vaishali district, Bihar, India. The university was established in 2018 by the All India Society for Electronics & Computer Technology (AISECT) under the Bihar Private Universities Act, 2013, the fourth of six private private universities planned in Bihar, following the first two private universities, K. K. University and Sandip University, Sijoul and later Amity University, Patna. The university was approved by the Bihar Cabinet on 10 January 2018, notified in the gazette on 7 February 2018 and the university became active in the July 2018 session. The university offers various diploma, undergraduate and postgraduate courses in five faculties. It is named after the first Nobel Laureate of the country, C.V. Raman.Dr. C.V. Raman University, Khandwa
Dr. C.V. Raman University, Khandwa is a private university located at the village Balkhandsura, near the Khandwa-Indore road, in Khandwa district, Madhya Pradesh, India. The university was established in 2018 by the All India Society for Electronics & Computer Technology (AISECT) under the Madhya Pradesh Niji Vishwavidyalay (Sthapana Evam Sanchalan) Sanshodhan Adhiniyam, 2018, an Act which also established Shri Krishna University and Sardar Patel University Balaghat. The university offers various diploma, undergraduate and postgraduate courses in seven faculties. It is named after India physicist C. V. Raman.Indian Academy of Sciences
The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was founded by C. V. Raman, and was registered as a Society on 24 April 1934. Inaugurated on 31 July 1934, it began with 65 founding fellows. The first general meeting of Fellows, held on the same day, elected Raman as President, and adopted the constitution of the Academy.K. S. Krishnan
Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan, FRS, (4 December 1898 – 14 June 1961) was an Indian physicist. He was a co-discoverer of Raman scattering, for which his mentor C. V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics.List of educational institutions in Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli, often referred to as "Educational Hub", has many centuries-old educational institutions. Among those who graduated from its institutions are Nobel laureate C. V. Raman, former Presidents of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, R. Venkataraman, Sujatha, K. A. P. Viswanatham, and Vanitha Rangaraju.Malleswaram
Malleshwaram is a North-Western suburb of Bangalore city. It's one of the zones of BBMP. It was developed as a planned suburb after the great plague of 1898, which caused many people to move out of the city center. It derives its name from the Kaadu Malleshwara temple.HV Nanjundaiah, the first Vice-Chancellor of Mysore University is credited with building of the then suburb of Malleswaram.
The neighborhood of Malleswaram hosts people from all walks of life. The Nobel laureate C.V. Raman, scientist Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan, badminton world champion Prakash Padukone and his daughter Deepika Padukone, noted Carnatic musician Doraiswamy Iyengar and film stars Saroja Devi, Radhika Pandit and Jaggesh have all lived here. Malleswaram is home to some of Bangalore's heritage cafés such as Central Tiffin Room Bangalore and Veena Stores.Marthandavarma (novel)
Marthandavarma (Malayalam: മാർത്താണ്ഡവർമ്മ, Māṟttāṇḍavaṟmma [mɑːṟt̪t̪ɑːɳɖaʋaṟmma]) is a historical romance novel by C. V. Raman Pillai published in 1891. It recounts the history of Venad (Travancore) during the final period of Rajah Rama Varma’s reign and subsequently to the accession of Marthanda Varma. Set in Kollavarsham 901–906 (Gregorian calendar: 1727–1732), the story revolves around three protagonists, Ananthapadmanabhan, Subhadra and Mangoikkal Kuruppu, who try to protect the title character from Padmanabhan Thambi and Ettu Veetil Pillamar who plan to oust him from the throne of Travancore. The novel utilizes rich allusions to the Indian subcontinent and Western, historical, cultural and literary traditions.
The historical plot is aided with the love story of one of the lead pairs, Ananthapadmanabhan and Parukutty, the chivalric actions of the former, and the aspects of romanticism in the longing of Parukutty for her lover as well as in the unrequited love of Zulaikha. The yesteryear politics of Venad is presented thru the council of Ettuveettil Pillas, the subsequent claim of throne for Padmanabhan Thambi, the coup attempt, the patriotic conduct of Subhadra, and finally to her tragedy following the suppression of revolt. The intertwined representation of history and romance is attained thru classic style of narration, which includes vernacular languages for various characters, rhetorical embellishments, and the blend of dramatic and archaic style of language suitably to the bygone period.
This novel is the first historical novel published in Malayalam language and in south India. The first edition, self published by the author in 1891, received positive to mixed reviews, but book sales did not produce significant revenue. The revised edition, published in 1911, was an enormous success and became a bestseller. The story of Travancore is continued in the later novels, Dharmaraja (1913) and Ramarajabahadur (1918–1919). These three novels are together known as CV's Historical Narratives and C. V. Raman Pillai's Novel Trilogy in Malayalam literature.
The 1933 movie adaptation Marthanda Varma led to a legal dispute with the novel's publishers and became the first literary work in Malayalam to be the subject of a copyright infringement. The novel has been translated into English, Tamil, and Hindi, and has also been abridged and adapted in a number of formats, including theater, radio, television, and comic book. The Marthandavarma has been included in the curriculum for courses offered by universities in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, as well as the curriculum of the Kerala State Education Board.National Science Day
National Science Day is celebrated in India on 28 February each year to mark the discovery of the Raman effect by Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman on 28 February 1928.
For his discovery, Sir C.V. Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.R. S. Krishnan
Rappal Sangameswaran Krishnan (23 September 1911 – 2 October 1999) was an Indian experimental physicist and scientist. He was the Head of the department of Physics at the Indian Institute of Science and the vice chancellor of the University of Kerala. He is known for his pioneering researches on colloid optics and a discovery which is now known as Krishnan Effect. He was a Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy and the Institute of Physics, London and a recipient of the C. V. Raman Prize.Raman scattering
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher energy levels. The effect was discovered in 1928 by C. V. Raman and his student K. S. Krishnan in liquids, and independently by Grigory Landsberg and Leonid Mandelstam in crystals.
The effect had been predicted theoretically by Adolf Smekal in 1923.When photons are scattered by a material, most of them are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have the same energy (frequency and wavelength) as the incident photons but different direction. However, a small fraction of the scattered photons (approximately 1 in 10 million) are scattered inelastically, with the scattered photons having an energy different from, and usually lower than, those of the incident photons—these are Raman scattered photons. Because of conservation of energy, the material either gains or loses energy in the process. Typically this is vibrational energy and the incident photons are of visible light, although rotational energy (if gas samples are used) and electronic energy levels (if an X-ray source is used) may also be probed. The Raman effect forms the basis for Raman spectroscopy which is used by chemists and physicists to gain information about materials.S. Ramaseshan
Sivaraj Ramseshan (10 October 1923 – 29 December 2003) was an Indian scientist known for his work in the field of crystallography. Ramaseshan served as director of the Indian Institute of Science and was awarded the Padma Bhushan. Ramaseshan is the nephew of Indian scientist and Nobel laureate Sir C. V. Raman and cousin of Subramanyan Chandrasekhar.Varthur
Varthur is a suburb situated in the Eastern periphery of Bangalore City and part of the internationally famous Whitefield township. Varthur is a Hobli and part of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Varthur was a Legislative Assembly in the state of Karnataka but was split into three legislative assemblies C.V.Raman Nagar, Mahadevapura and Krishnarajapura in the year 2008. It is also one of the wards of BBMP. It is located in South-Eastern Bangalore between old Airport road and Sarjapur road. Varthur is very close to ITPB.
There are many IT companies in Varthur Hobli. The head office of one of the largest IT companies, Wipro Technologies is situated at Doddakannelli, Varthur Hobli. Some other companies such as Cisco Systems, ARM, and Aricent Group, are situated in Varthur Hobli
At Varthur, people celebrate Brahmarathotsava of Sri Chennaraya Swamy, which happens on the day of Ratha Saptami. It is one of the famous events that happen in this area. Two days later is Karaga of Sri Draupathamma (Draupadi) at Sri Dharmaraya Swamy (Yudhishthira) temple, which happens at night and is visited by thousands of people from Varthur, Gunjur, Madhuranagara, Whitefield, Ramagondannahalli, Balagere, Sorahunase, Immadihalli, Harohalli, Muthsandra, Kotur.Watrap
Watrap or "வத்திராயிருப்பு" is a Taluk located in Virudhunagar District, Tamil Nadu, India.
The traditional name of Watrap, prior to British Colonization, was vatratha iruppu, which translates to "surplus water". there had never been any caste fights.it boasted a peaceful village. There is a Perumal temple in the centre of the village and a Shiva and Hanuman temple at the periphery of the village.
The holy uphill shrine "Sundara Mahalingam(lord shiva) temple" (also known as Thaani Paarai and Sathuragiri Malai) is located here. Aadi amavasai (No Moon Day in the month of Aadi) is when devotees from all over Tamil Nadu throng here.
Agriculture is the primary livelihood. The main work is cultivation of paddies, coconut and cotton, with paddy cultivation being the most important. There are three government-aided schools and two private schools in the town. There are also branches of State Bank of India, Union Bank of India, Virudhunagar District Cooperative Bank and Rural Cooperative Bank.
The physicist Dr. K. S. Krishnan was born in the village; he was the assistant to [[C. V. Raman|Sir C. V. Raman']
Famour Personality (Mr.M.Ahilan s/o M.Muthusamy].
Bharat Ratna laureates