C-4 (explosive)

C-4 or Composition C-4 is a common variety of the plastic explosive family known as Composition C. A similar British plastic explosive, based on RDX but with different plasticizer than Composition C-4, is known as PE-4 (Plastic Explosive No. 4). C-4 is composed of explosives, plastic binder, plasticizer to make it malleable, and usually a marker or odorizing taggant chemical.

C-4 has a texture similar to modelling clay and can be molded into any desired shape. C-4 is metastable and can be exploded only by the shock wave from a detonator or blasting cap.

C-4
Eod2
Inserting blasting caps into blocks of C-4 explosive
TypeHigh-yield chemical explosive
Place of originUnited Kingdom
Service history
Used byUnited States
WarsVietnam War
War on Terror
Production history
Designed1956
Produced1956–current
VariantsPE-4, M112
Specifications (M112)
Mass1.25 lb (0.57 kg)
Length11 in (28 cm)
Width2 in (5.1 cm)
Height1.5 in (3.8 cm)

FillingRDX
Filling weight91%
Detonation
mechanism
PETN-based detonating cord
Blast yieldHigh

Characteristics and uses

Composition

The Composition C-4 used by the United States Armed Forces contains 91% RDX ("Research Department Explosive", an explosive nitroamine), 5.3% dioctyl sebacate (DOS) or dioctyl adipate (DOA) as the plasticizer (to increase the plasticity of the explosive), 2.1% polyisobutylene (PIB, a synthetic rubber) as the binder, and 1.6% of a mineral oil often called "process oil." Instead of "process oil," low-viscosity motor oil is used in the manufacture of C-4 for civilian use.[2]

The British PE4 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% pentaerythrite dioleate and 11.0% DG-29 lithium grease (corresp. to 2.2% lithium stearate and 8.8% paraffin oil BP); a taggant (2,3-dinitro-2,3-dimethylbutane, DMNB) is added at a minimum of 0.10% weight of the plastic explosive, typically at 1.0% mass. The newer PE7 consists of 88.0% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 11.0% of a plasticizer composed of low molecular mass hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, along with an antioxidant and an agent preventing hardening of the binder upon prolonged storage. The PE8 consists of 86.5% cyclonite, 1.0% DMNB taggant and 12.5% of a binder composed of di(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate thickened with high molecular mass polyisobutylene.

Technical data according to the Department of the Army for the Composition C-4 follows.[3]

Theoretical maximum density of the mixture, grams per cubic centimeter 1.75
Nominal density, grams per cubic centimeter 1.72658
Heat of formation, calories per gram −32.9 to −33.33
Max heat of detonation with liquid water, kilocalories per gram 1.59 (6.7 MJ/kg)
Max heat of detonation with gaseous water, kilocalories per gram 1.40 (5.9 MJ/kg)
Remains plastic with no exudation, Celsius −57 to +77
Detonation pressure with density of 1.58 grams per cubic centimeter, kilobars 257

Manufacture

C-4 is manufactured by combining the above ingredients with binder dissolved in a solvent. Once the ingredients have been mixed, the solvent is extracted through drying and filtering. The final material is a solid with a dirty white to light brown color, a putty-like texture similar to modeling clay, and a distinct smell of motor oil.[3][4][5]

Depending on its intended usage and on the manufacturer, there are differences in the composition of C-4. For example, a 1990 U.S. Army technical manual stipulated that Class IV composition C-4 consists of 89.9±1% RDX, 10±1% polyisobutylene, and 0.2±0.02% dye that is itself made up of 90% lead chromate and 10% lamp black.[3] RDX classes A, B, E, and H are all suitable for use in C-4. Classes are measured by granulation.[6]

The manufacturing process for Composition C-4 specifies that wet RDX and plastic binder are added in a stainless steel mixing kettle. This is called the aqueous slurry-coating process.[7] The kettle is tumbled to obtain a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is wet and must be dried after transfer to drying trays. Drying with forced air for 16 hours at 50 °C to 60 °C is recommended to eliminate excess moisture.[3]:198

Detonation

C4 explosion
A detonation within a blast-resistant trash receptacle using a large C-4 explosive charge.

C-4 is very stable and insensitive to most physical shocks. C-4 cannot be detonated by a gunshot or by dropping it onto a hard surface. It does not explode when set on fire or exposed to microwave radiation.[8] Detonation can only be initiated by a shockwave, such as when a detonator inserted into it is fired.[4] When detonated, C-4 rapidly decomposes to release nitrogen, water and carbon oxides as well as other gases.[4] The detonation proceeds at an explosive velocity of 8,092 m/s (26,550 ft/s).[9]

A major advantage of C-4 is that it can easily be molded into any desired shape to change the direction of the resulting explosion.[4][10]

C4 has high cutting ability. For example, the complete severing of a 14WF426 beam (heavy wide flange beam/column with cross sectional area of 808 sq cm, used in major buildings) takes between 5.3 and 6 kg of C4 when properly applied in thin sheets.[11]

Form

US Navy 111213-N-BA263-596 Composition C-4 demolition charges await use as explosive ordnance disposal technicians assigned to Commander, Task Grou
C-4 packaged as standard size M112 demolition charges. Sometimes 16 blocks of M112 are used to create a M183 demolition charge assembly.

Military grade C-4 is commonly packaged as the M112 demolition block. The demolition charge M112 is a rectangular block of Composition C-4 approximately 2 inches by 1.5 inches and 11 inches long, weighing 1.25 lb (0.57 kg).[12][13] The M112 is wrapped in a sometimes olive color Mylar-film container with a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape on one surface.[14][15]

The M112 demolition blocks of C-4 are commonly manufactured into the M183 "demolition charge assembly",[13] which consists of 16 M112 block demolition charges and four priming assemblies packaged inside military Carrying Case M85. The M183 is used to breach obstacles or demolish large structures where larger satchel charges are required. Each priming assembly includes a five- or twenty-foot length of detonating cord assembled with detonating cord clips and capped at each end with a booster. When the charge is detonated, the explosive is converted into compressed gas. The gas exerts pressure in the form of a shock wave, which demolishes the target by cutting, breaching, or cratering.[12]

Other forms include the mine-clearing line charge (MICLIC) and M18A1 Claymore Mine.[7]

Safety

Composition C-4 exists in the US Army Hazardous Components Safety Data Sheet on sheet number 00077.[16]:323

Impact tests done by the US military indicate composition C-4 is less sensitive than composition C-3 and is fairly insensitive. The insensitivity is attributed to using a large amount of binder in its composition. A series of shots were fired at vials containing C-4 in a test referred to as "the rifle bullet test". Only 20 percent of the vials burned, and none exploded. While C-4 passed the Army's bullet impact and fragment impact tests at ambient temperature, it did in fact fail the shock stimulus, sympathetic detonation and shaped charge jet tests.[7]

Additional tests were done including the "pendulum friction test", which measured a five-second explosion temperature of 263 °C to 290 °C. The minimum initiating charge required is 0.2 grams of lead azide or 0.1 grams of tetryl.

The results of 100 °C heat test are: 0.13 percent loss in the first 48 hours, no loss in the second 48 hours, and no explosions in 100 hours. The vacuum stability test at 100 °C yields 0.2 cubic centimeters of gas in 40 hours. Composition C-4 is essentially nonhygroscopic.[3]

The shock sensitivity of C-4 is related to the size of the nitramine particles. The finer they are the better they help to absorb and suppress shock. Using 3-nitrotriazol-5-one (NTO), or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) (available in two particle sizes (5 µm, 40 µm)), as a substitute for RDX, is also able to improve stability to thermal, shock, and impact/friction stimulus; however, TATB is not cost-effective, and NTO is more difficult to use in the manufacturing process.[7]

Sensitivity test values
reported by the US Army follow.[16]:311, 314
Impact test with 2 kilogram weight / PA APP (% TNT) >100
Impact test with 2 kilogram weight / BM APP (% TNT) N/A
Pendulum friction test, percent explosions 0
Rifle bullet test, percent explosions 20
Explosion temperature test, Celsius 263 to 290
Minimum detonating charge, gram of lead azide 0.2
Brisance measured by Sand test (% TNT) 116
Brisance measured by plate dent test 115 to 130
Rate of detonation at density 1.59
Rate of detonation meters per second 8000
Ballistic pendulum test percent 130

Source variation

C-4 produced for use by the U.S. military, commercial C-4 (also produced in the United States), and C-4 (otherwise known as PE-4) from England each have their own unique properties and are not identical. The analytical techniques of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been demonstrated to discriminate finite differences in different C-4 sources. Chemical, morphological structural differences, and variation in atomic concentrations are detectable and definable.[17]

Analysis

Toxicity

C-4 has toxic effects on humans when ingested. Within a few hours multiple generalized seizures, vomiting, and changes in mental activity occur.[18] A strong link to central nervous dysfunction is observed.[19] If ingested, patients may be administered a dose of active charcoal to absorb some of the toxins, and haloperidol intramuscularly and diazepam intravenously to help the patient control seizures until it has passed. However, ingesting small amounts of C-4 is not known to cause any long-term impairment.[20]

Investigation

Defense.gov photo essay 070901-F-3050V-503
Wrapping on packaged C-4 indicate that it has been tagged for easier detection. Even if no taggant is used, sophisticated forensic means can still be employed to identify the presence of C-4.

If C-4 is marked with a taggant, such as DMNB, it can be detected with an explosive vapor detector before it has been detonated.[21]

A variety of methods for explosive residue analysis may be used to identify C-4. These include optical microscope examination and scanning electron microscopy for unreacted explosive, chemical spot tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy for products of the explosive chemical reaction. Small particles of C-4 may be easily identified by mixing with thymol crystals and a few drops of sulfuric acid. The mixture will become rose colored upon addition of a small quantity of ethyl alcohol.[22]

RDX has a high birefringence, and the other components commonly found in C-4 are generally isotropic; this makes it possible for forensic science teams to detect trace residue on fingertips of individuals who may have recently been in contact with the compound. However, positive results are highly variable and the mass of RDX can range between 1.7 and 130 ng, each analysis must be individually handled using magnifying equipment. The cross polarized light images obtained from microscopic analysis of the fingerprint are analyzed with gray-scale thresholding[23] to improve contrast for the particles. The contrast is then inverted in order to show dark RDX particles against a light background. Relative numbers and positions of RDX particles have been measured from a series of 50 fingerprints left after a single contact impression.[24]

Military and commercial C-4 are blended with different oils. It is possible to distinguish these sources by analyzing this oil by high-temperature gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The oil and plasticizer must be separated from the C-4 sample, typically by using a non-polar organic solvent such as pentane followed by solid phase extraction of the plasticizer on silica. This method of analysis is limited by manufacturing variation and methods of distribution.[2]

History

Development

C-4 is a member of the Composition C family of chemical explosives. Variants have different proportions and plasticisers and include composition C-2, composition C-3, and composition C-4.[25] The original RDX based material was developed by the British during World War II, and redeveloped as Composition C when introduced to US military service. It was replaced by Composition C-2 around 1943, and later redeveloped around 1944 as Composition C-3. The toxicity of C-3 was reduced, the concentration of RDX was increased, it improved safety of usage and storage. Research on a replacement for C-3 was begun prior to 1950, but the new material, C-4, did not begin pilot production until 1956.[16]:125 C-4, was submitted for patent as "Solid Propellant and a Process for its Preparation" March 31, 1958 by the Phillips Petroleum Company.[26]

Vietnam War

U.S. soldiers during the Vietnam War era would sometimes use small amounts of C-4 as a fuel for heating rations as it will burn unless detonated with a primary explosive.[4] However, burning C-4 produces poisonous fumes, and soldiers are warned of the dangers of personal injury when using the plastic explosive.[27]

Amongst field troops in Vietnam it became common knowledge that ingestion of a small amount of C-4 would produce a "high" similar to that of ethanol.[20] Others would ingest C-4, commonly obtained from a Claymore mine, to induce temporary illness in the hope of being sent on sick leave.[28]

Use in terrorism

Terrorist groups have used C-4 worldwide in acts of terrorism and insurgency, as well as domestic terrorism and state terrorism.

Composition C-4 is recommended in al-Qaeda’s traditional curriculum of explosives training.[5] In October 2000, the group used C-4 to attack the USS Cole, killing 17 sailors.[29] In 1996, Saudi Hezbollah terrorists used C-4 to blow up the Khobar Towers, a U.S. military housing complex in Saudi Arabia.[30] Composition C-4 has also been used in improvised explosive devices by Iraqi insurgents.[5]

Homemade C-4 is a popular subject amongst domestic anarchist terrorists in the United States[31] and is the subject of a chapter in the original The Anarchist Cookbook which details how to separate RDX from Composition-4.[32]

In 1987, North Korean agents are said to have used C-4 as part of their operation to bomb Korean Air Flight 858.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ Composition C-4 (PDF). Paul Lezica. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  2. ^ a b Reardon, Michelle R.; Bender, Edward C. (2005). "Differentiation of Composition C4 Based on the Analysis of the Process Oil". Journal of Forensic Sciences. Ammendale, MD: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Forensic Science Laboratory. 50 (3): 1–7. doi:10.1520/JFS2004307. ISSN 0022-1198.
  3. ^ a b c d e Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF).
  4. ^ a b c d e Harris, Tom. "How C-4 Works". How Stuff Works. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  5. ^ a b c "Introduction to Explosives" (PDF). C4: Characteristics, Properties, and Overview. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  6. ^ Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF), pp. 8–37–38 (124–125).
  7. ^ a b c d Owens, Jim. "Recent Developments in Composition C-4: Towards an Alternate Binder and Reduced Sensitivity" (PDF). Holston Army Ammunition Plant: BAE Systems OSI.
  8. ^ Nagy, Brian. "Grosse Point Blank Microwave C4 Mercury Switch". Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  9. ^ "C4 product page". Ribbands Explosives.
  10. ^ Nordin, John. "Explosives and Terrorists". The First Responder. AristaTek. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. ^ https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/479244.pdf
  12. ^ a b Pike, J. "Explosives – Compositions". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  13. ^ a b Use of Mine, Antitank: HE, Heavy, M15 as a Substitute for Charge Assembly Demolition, M37 Or M183. Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1971.
  14. ^ "M112" (PDF). American Ordnance. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Military Explosives". ATF Law Enforcement Guide to Explosives Incident Reporting (PDF). Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  16. ^ a b c Headquarters, U.S. Department of the Army (25 Sep 1990), Department of the Army Technical Manual – Military Explosives (PDF), pp. A-13 (323).
  17. ^ Mahoney, Christine M.; Fahey, Albert J.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Benner, Bruce A.; Lareau, Richard T. (2010). "Characterization of Composition C4 Explosives using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy". Analytical Chemistry. 82 (17): 7237–7248. doi:10.1021/ac101116r. PMID 20698494.
  18. ^ Stone, William J.; Paletta, Theodore L.; Heiman, Elliott M.; Bruce, John I.; Knepshield, James H. (December 1969). "Toxic Effects Following Ingestion of C4 Plastic Explosive". Arch Intern Med. 124 (6): 726–730. doi:10.1001/archinte.1969.00300220078015.
  19. ^ Woody, Robert C.; Kearns, Gregory L.; Brewster, Marge A.; Turley, Charles P.; Sharp, Gregory B.; Lake, Robert S. (1986). "The Neurotoxicity of Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) in a Child: A Clinical and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation". Clinical Toxicology. 24 (4): 305–319. doi:10.3109/15563658608992595.
  20. ^ a b K Fichtner, MD (May 2002). "A plastic explosive by mouth". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. U.S. Army Hospital, Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo. 95 (5): 251–252. doi:10.1258/jrsm.95.5.251. PMC 1279680. PMID 11983768. C4 contains 90% cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)
  21. ^ Committee on Marking, Rendering Inert, and Licensing of Explosive Materials; National Research Council; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications (27 May 1998). Containing the Threat from Illegal Bombings:: An Integrated National Strategy for Marking, Tagging, Rendering Inert, and Licensing Explosives and Their Precursors. National Academies Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-309-06126-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Allman, Jr., Robert. "Explosives". chemstone.net. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  23. ^ Brown, Lew. "Thresholding in Imaging Particle Analysis (A four part series)" (PDF). www.particleimaging.com. ParticleImaging.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  24. ^ Verkouteren, Jennifer R.; Coleman, Jessica L.; Cho, Inho (2010). "Automated Mapping of Explosives Particles in Composition C-4 Fingerprints" (PDF). Journal of Forensic Sciences. 55 (2): 334–340. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01272.x.
  25. ^ Rudolf Meyer; Josef Köhler; Axel Homburg (September 2007). Explosives. Wiley-VCH. p. 63. ISBN 978-3-527-31656-4.
  26. ^ D, G.E. "US Patent 3,018,203". Google Patents. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  27. ^ "Chapter 1: Military Explosives". FM 3–34.214 (FM 5–250) Explosives and Demolitions (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army. 27 August 2008. p. 6. Composition C4 explosive is poisonous and dangerous if chewed or ingested; its detonation or burning produces poisonous fumes.
  28. ^ Herr, Michael (1977). Dispatches. Knopf. ISBN 9780679735250.
  29. ^ Whitaker, Brian (21 August 2003). "Bomb type and tactics point to al-Qaida". The Guardian. London: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
  30. ^ Ashcroft, John (21 June 2001). "Attorney General, on Khobar Towers Indictment" (Press release).
  31. ^ "4 anarchists sentenced in Cleveland bridge bomb plot". December 6, 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  32. ^ Bergman, William Powell. With a prefatory note on anarchism today by P. M. (2002). "137 Reclamation of RDX from C-4 Explosives". The Anarchist Cookbook. El Dorado, Ariz.: Ozark Press. ISBN 0-9623032-0-8.
  33. ^ McBeth, John (March 12, 2014). "Asia's long history of carnage in the air". Asia Times Online. Retrieved July 20, 2014.

External links

2016 shooting of Dallas police officers

On July 7, 2016, Micah Xavier Johnson ambushed and fired upon a group of police officers in Dallas, Texas, killing five officers and injuring nine others. Two civilians were also wounded. Johnson was an Army Reserve Afghan War veteran who was reportedly angry over police shootings of black men and stated that he wanted to kill white people, especially white police officers. The shooting happened at the end of a protest against the police killings of Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Philando Castile in Falcon Heights, Minnesota, which had occurred in the preceding days.

Following the shooting, Johnson fled inside a building on the campus of El Centro College. Police followed him there, and a standoff ensued. In the early hours of July 8, police killed Johnson with a bomb attached to a remote control bomb disposal robot. It was the first time U.S. law enforcement used a robot to kill a suspect.

The shooting was the deadliest incident for U.S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks, surpassing two related March 2009 shootings in Oakland, California, and a November 2009 ambush shooting in Lakewood, Washington, and a 2009 shooting of Pittsburgh police officers.

Above the Law (1988 film)

Above the Law, also known as Nico: Above the Law, or simply Nico, is a 1988 American action film written, produced and directed by Andrew Davis, and also produced by and starring Steven Seagal in his film debut. The film co-stars Pam Grier, Sharon Stone, Daniel Faraldo and Henry Silva.

This film originated after a successful screen test, financed by Michael Ovitz, leading to Seagal being offered a contract by Warner Bros. The film was set and filmed on location in Chicago. The film was released in the United States on April 8, 1988.

Ali Abdullah Saleh

Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبدالله صالح , ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947 – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution. Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.Saleh developed deeper ties with Western powers, especially the United States, in the War on Terror. Terrorism may have been used and encouraged by Ali Abdullah Saleh to win Western support and for disruptive politically motivated attacks.In 2011, in the wake of the Arab Spring, which spread across North Africa and the Middle East (including Yemen), Saleh's time in office became more and more untenable until eventually he was ousted as President in 2012. He was succeeded by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.

In May 2015, Saleh openly allied with the Houthis (Ansar Allah) during the Yemeni Civil War, in which a protest movement and subsequent insurgency succeeded in capturing Yemen's capital, Sana'a, causing President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi to resign and flee the country. In December 2017, he declared his withdrawal from his coalition with the Houthis and instead sided with his former enemies – Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and President Hadi. Accused of treason by the Houthis, he was killed by a Houthi sniper while attempting to flee the capital city of Sana'a amidst the 2017 battle for the city on 4 December 2017.

David Brown (police officer)

David O'Neal Brown (born 1960) is an American law enforcement official who was the chief of the Dallas Police Department from 2010 to 2016. He has been widely praised for his reforms designed to reduce violent confrontations between police officers and the community and increase the department's accountability and transparency. He has also been criticized by the local police union for the methods of implementation of some of his policies.

Detonator

A detonator, frequently a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device. Detonators can be chemically, mechanically, or electrically initiated, the latter two being the most common.

The commercial use of explosives uses electrical detonators or the capped fuse which is a length of safety fuse to which an ordinary detonator has been crimped. Many detonators' primary explosive is a material called ASA compound. This compound is formed from lead azide, lead styphnate and aluminium and is pressed into place above the base charge, usually TNT or tetryl in military detonators and PETN in commercial detonators.

Other materials such as DDNP (diazo dinitro phenol) are also used as the primary charge to reduce the amount of lead emitted into the atmosphere by mining and quarrying operations. Old detonators used mercury fulminate as the primary, often mixed with potassium chlorate to yield better performance.

A blasting cap is a small sensitive primary explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful and less sensitive secondary explosive such as TNT, dynamite, or plastic explosive.

Blasting caps come in a variety of types, including non-electric caps, electric caps, and fuse caps. They are used in commercial mining, excavation, and demolition. Electric types are set off by a short burst of current conducted from a blasting machine by a long wire to the cap to ensure safety. Traditional fuse caps have a fuse which is ignited by a flame source, such as a match or a lighter.

El Encanto fire

The El Encanto fire was a terrorist attack in the form of an arson fire that destroyed a department store in central Havana on 13 April 1961.

Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais

Grupo de Ações Táticas Especiais (Portuguese for Special Actions and Tactics Group), mostly known by its acronym GATE, is a special operations force within São Paulo's military police.

Korean Air Flight 858

Korean Air Flight 858 was a scheduled international passenger flight between Baghdad, Iraq and Seoul, South Korea. On 29 November 1987, the aircraft flying that route exploded in mid-air upon the detonation of a bomb planted inside an overhead storage bin in the airplane's passenger cabin by two North Korean agents.

The agents, acting upon orders from the North Korean government, planted the device before disembarking from the aircraft during the first stop-over in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. While the aircraft was flying over the Andaman Sea to its second stop-over in Bangkok, Thailand, the bomb detonated and destroyed the Korean Air Boeing 707-3B5C. Everyone aboard the airliner perished, a total of 104 passengers and 11 crew members (almost all killed were South Koreans). The attack occurred 34 years after the Korean Armistice Agreement that ended the hostilities of the Korean War on 27 July 1953.

The two bombers were traced to Bahrain, where they both took ampules of cyanide hidden in cigarettes when they realized they were about to be taken into custody. The man died, but the woman, Kim Hyon-hui, survived and later confessed to the bombing. She was sentenced to death after being put on trial for the attack, but was later pardoned by the President of South Korea, Roh Tae-woo, because it was deemed that she had been brainwashed in North Korea. Kim's testimony implicated Kim Jong-il, who at that time was the future leader of North Korea, as the person ultimately responsible for the incident. The United States Department of State specifically refers to the bombing of KAL 858 as a "terrorist act" and, except between 2008 and 2017, has included North Korea on its State Sponsors of Terrorism list.

Since the attack, diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea have not significantly improved, although some progress has been made in the form of four Inter-Korean summits. Kim Hyon-hui later released a book, The Tears of My Soul, in which she recalled being trained in an espionage school run by the North Korean army, and being told personally by Kim Jong-il to carry out the attack. She was branded a traitor by North Korea, and became a critic of North Korea after seeing South Korea. Kim now resides in exile, and under constant tight security, fearing that the North Korean government wants to kill her. "Being a culprit I do have a sense of agony with which I must fight", she said at a press conference in 1990. "In that sense I must still be a prisoner or a captive—of a sense of guilt."

M18 Claymore mine

The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine developed for the United States Armed Forces. Its inventor, Norman MacLeod, named the mine after a large Scottish medieval sword. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control and shoots a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun. The Claymore can also be victim-activated by booby-trapping it with a tripwire firing system for use in area denial operations.

The Claymore fires steel balls, out to about 100 m (110 yd) within a 60° arc in front of the device. It is used primarily in ambushes and as an anti-infiltration device against enemy infantry. It is also used against unarmored vehicles.

Many countries have developed and used mines like the Claymore. Examples include former Soviet Union models MON-50, MON-90, MON-100, MON-200, as well as MRUD (Serbia), MAPED F1 (France), and Mini MS-803 (South Africa).

M58 MICLIC

The M58 Mine Clearing Line Charge (MICLIC) is a rocket-projected explosive line charge which provides a "close-in" demining capability for maneuver forces of the United States Army and Marine Corps. It is effective against conventionally fuzed land mines and, when detonated, it provides a lane 8 meters by 100 meters. The MICLIC system consists of an M353 3½ ton or M200A1 2½ ton trailer (or M200 tracked trailer) chassis, a launcher assembly, an M147 firing kit, an M58A3 line charge and a 5-inch MK22 Mod 4 rocket. The line charge is 350 feet long and contains 5 pounds per linear foot of C-4 explosive. In the event a MICLIC fails to detonate normally, it can be manually activated by time-delay fuses every few feet along the length of it. The M147 Firing Kit can also be employed from other combat engineer vehicles, namely the M60AVLB and the M1150 Assault Breacher Vehicle.

Mumbai Fire Brigade

The Mumbai Fire Brigade is the fire brigade serving the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is responsible for the provision of fire protection as well as responding to building collapses, drownings, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees and taking appropriate action during natural disasters.

Next (2007 film)

Next is a 2007 American science fiction action thriller film directed by Lee Tamahori and starring Nicolas Cage, Julianne Moore, Jessica Biel, Thomas Kretschmann, Tory Kittles, and Peter Falk. The film's original script was loosely based on the science fiction short story "The Golden Man" by Philip K. Dick. The film tells the story of Cris Johnson, a small-time magician based in Las Vegas, who has limited precognition; his ability allows him to see into the very immediate future. His gift makes him a target not only of a highly motivated and heavily armed group of terrorists, but also wanted by the FBI to help them fight those same terrorists.

The film was released on April 25, 2007, in Belgium and France, and on April 27, 2007, in the United States by Paramount Pictures. With a production budget of $70 million, the film grossed $76 million worldwide, making it a box office flop.

Royal Ordnance L9

Royal Ordnance L9 is a British short-barrelled 165 mm gun used for combat engineering, particularly the demolition of defences.

Initially called Ordnance BL 6.5" Mk I, it was later renamed 165mm L9 Demolition Gun.

The gun is capable of firing a 64 lb (29 kg) High Explosive Squash Head (HESH) demolition projectile distances up to 2,400 m (2,600 yd). The HESH shell contains 40 lb of C-4 explosive.

The L9 gun was mounted on Royal Engineers AVRE versions of the Churchill and Centurion tanks after the Second World War.

The gun's primary purpose is the clearing of obstacles such as walls, fences, roadblocks or bunkers, and the destruction of buildings.

Shootout

A shootout, also called a firefight or gunfight, is a gun battle between armed groups. A shootout often, but not necessarily, pits law enforcement against criminal elements; it could also involve two groups outside of law enforcement, such as rival gangs. A shootout in a war-like context (i.e. regularly constituted armed forces or even guerrilla or insurgent forces) would usually be considered a battle (depending on size), rather than a shootout. Shootouts are often portrayed in action films and Western films.

Terrorism in the United States

In the United States a common definition of terrorism is the systematic or threatened use of violence to create a general climate of fear to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change. This article serves as a list and compilation of acts of terrorism, attempts of terrorism, and other such items pertaining to terrorist activities within the domestic borders of the United States by non-state actors or spies acting in the interests of or persons acting without approval of state actors.

According to a 2017 report by the U.S. Government Accountability Office, "of the 85 violent extremist incidents that resulted in death since September 12, 2001, far right wing violent extremist groups were responsible for 62 (73 percent) while radical Islamist violent extremists were responsible for 23 (27 percent). The total number of fatalities is about the same for far right wing violent extremists and radical Islamist violent extremists over the approximately 15-year period (106 and 94, respectively). However, 52 percent of the deaths attributable to radical Islamist violent extremists occurred in a single event—an attack on the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, Florida in 2016."In 2018, most ideologically motivated murders were linked to right-wing extremism.

Turkish Hezbollah

Turkish Hezbollah (TH) (Turkish: Türk Hızbullahı), also known as the Kurdish Hezbollah (Kurdish: Hizbullahî Kurdî‎) or just Hizbullah in Turkey, is a predominantly Kurdish Sunni Islamist militant organization, active against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (mainly in the period between 1992 and 1995).The group, founded by Kurdish-Turkish Islamist Hüseyin Velioğlu, remains a primarily Kurdish group that has its roots in Turkish Kurdistan and among Kurds who migrated to the cities in Western Turkey. The Hezbollah reestablished in 2003 in Turkish Kurdistan and "today its ideology might be more widespread then ever among Kurds there". The Turkish Hezbollah's influence has not been limited to Turkey and it has also "left an imprint on Turkish Kurds in Germany."

USS Oriskany (CV-34)

USS Oriskany (CV/CVA-34) – nicknamed Mighty O, and occasionally referred to as the O-boat – was one of the few Essex-class aircraft carriers completed after World War II for the United States Navy. The ship was named for the Battle of Oriskany during the Revolutionary War.

The history of Oriskany differs considerably from that of her sister ships. Originally designed as a "long-hulled" Essex-class ship (considered by some authorities to be a separate class, the Ticonderoga class) her construction was suspended in 1946. She eventually was commissioned in 1950 after conversion to an updated design called SCB-27 ("27-Charlie"), which became the template for modernization of 14 other Essex-class ships. Oriskany was the final Essex-class ship completed.

She operated primarily in the Pacific into the 1970s, earning two battle stars for service in the Korean War, and five for service in the Vietnam War. In 1966, one of the worst shipboard fires since World War II broke out on Oriskany when a magnesium flare was accidentally ignited; forty-four men died in the fire.

Oriskany's post-service history also differs considerably from that of her sister ships. Decommissioned in 1976, she was sold for scrap in 1995, but was repossessed in 1997 because nothing was being done. In 2004, it was decided to sink her as an artificial reef off the coast of Florida in the Gulf of Mexico. After much environmental review and remediation to remove toxic substances, she was carefully sunk in May 2006, settling in an upright position at a depth accessible to recreational divers. As of 2008, Oriskany is the largest vessel ever sunk to make a reef.

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