Cádiz

Cádiz (/kəˈdɪz/;[1] Spanish: [ˈkaðiθ]; see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia.

Cádiz, regarded by many as the oldest continuously inhabited city in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years,[2][3][4][5] was founded by the Phoenicians.[6] It has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.[5][7] It is also the site of the University of Cádiz.

Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a typically Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks. The older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is commonly referred to as the Old Town (Spanish: Casco Antiguo). It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters (barrios), among them El Pópulo, La Viña, and Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz typically have wide avenues and more modern buildings. In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees supposedly brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World.

Cádiz
Catedral de la Santa Cruz
Cárcel Real
Monumento a la Constitución de 1812.
Palacio de la Aduana
Iglesia de San Antonio.
Flag of Cádiz
Flag
Coat of arms of Cádiz
Coat of arms
Municipal location in the Province of Cádiz
Municipal location in the Province of Cádiz
Cádiz is located in Province of Cádiz
Cádiz
Cádiz
Location of Cádiz
Cádiz is located in Andalusia
Cádiz
Cádiz
Cádiz (Andalusia)
Cádiz is located in Spain
Cádiz
Cádiz
Cádiz (Spain)
Coordinates: 36°32′N 6°17′W / 36.533°N 6.283°WCoordinates: 36°32′N 6°17′W / 36.533°N 6.283°W
Country Spain
Autonomous community Andalusia
Province Cádiz
ComarcaBay of Cádiz
Judicial districtCádiz
MancomunidadMunicipios de la Bahía de Cádiz
FoundedPhoenicians; 1104 BC
Government
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyAyuntamiento de Cádiz
 • MayorJosé María González (Por Cádiz Sí Se Puede)
Area
 • Total12.10 km2 (4.67 sq mi)
Elevation
11 m (36 ft)
Population
(2012)
 • Total123,948
 • Density10,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)
DemonymsGaditano (m), Gaditana (f)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal code
11071
Dialing code(+34) 956
Patron SaintsSaint Servando & Saint Germán
Our Lady of the Rosary
Websitewww.cadiz.es

Name

Vista de Cádiz, España, 2015-12-08, DD 75-76 PAN
General view
Mujeresplaya
Cádiz is regarded by many people as the oldest continuously inhabited city in Western Europe
Gades
Satellite view of Cádiz

Very little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir (Phoenician: ‬𐤀𐤂𐤃𐤓, ʾGDR),[8] meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or (by metonymy) "The Stronghold".[9] Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir (Tamazight: "wall"; Shilha: "fortified granary") common in North African place names.[10] (The Israeli town Gedera shares a similar etymology.) The Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya.

Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira (Ancient Greek: τὰ Γάδειρα), which is neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira (Γήδειρα). Rarely, as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra (ἡ Γαδείρα).

In Latin, the city was known as Gādēs and its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana ("The August City of Julia of Cádiz"). In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis (Arabic: قادس‎), from which the Spanish Cádiz derives. The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano.

In English, the name is pronounced variously. When the accent is on the second syllable, it is usually pronounced /kəˈdɪz/ but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as /ˈkeɪdəz/, as /ˈkɑːdəz/, or as /ˈkædəz/.[11] In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation is [ˈkaðiθ], the local dialect says [ˈkaðis] (listen), [ˈkaði] or [ˈkai] instead. More recently, some English speakers hypercorrect and attempt to pronounce it as the Spanish, similarly to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/.

Demographics

According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118,919 (the second most populated of the province after Jerez de la Frontera with 212,830 inhabitants), and that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has steadily declined; it is the only municipality of the Bay of Cádiz (the comarca composed of Cádiz, Chiclana, El Puerto de Santa María, Puerto Real, and San Fernando), whose population has diminished. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%.

Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz; the city lies on a narrow spit of land hemmed in by the sea. Consequently, there is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed. The city has very little vacant land, and a high proportion of its housing stock is relatively low in density. (That is to say, many buildings are only two or three stories tall, and they are only able to house a relatively small number of people within their "footprint".) The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal.

Historical population of Cádiz
(Source: INE (Spain))
Year19992000200120022003200420052006
Population142,449140,061137,971136,236134,989133,242131,813130,561

Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population. It is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea; a new national law governing coastal development thwarts this possibility. Also, because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density. As it stands, the city's skyline is not substantially different from in the Middle Ages. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its relatively modest 45 meters (148 ft) height. (See below.)

Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, too, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain (Madrid and Castellón, chiefly), as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas. The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, and the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain.

Population density

The population distribution of the municipality is extremely uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. The uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, and Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63.63% of the municipal area. So the entire city population lives in the remaining 4.4 square kilometers (1.7 sq mi), at an average density close to 30,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. The city is divided for statistical purposes into 10 divisions, the most densely populated one having 39,592 inhabitants per square kilometer, the least having 20,835.

The table below lists the area, population, and population density of the ten statistical divisions of Cádiz. Divisions 1 to 7, the "stats divisions", belong to the old town; 8, 9 and 10 correspond to the "new city".

Area, population, and density of the statistical divisions of Cádiz[12]
Statistical division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Area 0.32 0.20 0.28 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.20 1.09 0.83 1.03
Population 6,794 6,315 6,989 5,752 5,147 4,637 4,167 29,936 28,487 32,157
Density 21,231.25 31,575.00 24,960.71 38,346.67 39,592.31 27,276.47 20,835.00 27,464.22 34,321.69 31,220.39

Area is in km2 and population density in inhabitants per square kilometer.

History

MuseoArqueologicoCadiz-P1050192
Phoenician anthropoid sarcophagi (400-470 BC) found in Cádiz, thought to have been imported from the Phoenician homeland around Sidon (now in the Museum of Cádiz)[13][14]

Founded around 1104 BC as Gadir or Agadir by Phoenicians from Tyre,[6][15] Cádiz is mostly regarded as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe.[16] The Phoenicians established a port in the 7th century BC.[17] The expeditions of Himilco around Spain and France, and of Hanno around Western Africa began there. The Phoenician settlement traded with Tartessos, a city-state whose exact location remains unknown but is thought to have been somewhere near the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

One of the city's notable features during antiquity was the temple on the south end of its island dedicated to the Phoenician god Melqart, who was conflated with Hercules by the Greeks and Romans under the names "Tyrian Hercules" and "Hercules Gaditanus". It had an oracle and was famed for its wealth.[18] In Greek mythology, Hercules was sometimes credited with founding Gadeira after performing his tenth labor, the slaying of Geryon, a monster with three heads and torsos joined to a single pair of legs. (A tumulus near Gadeira was associated with Geryon's final resting-place.[19]) According to the Life of Apollonius of Tyana, the "Heracleum" (i.e., the temple of Melqart) was still standing during the 1st century. Some historians, based in part on this source, believe that the columns of this temple were the origin of the myth of the "pillars of Hercules".[20]

Estatuillas votivas del templo de Hércules Gaditano
Votive statues of Melqart-Hercules from the Islote de Sancti Petri

The city fell under the sway of Carthage during Hamilcar Barca's Iberian campaign after the First Punic War. Cádiz became a depot for Hannibal's conquest of southern Iberia, and he sacrificed there to Hercules/Melqart before setting off on his famous journey in 218 BC to cross the Alps and invade Italy.[21] Later the city fell to Romans under Scipio Africanus in 206 BC.[22] Under the Roman Republic and Empire, the city flourished as a port and naval base known as Gades. Suetonius relates how Julius Caesar, when visiting Gades as a quaestor (junior senator) saw a statue of Alexander the Great there and was saddened to think that he himself, though the same age, had still achieved nothing memorable.[23]

The people of Gades had an alliance with Rome and Julius Caesar bestowed Roman citizenship on all its inhabitants in 49 BC.[18] By the time of Augustus's census, Cádiz was home to more than five hundred equites (members of the wealthy upper class), a concentration rivaled only by Patavium (Padua) and Rome itself.[24] It was the principal city of the Roman colony of Augusta Urbs Julia Gaditana. An aqueduct provided fresh water to the town (the island's supply was notoriously bad), running across open sea for its last leg. However, Roman Gades was never very large. It consisted only of the northwest corner of the present island, and most of its wealthy citizens maintained estates outside of it on the nearby island or on the mainland. The lifestyle maintained on the estates led to the Gaditan dancing girls becoming infamous throughout the ancient world.[18]

Although it is not in fact the most westerly city in the Spanish peninsula, for the Romans Cádiz had that reputation. The poet Juvenal begins his famous tenth satire with the words: Omnibus in terris quae sunt a Gadibus usque Auroram et Gangen ('In all the lands which exist from Gades as far as Dawn and the Ganges...').[25]

The overthrow of Roman power in Hispania Baetica by the Visigoths in 410 saw the destruction of the original city, of which there remain few remnants today. The site was later reconquered by Justinian in 551 as a part of the Byzantine province of Spania.[26] It would remain Byzantine until Leovigild's reconquest in 572 returned it to the Visigothic Kingdom.

Under Moorish rule between 711 and 1262, the city was called Qādis, whence the modern Spanish name was derived. A famous Muslim legend developed concerning an "idol" (sanam Qādis) over 100 cubits tall on the outskirts of Cádiz whose magic blocked the strait of Gibraltar with contrary winds and currents; its destruction by Abd-al-Mumin c. 1145 supposedly permitted ships to sail through the strait once more. It also appeared (as Salamcadis) in the 12th-century Pseudo-Turpin's history of Charlemagne, where it was considered a statue of Muhammad and thought to warn the Muslims of Christian invasion.[27] Classical sources are entirely silent on such a structure, but it has been conjectured that the origin of the legend was the ruins of a navigational aid constructed in late antiquity.[28] Abd-al-Mumin (or Admiral Ali ibn-Isa ibn-Maymun) found that the idol was gilded bronze rather than pure gold, but coined what there was to help fund his revolt.[29] The Moors were finally ousted by Alphonso X of Castile in 1262.

During the Age of Exploration, the city experienced a renaissance. Christopher Columbus sailed from Cádiz on his second and fourth voyages and the city later became the home port of the Spanish treasure fleet. Consequently, it became a major target of Spain's enemies. The 16th century saw a series of failed raids by Barbary corsairs; the greater part of the old town was consumed in a major fire in 1569; and in April, 1587, a raid by the Englishman Francis Drake occupied the harbor for three days, captured six ships, and destroyed 31 others (an event which became known in England as 'The Singeing of the King of Spain's Beard'). The attack delayed the sailing of the Spanish Armada by a year.[30]

Francisco de Zurbarán 014
Defense of Cádiz against the English, by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1634 (Prado Museum, Madrid)

The city suffered a still more serious attack in 1596, when it was captured by an Anglo-Dutch fleet, this time under the Earls of Essex and Nottingham. 32 Spanish ships were destroyed and the city was captured, looted and occupied for almost a month. Finally, when the royal authorities refused to pay a ransom demanded by the English for returning the city intact, they burned much of it before leaving with their booty. A third English raid was mounted against the city in 1625 by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and Edward Cecil, but the attempt was unsuccessful. During the Anglo-Spanish War, Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Cádiz from 1655 to 1657. In the 1702 Battle of Cádiz, the English attacked again under George Rooke and James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde, but they were repelled after a costly siege.

Vista de Cádiz y sus contornos hacia 1813
1813 map of Cádiz

In the 18th century, the sand bars of the Guadalquivir forced the Spanish government to transfer its American trade from Seville to Cádiz, which now commanded better access to the Atlantic. Although the empire itself was declining, Cádiz now experienced another golden age from its new importance. It became one of Spain's greatest and most cosmopolitan cities and home to trading communities from many countries, the richest of which were the Irishmen. Many of today's historic buildings in the Old City date from this era.

Plan of Cadiz
1886 map of Cádiz

During the Napoleonic Wars, Cádiz was blockaded by the British from 1797 until the Peace of Amiens in 1802 and again from 1803 until the outbreak of the Peninsular War in 1808. In that war, it was one of the few Spanish cities to hold out against the invading French and their candidate Joseph Bonaparte. Cádiz then became the seat of Spain's military high command and Cortes (parliament) for the duration of the war. It was here that the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed. The citizens revolted in 1820 to secure a renewal of this constitution and the revolution spread successfully until Ferdinand VII was imprisoned in Cádiz. French forces secured the release of Ferdinand in the 1823 Battle of Trocadero and suppressed liberalism for a time. In 1868, Cádiz was once again the seat of a revolution, resulting in the eventual abdication and exile of Queen Isabella II. The Cádiz Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under King Amadeo just two years later.

In recent years, the city has undergone much reconstruction. Many monuments, cathedrals, and landmarks have been cleaned and restored.

Diocese

The diocese of Cádiz and Ceuta is a suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seville; that is, it is a diocese within the metropolitan see of Seville. It became a diocese in 1263 after its Reconquista (reconquest) from the Moors. By the Concordat of 1753, in which the Spanish crown also gained the rights to make appointments to church offices and to tax church lands, the diocese of Cádiz was merged with the diocese of Ceuta, a Spanish conclave on the northern coast of Africa, and the diocesan bishop became, by virtue of his office, the Apostolic Administrator of Ceuta.

Historically, the diocese counts among its most famous prelates Cardinal Juan de Torquemada, a Dominican theologian and expert on canon law, who took a leading part in the Councils of Basle and Florence, and defended, in his Summe de Ecclesia, the direct power of the pope in temporal matters. His nephew, Tomás de Torquemada, is most closely associated with the 15th century Spanish Inquisition.

Main sights

Casa de las 5 Torres, Cadiz (Spain)
Casa de las 5 Torres (House of the 5 Towers)

Among the many landmarks of historical and scenic interest in Cádiz, a few stand out. The city can boast of an unusual cathedral of various architectural styles, a theater, an old municipal building, an 18th-century watchtower, a vestige of the ancient city wall, an ancient Roman theater, and electrical pylons of an eye-catchingly modern design carrying cables across the Bay of Cádiz. The old town is characterized by narrow streets connecting squares (plazas), bordered by the sea and by the city walls. Most of the landmark buildings are situated in the plazas.

Plazas and their landmark buildings

The old town of Cádiz is one of the most densely populated urban areas in Europe,[31] and is packed with narrow streets. The old town benefits, though, from several striking plazas, which are enjoyed by citizens and tourists alike. These are the Plaza de Mina, Plaza San Antonio, Plaza de Candelaria, Plaza de San Juan de Dios, and Plaza de España.

Plaza de Mina

Located in the heart of the old town, Plaza de Mina was developed in the first half of the 19th century. Previously, the land occupied by the plaza was the orchard of the convent of San Francisco. The plaza was converted into a plaza in 1838 by the architect Torcuato Benjumeda and (later) Juan Daura, with its trees being planted in 1861. It was then redeveloped again in 1897, and has remained virtually unchanged since that time. It is named after General Francisco Espoz y Mina, a hero of the war of independence. Manuel de Falla y Matheu was born in Number 3 Plaza de Mina, where a plaque bears his name. The plaza also contains several statues, one of these is a bust of José Macpherson (a pioneer in the development of petrography, stratigraphy and tectonics) who was born in number 12 Plaza de Mina in 1839. The Museum of Cádiz, is to be found at number 5 Plaza de Mina, and contains many objects from Cádiz's 3000-year history as well as works by artists such as Peter Paul Rubens. The houses which face the plaza, many of which can be classified as neo-classical architecture or built in the style of Isabelline Gothic, were originally occupied by the Cádiz bourgeoisie.

The Plaza de la Catedral houses both the Cathedral and the Baroque church of Santiago, built in 1635.

Plaza de San Francisco and San Francisco Church and Convent

San Antonio church 263
San Francisco church

Located next to Plaza de Mina, this smaller square houses the San Francisco church and convent. Originally built in 1566, it was substantially renovated in the 17th century,[32] when its cloisters were added.[33] Originally, the Plaza de Mina formed the convent's orchard.

Plaza San Antonio

Iglesia de San Antonio de Padua, Cádiz
Plaza de San Antonio and church

In the 19th century Plaza San Antonio was considered to be Cádiz's main square. The square is surrounded by a number of mansions built in neo-classical architecture or Isabelline Gothic style, once occupied by the Cádiz upper classes. San Antonio church, originally built in 1669, is also situated in the plaza.

The plaza was built in the 18th century, and on 19 March 1812 the Spanish Constitution of 1812 was proclaimed here, leading to the plaza to be named Plaza de la Constitución, and then later Plaza San Antonio, after the hermit San Antonio.

In 1954 the city's mayor proclaimed the location a historic site. All construction is prohibited.

Plaza de Candelaria

The Plaza de Candelaria is named after the Candelaria convent, situated in the square until it was demolished in 1873, when its grounds were redeveloped as a plaza. The plaza is notable for a statue in its centre of Emilio Castelar, president of the first Spanish republic, who was born in a house facing the square. A plaque situated on another house, states that Bernardo O'Higgins, an Irish-Chilean adventurer and former dictator of Chile also, lived in the square.

Plaza de la Catedral and the Cathedral

One of Cádiz's most famous landmarks is its cathedral. Unlike in many places, this cathedral, known locally as the "New Cathedral," the Cathedral of Cadiz is officially the Cathedral de "Santa Cruz sobre el mar” or "Santa Cruz sobre las Aguas.” It was not built on the site of the original Cathedral de Santa Cruz. The original Cathedral of Santa Cruz was completed in 1263 at the behest of Alfonso X. The old cathedral burned in the Anglo-Dutch attack on the city in 1596. [34] The reconstruction of the old cathedral started in the early 17th century, but when the city became more prosperous following the move of the Casa de Contratación from Seville to Cádiz in 1717, [35] it was felt that a grander cathedral was needed. [36]

Work on the New Cathedral started in 1722 and was supervised by the architect Vicente Acero, who had also built the Granada Cathedral. Acero resigned from the project and was succeeded by several other architects. As a result, this largely Baroque-style cathedral was built over a period of 116 years, and, due to this drawn-out period of construction, the cathedral underwent several major changes to its original design. Though the cathedral was originally intended to be a baroque edifice with some rococo elements, it was completed in the neoclassical style.[37] Its chapels have many paintings and relics from the old cathedral in Cadiz and as well as from monasteries throughout Spain.

Plaza de San Juan de Dios and the Old Town Hall

Ayuntamiento 145
Ayuntamiento

Construction of this plaza began in the 15th century on lands reclaimed from the sea. With the demolition of the City walls in 1906 the plaza increased in size and a statue of the Cádiz politician Segismundo Moret was unveiled. Overlooking the plaza, the Ayuntamiento is the town hall of Cádiz's Old City. The structure, constructed on the bases and location of the previous Consistorial Houses (1699), was built in two stages. The first stage began in 1799 under the direction of architect Torcuato Benjumeda in the neoclassical style. The second stage was completed in 1861 under the direction of García del Alamo, in the Isabelline Gothic (Spanish: Gótico Isabelino or, simply, the Isabelino) style. Here, in 1936, the flag of Andalusia was hoisted for the first time.

Plaza de España and the monument to the constitution of 1812

Monumento a las Cortes de Cádiz, mayo de 2009
Monument to the Constitution of 1812

The Plaza de España is a large square close to the port. It is dominated by the Monument to the Constitution of 1812, which came into being as a consequence of the demolition of a portion of the old city wall. The plaza is an extension of the old Plazuela del Carbón.

The goal of this demolition was to create a grand new city square to mark the hundredth anniversary of the liberal constitution, which was proclaimed in this city in 1812, and provide a setting for a suitable memorial. The work is by the architect, Modesto Lopez Otero, and of the sculptor, Aniceto Marinas. The work began in 1912 and finished in 1929.

The lower level of the monument represents a chamber and an empty presidential armchair. The upper level has various inscriptions surmounting the chamber. On each side are bronze figures representing peace and war. In the centre, a pilaster rises to symbolize, in allegorical terms, the principles expressed in the 1812 constitution. At the foot of this pilaster, there is a female figure representing Spain, and, to either side, sculptural groupings representing agriculture and citizenship.

Plaza de Falla and the Gran Teatro Falla (Falla Grand Theater)

The original Gran Teatro was constructed in 1871 by the architect García del Alamo, and was destroyed by a fire in August 1881. The current theater was built between 1884 and 1905 over the remains of the previous Gran Teatro. The architect was Adolfo Morales de los Rios, and the overseer of construction was Juan Cabrera de la Torre. The outside was covered in red bricks and is of a neo-Mudéjar or Moorish revival style. Following renovations in the 1920s, the theater was renamed the Gran Teatro Falla, in honor of composer Manuel de Falla, who is buried in the crypt of the cathedral. After a period of disrepair in the 1980s, the theater has since undergone extensive renovation.

Other sights

Tavira tower

In the 18th century, Cádiz had more than 160 towers from which local merchants could look out to sea to watch for arriving merchant ships from the New World. These towers often formed part of the merchants' houses, but this particular tower was located on a high point in the city, 45 meters above sea level, and was chosen by the Navy as their official lookout in 1787 (after eliminating several other locations previously.) [38] The Torre Tavira, was named for its original watchman, Don Antonio Tavira, a lieutenant in the Spanish Navy. [39] Today it is the tallest of the towers which still dot the Cádiz skyline. Since 1994 there is a camera obscura, a room that uses the principle of the pinhole camera and a specially prepared convex lens to project panoramic views of the Old City onto a concave disc. There are also two exhibition rooms and a rooftop terrace. [40]

Admiral's House

Admiral's House 161
Admiral's House

The Casa del Almirante is a palatial house, adjacent to the Plaza San Martín in the Barrio del Pópulo, which was constructed in 1690 with the proceeds of the lucrative trade with the Americas. It was built by the family of the admiral of the Spanish treasure fleet, the so-called Fleet of the Indies, Don Diego de Barrios. The exterior is sheathed in exquisite red and white Genoan marble, prepared in the workshops of Andreoli, and mounted by the master, García Narváez. The colonnaded portico, the grand staircase under the cupola, and the hall on the main floor are architectural features of great nobility and beauty. The shield of the Barrios family appears on the second-floor balcony.

Old customs house

Plaza de las Tortugas, Cadiz (Spain)
Plaza de las Tortugas

Situated within the confines of the walls which protect the flank of the port of Cádiz are three identical adjacent buildings: the Customs House, the House of Hiring and the Consulate. Of the three, the former had been erected first, built in a sober neo-classical style and of ample and balanced proportions. The works began in 1765 under the direction of Juan Caballero at a cost of 7,717,200 reales.

Palacio de Congresos

Palacio de Congresos, Cadiz (Spain)
Palacio de Congresos (Old tobacco factory)

Cádiz's refurbished tobacco factory offers international conference and trade-show facilities.[41] Home to the third annual MAST Conference and trade-show (12 to 14 November 2008)

Roman theatre

Teatro Romano de Cádiz - Graderío
Roman theatre

The Roman theatre was discovered in 1980, in the El Pópulo district, after a fire had destroyed some old warehouses, revealing a layer of construction that was judged to be the foundations of some medieval buildings; the foundations of these buildings had been built, in turn, upon much more ancient stones, hand-hewn limestone of a Roman character. Systematic excavations have revealed a largely intact Roman theatre.

The theatre, constructed by order of Lucius Cornelius Balbus (minor) during the 1st century BC, is the second-largest Roman theatre in the world, surpassed only by the theatre of Pompeii, south of Rome. Cicero, in his Epistulae ad Familiares ('Letters to his friends'), wrote of its use by Balbus for personal propaganda.

Pylons of Cádiz

Pilones de Cádiz, mayo de 2009
Pylons of Cádiz

The Pylons of Cádiz are electricity pylons of unusual design, one on either side of the Bay of Cádiz, used to support huge electric-power cables. The pylons are 158 meters (518 ft) high and designed for two circuits. The very unconventional construction consists of a narrow frustum steel framework with one crossbar at the top of each one for the insulators.

La Pepa Bridge

La Pepa Bridge, officially "La Pepa" and also named the second bridge to Cádiz or new access to Cádiz. It opened 24 September 2015. It crosses the Bay of Cádiz linking Cádiz with Puerto Real in mainland Spain. It is the longest bridge in Spain and the longest span cable-stayed in the country.[42]

City walls and fortifications

Puertas de Tierra, Cadiz (Spain)
Las puertas de tierra

Las Puertas de Tierra originated in the 16th century.[43][44] Once consisting of several layers of walls, only one of these remain today. By the 20th century it was necessary to remodel the entrance to the Old City to accommodate modern traffic. Today, the two side-by-side arches cut into the wall serve as one of the primary entrances to the city.

El Arco de los Blancos is the gate to the Populo district, built around 1300. It was the principal gate to the medieval town. The gate is named after the family of Felipe Blanco who built a chapel (now disappeared) above the gate.

Arco-de-la-rosa
Arco de la Rosa

El Arco de la Rosa ("Rose Arch") is a gate carved into the medieval walls next to the cathedral. It is named after captain Gaspar de la Rosa, who lived in the city during the 18th century. The gate was renovated in 1973.

The Baluarte de la Candelaria (fortress or stronghold of Candlemas) is a military fortification. Taking advantage of a natural elevation of land, it was constructed in 1672 at the initiative of the governor, Diego Caballero de Illescas. Protected by a seaward-facing wall that had previously served as a seawall, Candelaria's cannons were in a position to command the channels approaching the port of Cádiz. In more recent times, the edifice has served as a headquarters for the corps of military engineers and as the home to the army's homing pigeons, birds used to carry written messages over hostile terrain. Thoroughly renovated, it is now used as a cultural venue. There has been some discussion of using it to house a maritime museum, but, at present, it is designated for use as a permanent exposition space.

The Castle of San Sebastián is also a military fortification and is situated at the end of a road leading out from the Caleta beach. It was built in 1706. Today the castle remains unused, although its future uses remain much debated.

Castillo de Santa Catalina 5, Cádiz
Inside view of Castillo de Santa Catalina

The Castle of Santa Catalina is also a military fortification, and is situated at the end of the Caleta beach. It was built in 1598 following the English sacking of Cádiz two years earlier. Recently renovated, today it is used for exhibitions and concerts.

Notable people born in Cádiz and Cádiz province

Climate

Cádiz
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
69
 
 
16
9
 
 
59
 
 
17
11
 
 
35
 
 
19
12
 
 
45
 
 
20
14
 
 
27
 
 
22
16
 
 
7
 
 
25
20
 
 
0
 
 
28
21
 
 
2
 
 
28
22
 
 
24
 
 
26
20
 
 
67
 
 
23
17
 
 
98
 
 
20
13
 
 
92
 
 
17
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.7
 
 
61
49
 
 
2.3
 
 
62
51
 
 
1.4
 
 
66
54
 
 
1.8
 
 
68
57
 
 
1.1
 
 
72
61
 
 
0.3
 
 
78
67
 
 
0
 
 
82
71
 
 
0.1
 
 
82
72
 
 
0.9
 
 
79
69
 
 
2.6
 
 
74
63
 
 
3.9
 
 
67
56
 
 
3.6
 
 
62
52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Cádiz has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) with very mild to warm winters and warm to hot summers. The city has significant maritime influences due to its position on a narrow peninsula. Amongst any European city, Cádiz has the second warmest winters, after Algeciras in the south of Cádiz province. The annual sunshine hours of Cádiz are above 3000h, being one of the most sunny cities in Europe. Although summer nights are tropical in nature, daytime temperatures are comparatively subdued compared to nearby inland areas such as Jerez and the very hot far inland areas in Andalucia. Snowfall is unknown at least since the XIX century, being the least snowy place of Europe.[45]

Climate data for Cádiz (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
25.3
(77.5)
29.0
(84.2)
31.4
(88.5)
36.5
(97.7)
37.6
(99.7)
40.0
(104.0)
43.0
(109.4)
37.8
(100.0)
31.5
(88.7)
27.6
(81.7)
23.6
(74.5)
43.0
(109.4)
Average high °C (°F) 16.0
(60.8)
16.8
(62.2)
18.8
(65.8)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
25.3
(77.5)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
23.4
(74.1)
19.6
(67.3)
16.9
(62.4)
21.6
(70.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
13.8
(56.8)
15.5
(59.9)
16.8
(62.2)
19.1
(66.4)
22.4
(72.3)
24.6
(76.3)
25.0
(77.0)
23.3
(73.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.5
(61.7)
13.9
(57.0)
18.6
(65.5)
Average low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.7
(51.3)
12.3
(54.1)
13.7
(56.7)
16.2
(61.2)
19.5
(67.1)
21.4
(70.5)
22.0
(71.6)
20.3
(68.5)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
10.9
(51.6)
15.4
(59.7)
Record low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
3.2
(37.8)
3.0
(37.4)
8.0
(46.4)
9.2
(48.6)
14.0
(57.2)
16.8
(62.2)
17.2
(63.0)
14.0
(57.2)
9.0
(48.2)
4.6
(40.3)
2.2
(36.0)
0.2
(32.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 69.0
(2.72)
58.5
(2.30)
34.7
(1.37)
45.2
(1.78)
26.9
(1.06)
6.7
(0.26)
0.2
(0.01)
1.7
(0.07)
23.8
(0.94)
67.3
(2.65)
97.7
(3.85)
92.3
(3.63)
524
(20.64)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.9 6.4 4.8 5.6 3.2 1.0 0.1 0.2 2.5 5.6 7.2 8.1 51.6
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 71 69 70 69 68 70 71 74 74 76 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 184 197 228 255 307 331 354 335 252 228 187 166 3,024
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[46]
Climate data for Cádiz (highest and lowest mean temperatures in 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean maximum °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
19.3
(66.7)
21.8
(71.2)
22.1
(71.8)
24.8
(76.6)
28.0
(82.4)
30.1
(86.2)
31.4
(88.5)
28.7
(83.7)
25.6
(78.1)
22.9
(73.2)
18.1
(64.6)
31.4
(88.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
6.8
(44.2)
10.7
(51.3)
11.7
(53.1)
13.9
(57.0)
16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
20.4
(68.7)
17.8
(64.0)
14.6
(58.3)
11.1
(52.0)
8.6
(47.5)
6.8
(44.2)
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[47]

Beaches

Cádiz, situated on a peninsula,[48] is home to many beaches.

Cadiz 01
La Caleta Beach

La Playa de la Caleta is the best-loved beach of Cádiz. It has always been in Carnival songs, due to its unequalled beauty and its proximity to the Barrio de la Viña. It is the beach of the Old City, situated between two castles, San Sebastian and Santa Catalina. It is around 400 meters (1,300 ft) long and 30 meters (98 ft) wide at low tide. La Caleta and the boulevard show a lot of resemblance to parts of Havana, the capital city of Cuba, like the malecon. Therefore, it served as the set for several of the Cuban scenes in the beginning of the James Bond movie Die Another Day.

La Playa de la Victoria, in the newer part of Cádiz, is the beach most visited by tourists and natives of Cádiz. It is about three km long, and it has an average width of 50 meters (160 ft) of sand. The moderate swell and the absence of rocks allow family bathing. It is separated from the city by an avenue; on the landward side of the avenue, there are many shops and restaurants.

Catedral of Cadiz
View of the cathedral from Playa de la Santamaría

La Playa de Santa María del Mar or Playita de las Mujeres is a small beach in Cádiz, situated between La Playa de Victoria and La Playa de la Caleta. It features excellent views of the old district of Cádiz.

Other beaches are Torregorda, Cortadura and El Chato.

Carnival

CarnavalCadiz1926
Poster advertising the 1926 Carnival of Cádiz

The Carnival of Cádiz is one of the best known carnivals in the world. Throughout the year, carnival-related activities are almost constant in the city; there are always rehearsals, public demonstrations, and contests of various kinds.

The Carnival of Cádiz is famous for the satirical groups called chirigotas, who perform comical musical pieces. Typically, a chirigota is composed of seven to twelve performers who sing, act and improvise accompanied by guitars, kazoos, a bass drum, and a variety of noise-makers. Other than the chirigotas, there are many other groups of performers: choruses; ensembles called comparsas, who sing in close harmony much like the barbershop quartets of African-American culture or the mariachis of Mexico; cuartetos, consisting of four (or sometimes three) performers alternating dramatic parodies and humorous songs; and romanceros, storytellers who recite tales in verse. These diverse spectacles turn the city into a colourful and popular open-air theatre for two entire weeks in February.

The Concurso Oficial de Agrupaciones Carnavalescas (the official association of carnival groups) sponsors a contest in the Gran Teatro Falla (see above) each year where chirigotas and other performers compete for prizes. This is the climactic event of the Cádiz carnival.

Gastronomy

Tortillita de camarones
Tortillita de camarones

The gastronomy of Cádiz includes stews and sweets typical of the comarca and the city.

  • Atún encebollado
  • Caballa asada
  • Caballa con babetas
  • Cazón en adobo
  • Cazón en amarillo
  • Chocos con papas
  • Garum
  • Huevas aliñás
  • Morena en adobo
  • Pan de Cádiz
  • Panizas
  • Papas aliñás (patatas aliñadas)
  • Pescado en sobrehúsa
  • Pestiños

Transportation

Cádiz is connected to European route E5 which connects it with Sevilla, Cordoba and Madrid to the North and Algeciras to the South East, continuing as E15 northbound along the Spanish mediterranean coast.

The city does not have its own airport. The region is served by Jerez Airport, which is approximately 40 km (25 mi) north of the city centre. The airport offers regular domestic flights to Madrid and Barcelona as well as scheduled and seasonal charter flights to the UK, Germany and other European destinations. Local train line C1 connects the airport to Cádiz main train station in 1hr.[49]

The main line train station is located just outside the old town. It offers regional and national services. The connection to the Madrid-Seville high-speed rail line was finished in 2015 after 14 years of construction, which extends the high speed Alvia trains to the city. Local services make the outskirts and regional destinations accessible along the line to Jerez and Seville.

The port opposite the train station provides weekly ferry services to the Canary Islands (2–3 days travel time)[50] as well as providing a stop for seasonal cruise ships.[51]

Twin towns—sister cities

Cádiz is twinned with:

Other relations

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Cádiz". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  2. ^ Pedro Espinosa (2006). "Found in Cádiz a wall of 3000 years". Cádiz: EL PAÍS (newspaper).
  3. ^ Oficina Municipal del Plan General de Ordenación Urbana (PGOU), compuesta por personal de la Oficina de Planeamiento y Gestión Urbanística reforzada con personal del Área de Urbanismo. "Memoria del Plan General de Ordenación Urbana" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. Extraido de la web del ayuntamiento y del siguiente apartado.
  4. ^ Phoenicians according to the Iberian protohistoric architecture project.
  5. ^ a b Nash, Elizabeth (9 October 2007). "'Europe's oldest city' is found - Europe, World - The Independent". The Independent. London: INM. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  6. ^ a b Strabo, Geographica 3.5.5
  7. ^ MAETN (1999). "diktyo". classic-web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 22 October 2005. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  8. ^ Head & al. (1911), p. 3.
  9. ^ "Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions", p. 141. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Accessed 24 July 2013.
  10. ^ Lipiński, Edward (2002). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. 80. Belgium: Peeters Leeuven (published 2001). p. 575. ISBN 978-90-429-0815-4.
  11. ^ Merriam-Webster. "Cádiz". Accessed 22 July 2013.
  12. ^ Data provided by Cádiz Municipal Authority Archived 16 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ A. B. Freijeiro, R. Corzo Sánchez, Der neue anthropoide Sarkophag von Cadiz. In: Madrider Mitteilungen 22, 1981.
  14. ^ "Phoenician anthropoid sarcophagi, male (around 450-400 BC) and female (around 470 BC), Cadiz Museum, Cádiz, Cadiz". Spain is culture. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  15. ^ Pseudo Scymnus or Pausanias of Damascus, Circuit of the Earth, 160-164
  16. ^ Espinosa, Pedro (2007). EL PAIS. Hallado en Cádiz un muro de 3.000 años
  17. ^ Krensky, Stephen (1987). Who Really Discovered America?. Illustrated by Steve Sullivan. Scholastic Inc. p. 30. ISBN 0-590-40854-2.
  18. ^ a b c Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: "Gades".
  19. ^ Life of Apollonius of Tyana, v. 5.
  20. ^ From the Life of Apollonius of Tyana: " ... the pillars in the temple were made of gold and silver smelted together so as to be of one color, and they were over a cubit high, of square form, resembling anvils; and their capitals were inscribed with letters which were neither Egyptian nor Indian nor of any kind which he could decipher. But Apollonius, since the priests would tell him nothing, remarked: 'Heracles of Egypt does not permit me not to tell all I know. These pillars are ties between earth and ocean, and they were inscribed by Heracles in the house of the Fates, to prevent any discord arising between the elements, and to save their mutual affection for one another from violation.'"
  21. ^ Livy, 21.21.
  22. ^ Livy (epitome) 33.
  23. ^ Suetonius, Divi Iuli, Vita Divi Iuli 7.
  24. ^ Strabo. Geography.
  25. ^ Juvenal, Satires, 10.1-2.
  26. ^ Evans, J. A. S. (2003). New Catholic Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor: Gale. pp. 95–102. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  27. ^ Turpin. Thomas Rodd, trans. History of Charles the Great and Orlando, p. 6. James Compton (London), 1812. Accessed 23 July 2013.
  28. ^ Fear, A.T. "The Tower of Cádiz". Faventia: Revista de Filologia Clàssica, #12-13, Vol. 1-2 (1990-1991), p. 199-211. Accessed 23 Jul 2013.
  29. ^ Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Makkari. Pascual De Gauangos, ed. & trans. The History of the Mohammadan Dynasties in Spain, Vol. I, p. 78. Routledge, 2002. Accessed 23 July 2013.
  30. ^ Wes Ulm. "The Defeat of the English Armada and the 16th-Century Spanish Naval Resurgence". Harvard University personal website. Archived from the original on 7 February 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  31. ^ directferries.co.uk
  32. ^ "Turismo - Ayuntamiento de Cádiz | Monastery and Church of San Francisco". turismo.cadiz.es. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  33. ^ "Plan your stay in Cádiz". España Fascinante. 2012. Archived from the original on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  34. ^ http://turismo.cadiz.es/en/rutas-y-visitas-en-cadiz/santa-cruz-church-old-cathedral
  35. ^ http://ler.letras.up.pt/uploads/ficheiros/2167.pdf
  36. ^ http://www.catedraldecadiz.com/la-catedral/
  37. ^ http://www.catedraldecadiz.com/la-catedral/
  38. ^ https://cadizpedia.wikanda.es/wiki/Torre_Tavira_(C%C3%A1diz)
  39. ^ https://www.torretavira.com/en/tavira-towers-history/
  40. ^ https://www.torretavira.com/en/visiting-the-tavira-tower/
  41. ^ "The palace | Cadiz´s Conference Centre". palaciocongresos-Cádiz.com. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  42. ^ Pardillo (6 June 2009). "Puente de La Pepa, 3D View in Google Earth". Sketchup.google.com. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  43. ^ "Cadiz Tourism in the City Center". www.whatcadiz.com.
  44. ^ "Cadiz Spain: A Great Beach Town on Spains Coast". www.southern-spain-travel.com.
  45. ^ https://foro.tiempo.com/olas-de-frio-entradas-frias-y-temporales-de-nieve-en-espana-1830-1985-t91237.0.html
  46. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". Archived from the original on 28 October 2017.
  47. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". October 2017.
  48. ^ "Google Maps". Maps.google.com. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  49. ^ "Public transport - Jerez Airport - Aena.es". www.aena.es. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  50. ^ "Cadiz ferry, compare prices, times and book tickets". www.directferries.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  51. ^ "Port of Cadiz Bay". www.puertocadiz.com. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  52. ^ "Les jumelages de Brest". Mairie-brest.fr. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.

Bibliography

External links

Algeciras

Algeciras (; Spanish: [alxeˈθiɾas]; Arabic: الجزيرة الخضراء‎, translit. Al Jazīra Al-Khadrā) is a port city in the south of Spain, and is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar (in Spanish, the Bahía de Algeciras). The Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and the world in three categories: container,

cargo and transhipment. It is located 20 km north-east of Tarifa on the Río de la Miel, which is the southernmost river of the Iberian peninsula and continental Europe. In 2015, it had a population of 118,920.

It is the biggest city among those of its metropolitan area that also includes the municipalities of Los Barrios, La Línea de la Concepción, Castellar de la Frontera, Jimena de la Frontera, San Roque and Tarifa, with a population of 263,739.

Capture of Cádiz

The Capture of Cádiz in 1596 was an event during the Anglo-Spanish War, when English and Dutch troops under Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex and a large Anglo-Dutch fleet under Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, with support from the Dutch United Provinces, raided the Spanish city of Cádiz.

Due to the Spanish commander's lack of foresight and organisation, the Anglo-Dutch forces met little resistance. In order to deny the raiders their prize the Spanish set fire to their fleet anchored in the Bay of Cádiz; the attacking forces disembarked, captured, sacked and burned the city and took hostage several of the city's prominent citizens, who were taken back to England to await payment of their ransom.

The economic losses caused during the sacking were numerous: the city was burned, as was the fleet, in what was one of the principal English victories in the course of the war. Despite its failure in its primary objective of seizing the Spanish treasure fleet's silver, the raid contributed to Spain's declaration of bankruptcy the following year.

Cortes of Cádiz

The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain. It represented the abolition of the old kingdoms. The opening session was held on 24 September 1810, in the building now known as the Real Teatro de las Cortes. It met as one body and its members represented the entire Spanish empire. The sessions of the national legislative body (traditionally known in Spain as the Cortes) met in the safe haven of Cádiz during the French occupation of Spain during the Napoleonic Wars. The Cádiz Cortes were seen then, and by historians today, as a major step towards liberalism and democracy in the history of Spain. The liberal Cortes passed the Spanish Constitution of 1812, which established a constitutional monarchy and eliminated many basic institutions that privileged some groups over others.

Cádiz CF

Cádiz Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., known simply as Cádiz, is a professional football club based in Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain.

Founded in 1910, it plays in Segunda División, holding home games at Estadio Ramón de Carranza, with a 25,033-seat capacity.

Salvadoran legend Mágico González played for the club during the 1980s/1990s, and is widely recognized as the greatest player to have ever played for the team.

Cádiz Memorial

The Cádiz Memorial, also known as the "Prince Regent's Bomb", is an early 19th-century French mortar mounted on a brass monster, located in Horse Guards Parade in Westminster, London. It was first "exposed to public view" on 12 August 1816 and has been classified as a Grade II listed building since 1 December 1987. The monument was a feature of many satirical verses and cartoons in the early 19th century, mainly because the word "bomb" – pronounced "bum" – gave it an immediate association with the notoriously profligate Prince Regent's sizeable backside.

Cádiz expedition (1625)

The Cádiz expedition of 1625 was a naval expedition against Spain by English and Dutch forces.

The plan was put forward because after the Dissolution of the Parliament of 1625, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord High Admiral, wanted to undertake an expedition that would match the exploits of the raiders of the Elizabethan era and in doing so, would return respect to the country and its people after the political stress of the preceding years.

El Puerto de Santa María

El Puerto de Santa María (Spanish pronunciation: [el ˈpweɾto ðe ˈsanta maˈɾi.a], "The Port of Saint Mary"), locally known as El Puerto, is a municipality located on the banks of the Guadalete River in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia. As of 2016, the city has a population of c. 88,184, of which some 50,000 live in the urban center, and the remainder in the surrounding areas.

The town of El Puerto de Santa María is 10 kilometres (6 miles) north east of Cádiz across the bay of Cádiz .

Francis, Duke of Cádiz

Francisco de Asís María Fernando de Borbón, sometimes anglicised Francis of Assisi (13 May 1822 – 17 April 1902), was the husband of Queen Isabella II of Spain and king consort from 1846 to 1868. He is commonly styled Duke of Cádiz, the title he held before his marriage. Francis was the son of Infante Francisco de Paula of Spain, the youngest uncle of Isabella II, and Princess Luisa Carlotta of Naples and Sicily, the sister of Isabella's mother, making him a double first cousin to Isabella.

Jerez de la Frontera

Jerez de la Frontera (Spanish pronunciation: [xeˈɾeθ ðe la fɾonˈteɾa]), or simply Jerez (pronounced [xeˈɾeθ]), is a Spanish city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia, in southwestern Spain, located midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Cádiz Mountains. As of 2015, the city, the largest in the province, had a population of 212,876. It is the fifth largest in Andalusia, and has become the transportation and communications hub of the province, surpassing even Cádiz, the provincial capital, in economic activity. Jerez de la Frontera is also, in terms of land area, the largest municipality in the province, and its sprawling outlying areas are a fertile zone for agriculture. There are also many cattle ranches and horse-breeding operations, as well as a world-renowned wine industry (Xerez).

Currently, Jerez, with 212,876 inhabitants, is the 25th largest city in Spain, the 5th in Andalusia and 1st in the Province of Cádiz. It belongs to the Municipal Association of the Bay of Cádiz (Mancomunidad de Municipios Bahía de Cádiz), the 3rd largest Andalusian metropolitan area and the 12th in Spain, with over 650,000 inhabitants.

Its municipality covers an area of 1,188.14 km2 (458.74 sq mi) and includes the Los Alcornocales Natural Park and the Sierra de Gibalbín, also known as Montes de Propio de Jerez.

The city is located 12 km (7.46 mi) from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Campiña de Jerez, region appropriate to cultivate the vineyards that produce the famous sherry. Some famous places in to the city are Alcazar of Jerez, Church of San Miguel, Charterhouse of Jerez, the Cathedral of San Salvador.

Since 1987 the Grand Prix motorcycle racing has been held at the Circuito de Jerez in early May. On this weekend, the city welcomes tens of thousands of bikers from around the world. The same circuit has hosted several Formula 1 Grands Prix, including the 1997 final race of the season, which was marred with controversy for a notable high-profile championship-deciding incident. Other popular festivals in the city are Feria de Jerez or the Holy Week in Jerez.

Jerez is known as the city of flamenco, sherry, horses and motorcycles. In 2013, Jerez was the European Capital of Wine and 2014, it was the world's first Motorbike Capital.

Manuel Lapeña

Manuel Lapeña Rodríguez y Ruiz de Sotillo (fl. 1808–1811), sometimes referred to as Lapeña, was a Spanish military officer who served during the Peninsular War (Guerra de la Independencia Española – the Spanish War of Independence). He rose through the Spanish army's ranks to become Captain General of Andalusia. He is primarily known for commanding an Anglo–Spanish expedition from Cádiz, with the intention of raising the siege on that city, which led to the Battle of Barrosa.

Province of Cádiz

Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is the southernmost part of mainland Spain, as well as the southernmost part of continental Europe.

It is bordered by the Spanish provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Málaga, as well as the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. Its area is 7,385 square kilometers.

Its capital is the city of Cádiz, which has a population of more than 128,000. The largest city is Jerez de la Frontera with 208,896 inhabitants (as of 2010), and another important city is Algeciras with just over 114,000 inhabitants. The entire province had a population of 1,240,175 (as of 2014), of whom about 600,000 live in the Bay of Cádiz area. Its population density is 167.93 per square kilometer.

Rota, Andalusia

The town of Rota is a Spanish municipality located in the Province of Cádiz, Andalusia. Its surface area is 84 km² and is bordered by the towns of Chipiona, Sanlúcar de Barrameda and El Puerto de Santa María. It is located near the city of Jerez de la Frontera and is 36 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cadiz. In the year 2009 had 28,516 inhabitants, with a density of 339.44 inhabitants / km². It belongs to two associations, the Association of Municipalities of Cadiz Bay along with the municipalities of Cadiz, Jerez de la Frontera, El Puerto de Santa María, San Fernando, Chiclana and Puerto Real; and the Association of Municipalities of the Lower Guadalquivir that comprises municipalities of Northwest Coast of Andalusia.

Located along the Bay of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean, it is halfway between Portugal and Gibraltar, is predominantly a tourist town, a vacation/holiday destination for travelers from all over Europe. During the low season, its main business activity is the fishing industry. In the municipality is located the Naval Station Rota, which is the largest source of employment to the municipality. It also served as a transoceanic abort landing site for the Space Shuttle program.

San Fernando, Cádiz

San Fernando (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈsaɱ feɾˈnando], Saint-Ferdinand) is a town in the province of Cádiz, Spain. It is home to more than 97,500 inhabitants. The city also uses the name "La Isla" (The Island). The people from San Fernando are locally known as "Cañaíllas" or "Isleños".

Sanlúcar de Barrameda

Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spanish pronunciation: [sanˈlukaɾ ðe βaraˈmeða]), or simply Sanlúcar, is a city in the northwest of Cádiz province, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain. Sanlúcar is located on the left bank at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River opposite the Doñana National Park, 52 km from the provincial capital Cádiz and 119 km from Sevilla capital of the autonomous region Andalucía. Its population is 65,805 inhabitants (National Institute of Statistics 2009).

Sanlúcar has been inhabited since ancient times, and is assumed to have belonged to the realm of the Tartessian civilization. The town of San Lucar was granted to the Spanish nobleman Alonso Pérez de Guzmán in 1297.

Due to its strategic location, the city was a starting point for the exploration, colonization and evangelization of America between the 15th and 17th centuries. Sanlúcar lost much of its strategic value after 1645 due to the disgrace of the House of Medina Sidonia, the general decline of Spain under Charles II, the relocation of the Casa de Contratación to Cadiz in 1717, and the Lisbon earthquake of 1755.

In the 19th century the economy of the city was converted to viticulture and summer tourism. The 20th century brought destruction and political upheaval as it did elsewhere in Spain during the Spanish Civil War. Sanlúcar was declared a Cultural Historical-artistic site in 1973. Since the restoration of democracy (1975–1982) its town council has borrowed heavily, making Sanlúcar the city with the lowest per capita income in Spain.

Currently (2010) Sanlúcar is a summer tourist destination famous for its cuisine, especially manzanilla (a variety of fino sherry) and prawns. It is internationally renowned for beach horse racing and flamenco music. Less well known but equally important are the historical archives of the House of Medina Sidonia (Archivo de la Casa de Medina Sidonia); the major part of the patrimony of the House of Medina Sidonia is located in the palace of the same name. The patron saint of the city is Our Lady of Charity, to whom it was dedicated in 1917.

Siege of Cádiz

The Siege of Cádiz was a siege of the large Spanish naval base of Cádiz by a French army from 5 February 1810 to 24 August 1812 during the Peninsular War. Following the occupation of Seville, Cádiz became the Spanish seat of power, and was targeted by 70,000 French troops under the command of the Marshals Claude Victor and Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult for one of the most important sieges of the war. Defending the city were 2,000 Spanish troops who, as the siege progressed, received aid from 10,000 Spanish reinforcements as well as British and Portuguese troops.

During the siege, which lasted two and a half years, the Cortes Generales government in Cadiz (the Cádiz Cortes) drew up a new constitution to reduce the strength of the monarchy, which was eventually revoked by Fernando VII.In October 1810 a mixed Anglo-Spanish relief force embarked on a disastrous landing at Fuengirola. A second relief attempt was made at Tarifa in 1811. However, despite defeating a detached French force of 15,000–20,000 under Marshal Victor at the Battle of Barrosa, the siege was not lifted.

In 1812 the Battle of Salamanca eventually forced the French troops to retreat from Andalusia, for fear of being cut off by the Coalition armies. The French defeat contributed decisively to the liberation of Spain from French occupation, due to the survival of the Spanish government and the use of Cádiz as a jump-off point for the Coalition forces.

Spanish Constitution of 1812

The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Spanish: Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Spanish: Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history. It was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cortes of Cádiz, the first Spanish legislature. With the notable exception of proclaiming Roman Catholicism as the official and sole legal religion in Spain, the constitution was one of the most liberal of its time: it affirmed national sovereignty, separation of powers, freedom of the press, free enterprise, abolished feudalism, and established a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. It was one of the first constitutions that allowed universal male suffrage, through a complex indirect electoral system. It was repealed by King Ferdinand VII in 1814 in Valencia, who re-established absolute monarchy.

However, the Constitution had many difficulties becoming fully effective: much of Spain was ruled by the French, while the rest of the country was in the hands of interim Junta governments focused on resistance to the Bonapartes rather than on the immediate establishment of a constitutional regime. Many of the overseas territories did not recognize the legitimacy of these interim metropolitan governments, leading to a power vacuum and the establishment of separate juntas on the American continent. On 24 March 1814, six weeks after returning to Spain, Ferdinand VII abolished the constitution and had all monuments to it torn down. Only the Constitution Obelisk in Saint Augustine, Florida survived. The constitution was reinstated during the Trienio Liberal (1820–1823), and again briefly 1836—1837 while the Progressives prepared the Constitution of 1837.

Tarifa

Tarifa is a small town in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, on the southernmost coast of mainland Spain. It is primarily known as one of the world's most popular destinations for wind sports. The town is located on the Costa de la Luz ("coast of light") and across the Strait of Gibraltar facing Morocco.

At exactly 36 degrees latitude, it is the southernmost point of Continental Europe, situated south of the two African capital cities of Tunis and Algiers. It is also one of the southernmost points of geographic Europe with only Malta, Cyprus and the southernmost Greek islands of Crete and Gavdos being further south, with Gavdos being the southernmost point of Europe.

The municipality includes Punta de Tarifa, the southernmost point in continental Europe. There are several villages which depend economically on Tarifa in the municipality, including Tahivilla, Facinas, and Bolonia.

University of Cádiz

The University of Cádiz (in Spanish: Universidad de Cádiz), commonly referred to as UCA, is a public university located in the province of Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain, noted for its medicine and marine sciences curricula. It was founded in 1979, and has the Latin motto Non Plus Ultra ("No Further Beyond"). Its headquarters are located in Cádiz, where the Rectorate is.

During the 2007/2008 academic year, there were 17,280 students, 1698 lecturers, and 680 administration and services workers associated with the university.

Víctor Espárrago

Víctor Rodolfo Espárrago Videla (born 6 October 1944 in Montevideo) is a Uruguayan football coach and former midfielder.

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