C. Farris Bryant

Cecil Farris Bryant (July 26, 1914 – March 1, 2002) was the 34th Governor of Florida. He also served on the United States National Security Council and in the Office of Emergency Planning during the administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson.

C. Farris Bryant
C. Farris Bryant
Director of the Office of Emergency Planning
In office
March 23, 1966 – October 9, 1967
PresidentLyndon B. Johnson
Preceded byBuford Ellington
Succeeded byPrice Daniel
34th Governor of Florida
In office
January 3, 1961 – January 5, 1965
Preceded byLeRoy Collins
Succeeded byW. Haydon Burns
Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives
In office
1953–1954
Preceded byB. Elliott
Succeeded byThomas E. David
Personal details
Born
Cecil Farris Bryant

July 26, 1914
Marion County, Florida, U.S.
DiedMarch 1, 2002 (aged 87)
Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Julia Burnett
EducationEmory University
University of Florida (BA)
Harvard University (LLB)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Navy
Years of service1942–1945
Battles/warsWorld War II

Background

Born in Marion County, Florida, Bryant graduated from Ocala High School before attending Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, from 1931 to 1932. He completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1935 with a business degree. There he was a member of Florida Blue Key, the Alpha Tau Omega social fraternity, and the Alpha Kappa Psi business fraternity.[1][2] Bryant continued his education at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he earned a law degree in 1938. After completing his education, he went to work in the office of the state Comptroller, where he met his future wife, Julia Burnett. He proposed on their first date; she accepted on their third. They were married for 56 years.[3]

CFarrisBryant2
C. Farris Bryant being sworn in as governor of Florida

Political life

In 1942, Bryant ran for the Florida House of Representatives and won. He resigned the seat to join the armed services during World War II, in which he served in the United States Navy as a gunnery and antisubmarine officer in the North Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific. In 1946, he was again elected to his seat, and he served five consecutive terms until 1956. He was Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives in 1953. His uncle, Ion Farris, was also a former state House Speaker.

In 1960, Bryant was elected governor and took the oath of office on January 3, 1961. Like most Florida politicians at the time, he was a segregationist (though his predecessor, Governor T. LeRoy Collins, was not).[4][5] When running for governor in 1956 Bryant told a crowd: "I'm for segregation.... In the homes of Negroes we find different intellectual levels and moral and sanitary standards."[6]:176 White opposition to the first Civil Rights protests in Florida (in Tallahassee) helped him win the election in 1960.[7]

Bryant's administration continued Collins's focus on education. He helped fund 28 junior colleges and additional state universities. He worked to get interstate and state highways built in Florida and to purchase public lands for future use by the state, saying that it was important to do it "before the need arose – or before it became critical." Bryant was also a major proponent of the Cross Florida Barge Canal. Like his predecessor and successor, he opposed the death penalty, but some executions (including the last pre-Furman) took place during his administration, as the Florida governor had very limited power to commute sentences.[8] Bryant left office on January 5, 1965.

After his term as governor, Bryant headed to Washington, D.C., to serve on the National Security Council and in the White House Office of Emergency Planning. In 1970, back in Florida, he ran for the U.S. Senate seat vacated by the retiring Democrat Spessard L. Holland, but was defeated in the Democratic runoff election by the more liberal and lesser-known state senator Lawton Chiles of Lakeland. Chiles went on to win the seat over the Republican nominee, U.S. Representative William C. Cramer of St. Petersburg. During the campaign, in which President Nixon came to Cramer's assistance, Chiles quipped that Cramer had expected to face Bryant: "I'm not anything Cramer thought he would be running against. So he's reduced to telling lies about me."[9] Chiles served in the Senate from 1971 to 1989 and as governor from 1991 to 1998.

Upon his defeat, Bryant returned to the practice of law in Jacksonville, where he lived until his death in 2002. In 1972, he joined John B. Connally, Jr., the former governor of Texas, in the "Democrats for Nixon" organization and helped secure Florida for the Republican presidential ticket that year. Never a diehard segregationist, he eventually renounced his earlier positions and came out in support of civil rights. Bryant had become a multimillionaire due to his lucrative law practice and an insurance company he founded.[10] His wife, Julia, died of cancer in 1996. Bryant was devastated by her death, saying that "to lose her was hell", and he died six years later.[11] They are interred together in the Woodlawn Cemetery.[12]

In 2000, Bryant created the Farris and Julia Bryant Florida History Preservation Fund Endowment for the University of Florida Libraries to preserve Florida history and culture.[13] Collections digitally and physically preserved include the Papers of C. Farris Bryant[14] and the Florida History and Heritage Collections".[15]

The Age of the Mind[16] is a 2013 documentary film about Bryant’s policies and their lasting impact on Florida. Focusing on his years as governor, the documentary highlights many contentious episodes during his administration, including the St. Augustine Civil Rights protests, the construction of the Florida Turnpike and Florida Barge Canal, and the Cuban refugee crisis that resulted from the failed Bay of Pigs invasion.

References

  1. ^ The Seminole Yearbook. Gainesville, Florida: University of Florida. 1935. p. 57.
  2. ^ Alpha Phi chapter roll
  3. ^ "Segregated Florida". tribunedigital-orlandosentinel. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  4. ^ "Floridian of His Century: The Courage of Governor LeRoy Collins". Collinscenter.org. 2011-06-24. Archived from the original on 2012-04-22. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  5. ^ "Ex-Gov. LeRoy Collins Dies at 82; Floridian Led Way in New South". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
  6. ^ Vickers, Lu; Wilson-Graham, Cynthia (2015). Remembering Paradise Park : tourism and segregation at Silver Springs. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813061520.
  7. ^ "Tallahassee, Florida students sit-in for U.S. Civil Rights, 1960", Global Nonviolent Action Database, Swarthmore College, http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/tallahassee-florida-students-sit-us-civil-rights-1960, retrieved 6/4/2015.
  8. ^ Michael Mello, Deathwork: Defending the Condemned, University of Minnesota Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8166-4088-2, ISBN 978-0-8166-4088-1
  9. ^ Billy Hathorn, "Cramer v. Kirk: The Florida Republican Schism of 1970", Florida Historical Quarterly (April 1990), p. 419
  10. ^ ROSELLINI (cl). University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295802862.
  11. ^ "Segregated Florida". tribunedigital-orlandosentinel. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  12. ^ "Segregated Florida". tribunedigital-orlandosentinel. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  13. ^ "Farris and Julia Bryant Florida History Preservation Fund Endowment Will Preserve Florida History And Culture". University of Florida News. News.ufl.edu. 2000-12-04. Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  14. ^ http://ufdc.ufl.edu/cfbry
  15. ^ http://ufdc.ufl.edu/fhpc
  16. ^ Simon, Adair, R. Kay Butler, and John E. Evans. 2014. The Age of the Mind: How Gov. Farris Bryant Shaped Florida's Future. Jacksonville, FL: Florida Historic Records Preservation, Inc.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
LeRoy Collins
Democratic nominee for Governor of Florida
1960
Succeeded by
W. Haydon Burns
Political offices
Preceded by
LeRoy Collins
Governor of Florida
1961–1965
Succeeded by
W. Haydon Burns
Preceded by
Buford Ellington
Director of the Office of Emergency Planning
1966–1967
Succeeded by
Price Daniel
1956 Florida gubernatorial election

The 1956 Florida gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1956. Incumbent Democrat LeRoy Collins defeated Republican nominee William A. Washburne Jr. with 73.69% of the vote.

1960 Florida gubernatorial election

The 1960 Florida gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1960. Democratic nominee C. Farris Bryant defeated Republican nominee George C. Petersen with 59.85% of the vote.

1960 United States gubernatorial elections

United States gubernatorial elections were held on 8 November 1960, in 27 states concurrent with the House, Senate elections and presidential election.

In Minnesota, this was the last election on a two-year cycle, before switching to a four-year term for governors.

1962 in the United States

Events from the year 1962 in the United States.

1963 in the United States

Events from the year 1963 in the United States.

1964 United States gubernatorial elections

United States gubernatorial elections were held November 3, 1964, concurrently with the presidential election. Elections were held in 25 states and 1 territory. This was the last gubernatorial elections for Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Nebraska to take place in a presidential election year. Florida switched its governor election years to midterm years, while the other three expanded their terms from two to four years, this election also coincided with the Senate and the House elections.

1970 United States Senate election in Florida

The 1970 United States Senate election in Florida was held on November 3, 1970. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Spessard Holland decided to retire instead of seeking a fifth term. During the Democratic primary, former Governor C. Farris Bryant and State Senator Lawton Chiles advanced to a run-off, having received more votes than Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives Frederick H. Schultz, attorney Alcee Hastings, and State Representative Joel T. Daves, III. Chiles soundly defeated Bryant in the run-off election, scoring a major upset due to his comparatively small name recognition prior to the election. To acquire name recognition and media coverage, Chiles walked about 1,003 miles (1,614 km) across the state of Florida and was given the nickname "Walkin' Lawton".

The Republican primary exposed an in-party feud between Governor Claude R. Kirk Jr. and U.S. Representative William C. Cramer. In the election, Cramer handily defeated G. Harrold Carswell and body shop owner George Balmer; the former was a Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals judge favored by Kirk and had been rejected as a Supreme Court of the United States nominee a few months prior to the primary. Chiles won the election by a relatively small margin of 7.8%, receiving 902,438 votes against Cramer's 772,817 votes.

Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 34

Cape Canaveral (known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973) Air Force Station Launch Complex 34 (LC-34) is a launch site on Cape Canaveral, Florida. LC-34 and its companion LC-37 to the north were used by NASA from 1961 through 1968 to launch Saturn I and IB rockets as part of the Apollo program. It was the site of the Apollo 1 fire, which claimed the lives of astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee on January 27, 1967.

Doyle E. Carlton

Doyle Elam Carlton, Sr. (July 6, 1885 – October 25, 1972) was an American politician who served as the 25th Governor of the state of Florida.

Florida Democratic Party

The Florida Democratic Party (FDP) is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of Florida, headquartered in Tallahassee.

Florida Digital Newspaper Library

The Florida Digital Newspaper Library provides access to the news and history of Florida through local Florida newspapers. The Florida Digital Newspaper Library is supported by the University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and hosted in the University of Florida Digital Collections funded partially by grants and sources, including Florida's Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) Grants Program, the National Endowment for the Humanities' National Digital Newspaper Program, the Institute for Museum and Library Services, the University of Florida, by Florida Heritage Project funds from the University of North Florida and the [University of South Florida], and with the assistance of digital library endowment from the Estate of the late Governor and Mrs. C. Farris Bryant (whose papers are within the Bryant Collection).

In addition to multiple funding sources, these newspapers are indexed and included in multiple collections, including Chronicling America, and being indexed by the Florida Electronic Library and Google News Archive.

Forest High School (Florida)

Forest High School is a school in Ocala, Florida, United States. It has an EMIT (engineering) program. The school's colors are green and gold and the school mascot is the Wildcat. As of 2014, it had an enrollment of some 2,058.

Forest High School moved to its current location on Maricamp Road, southeast of the city limits of Ocala, in 2005. The school was originally on Fort King Street in Ocala, at the 1959 campus of Ocala High School. Ocala High was renamed Forest High in 1969 with the opening of Vanguard High School. According to tradition, the Marion County School Board wanted the city's second high school to start on equal footing with the first by putting to rest the name Ocala High School.

Forest High School belongs to the Marion County School District.

Lawton Chiles

Lawton Mainor Chiles Jr. (April 3, 1930 – December 12, 1998) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Florida. He served as a United States Senator from 1971 to 1989 and as the 41st Governor of Florida from 1991 to 1998.

A Korean War veteran, Chiles later returned to Florida for law school and eventually opened his own private practice in 1955. Three years later, Chiles entered politics with a successful bid for the Florida House of Representatives in 1958, as a member of the Democratic Party.

By 1966, Chiles left the Florida House to run for the Florida Senate. Despite 12 years in the Florida Legislature, Chiles was relatively unknown when he decided to bid for United States Senate in 1970. He embarked on a 1,003-mile walk from Pensacola to Key West for his campaign, earning him the nickname "Walkin' Lawton". It was successful and Chiles defeated his opponent William C. Cramer by a 53.9%-46.1% margin. Chiles retired from the United States Senate and from politics entirely in 1989.

However, supporters convinced him to run for Governor of Florida in 1990 against the unpopular incumbent Bob Martinez, and Chiles defeated Martinez by a 13-point margin (56.5% to 43.5%). During his first term as Governor of Florida, Lawton Chiles brought reform to health care in the state and oversaw recovery efforts from Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Chiles faced a tough re-election bid in 1994 against Jeb Bush, who was a businessman and son of former President of the United States George H. W. Bush. Chiles prevailed over Bush by fewer than 64,000 votes. In his second term, Chiles was known for his reforms to education in Florida. On December 12, 1998, he suffered a heart attack and died at the Florida Governor's Mansion, leaving Lieutenant Governor Buddy MacKay to serve the remaining 23 days of Chiles' unexpired term.

LeRoy Collins

Thomas LeRoy Collins (March 10, 1909 – March 12, 1991) was an American attorney and politician, the 33rd Governor of Florida, serving a special term in 1955, and being elected to a four-year term in 1956, serving through 1961. He was previously elected to several terms in the Florida House of Representatives and Senate. He was the first governor of the South to promote the moral necessity of ending segregation. Counseling "progress under law", he took a moderate course during the civil rights movement and is remembered as a voice for civil rights.

List of Alpha Kappa Psi members

This is a list of notable members of Alpha Kappa Psi Fraternity.

List of Governors of Florida

The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of Florida's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.When Florida was first acquired by the United States, future President Andrew Jackson served as its military governor. Florida Territory was established in 1822, and five people served as governor over six distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any Florida governor to date.

Since statehood in 1845, there have been 45 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Four state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints; and Reubin Askew, Jeb Bush, and Rick Scott who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor, Bob Graham.

The current governor is Ron DeSantis, a member of the Republican Party who took office on January 8, 2019.

List of Speakers of the Florida House of Representatives

The Speaker is the presiding member of the Florida House of Representatives.

The Age of the Mind

The Age of the Mind: How Governor Farris Bryant Shaped Florida’s Future is a 2013 documentary consisting of interview and archival footage relating to the life and politics of C. Farris Bryant, Governor of Florida from 1961 to 1965. The film traces the many political and social challenges faced by Floridians in the early 1960s. The film also discusses the lasting impact of many of Bryant’s policies.

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