The East Roman–Sassanid War of 440 was a short conflict between the East Roman Empire and the Sassanian Empire. The reason for its short ending was that the southern Roman provinces were being invaded by the Vandals, which forced the East Romans to sue for a quick end to the war to focus on the Vandal invasion. The Sassanians were also paid some money in return for peace.
The East Roman and Sassanid empires were frequently at war and this was largely rooted on religion as Persia - where Zoroastrianism prevailed - had been troubled by Christian proselytism. This period of conflict emerged after the reign of Yazdgerd I who was known for his peaceful policy towards Byzantium and was even appointed guardian of the infant Theodosius II, one of the belligerents of the war. This changed during the regimes of Shapur II and Yazdgerd II, who violently persecuted Jews, Christians, and Christian converts. It provoked a response from the East Roman empire, which sent troops against Persian forces after it failed to reverse Yazdgerd's policy peacefully. The short-lived conflict, which some sources described as a stalemate, was reignited later in a series of hostilities (e.g. Justinian's war with the Sassanids). These culminated in the Roman-Persian war during the time of Emperor Heraclius who defeated the Sassanid empire at the Battle of Nineveh in 627 CE.
^Encyclopaedia Iranica "Upon ascending the throne, Yazdgerd II waged a war with the Roman empire, starting in 440 CE and with little success for either side (Greatrex, p. 2). The Romans, hard pressed on their southern front by the Vandal invasion and conquest of Carthage, sued for a quick end to war in return for payments to the Sasanians in order to defend the Caucusus."
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