Byth Rok is a DC Comics supervillain who is a recurring enemy of the Silver Age Hawkman. He was created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, and first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34 (February/March 1961), titled "Creature of a Thousand Shapes".
|First appearance||The Brave and the Bold #34 (February/March 1961)|
|Created by||Gardner Fox|
|Full name||Byth Rok|
On the alien planet Thanagar, a scientist named Krotan developed a pill that would empower the mind to control the molecular formation of the body. Just as he was about to swallow it, a thief named Byth assaulted him and swallowed the pill. Byth first transformed into a bird and left (via spaceship) to commit crimes on other planets. Katar Hol and his wife, Shayera, tracked his rocket to Earth.
For many years, Byth would escape on several occasions only to be captured again by Hawkman and Hawkwoman.
In the Hawkworld mini-series, Byth is a corrupt Wingman commander and Katar Hol's superior. He manipulated a drug-induced Katar into killing his father, aiding his rise to power. Now Administrator of Protection, he gains his shape-shifting powers from a new drug called Krotan. Katar Hol, with the help of Shayera Thal, uncover his schemes and Byth escapes arrest. He flees to Earth and runs some criminal operations in Chicago. He supplied Carl Sands with a shadow generator. He is later captured, and returned to Thanagar.
In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, Lord Byth is shown to be responsible for the creation of Ultra the Multi-Alien where he had combined the DNA of the alien prisoners in order to make Ultra the Multi-Alien the Slayer of Worlds.
Byth Rok is considered by many to be the greatest thief on all of Thanagar.
After consuming the Changeling Pill (or Krotan), Byth has the ability to shape-change into any other person or animal at will, whether they were indigenous to Thanagar or originated on an alien world (including Earth). There appears to be no physical restriction in terms of mass or volume when it comes to Byth's shape-shifting talents.
Alba gu bràth (pronounced [ˈal̪ˠapə kə ˈpɾaːx] (listen)) is a Scottish Gaelic phrase used to express allegiance to Scotland. Idiomatically it translates into English as "Scotland forever" though the literal meaning of gu bràth in Gaelic is 'until Judgment'.
The phrase is often used as a political slogan in the campaign for Scottish independence.
The phrase is parallel to the Welsh language slogan "Cymru am byth" ("Wales forever"), the Cornish language "Kernow bys vyken" ("Cornwall forever"), or the Irish Éirinn go Brách ("Ireland Forever").Am Byth
Am Byth is a compilation album by the Welsh band Ffa Coffi Pawb. It was released in 2004 and includes songs recorded by the band between 1986 and 1992.Cuminestown
Cuminestown (pron. kʌm'ɪnstʌn) is a village in the Formartine area of Aberdeenshire, approximately six miles east of Turriff. The village is the main centre of the parish of Monquhitter, which was split from Turriff in 1649 when what was then a rural church was built on land owned by the Cumine family. The village itself was originally built in the 1750s to a design by Sir Archibald Grant of Monymusk, who was a friend of Joseph Cumine. Grant's plan for the village followed closely the design used for firstly New Keith, and secondly Archiestown. The construction of the village was followed soon afterwards by the adjacent hamlet of Garmond.
In 2011, Cuminestown had an estimated population of 440.The village primary school, called Monquhitter School, also serves Garmond and New Byth.Cwm Rhondda
Cwm Rhondda, taken from the Welsh name for the Rhondda Valley, is a popular hymn tune written by John Hughes.
It is usually used in English as a setting for William Williams' text Guide Me, O Thou Great Redeemer (or, in some traditions, Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah), originally Arglwydd, arwain trwy’r anialwch in Welsh. The tune and hymn are often called Bread of Heaven because of a line in this English translation.
In Welsh the tune is most commonly used as a setting for a hymn by Ann Griffiths, Wele'n sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd.Ear (rune)
The Ear ᛠ rune of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc is a late addition to the alphabet. It is, however, still attested from epigraphical evidence, notably the Thames scramasax, and its introduction thus cannot postdate the 9th century. It is transliterated as ea, and the Anglo-Saxon rune poem glosses it as
ᛠ [ear] byþ egle eorla gehƿylcun, / ðonn[e] fæstlice flæsc onginneþ, / hraƿ colian, hrusan ceosan / blac to gebeddan; bleda gedreosaþ, / ƿynna geƿitaþ, ƿera gesƿicaþ.
" ᛠ [ear] is horrible to every knight, / when the corpse quickly begins to cool / and is laid in the bosom of the dark earth. / Prosperity declines, happiness passes away / and covenants are broken."Jacob Grimm in his 1835 Teutonic Mythology (ch. 9)attached a deeper significance to the name.
He interprets the Old English poem as describing "death personified", connected to the death-bringing god of war, Ares.
He notes that the ear rune is simply a Tyr rune with two barbs attached to it and suggests that Tir and Ear, Old High German Zio and Eor, were two names of the same god. He finds the name in the toponym of Eresburg (*Eresberc) in Westphalia, in Latin Mons martis.
Grimm thus suggests that the Germans had adopted the name of Greek Ares as an epithet of their god of war, and Eresberc was literally an Areopagus.
Grimm further notes that in the Bavarian (Marcomannic) area, Tuesday (dies Martis) was known as Ertag, Iertag, Irtag, Eritag, Erchtag, Erichtag as opposed to the Swabian and Swiss (Alemannic) region where the same day is Ziestag as in Anglo-Saxon.
Grimm concludes that Ziu was known by the alternative name Eor, derived from Greek Ares, and also as Saxnot among the Saxons, identified as a god of the sword.Eihwaz
Eiwaz or Eihaz (reconstructed *īhaz / *ēhaz or *īwaz / *ēwaz) was a Proto-Germanic word for "yew", and the reconstructed name of the rune ᛇ.
The rune survives in the Anglo-Saxon futhorc as ᛇ Ēoh "yew" (note that eoh "horse" has a short diphthong). Ēoh could behave as both a vowel (perhaps /iː/), and as a consonant (in the range of /x ~ ç/). As a vowel, Ēoh shows up in jïslheard (ᛡᛇᛋᛚᚻᛠᚱᛞ) on the Dover Stone. As a consonant, Ēoh shows up in almeïttig (ᚪᛚᛗᛖᛇᛏᛏᛁᚷ) on the Ruthwell Cross.It is commonly transliterated as ï or æ, or, in reconstructions of Proto-Germanic, ē2. Its phonetic value at the time of the invention of the Futhark (2nd century) was not necessarily a diphthong, but possibly a long vowel somewhere between [iː] and [eː] or [æː], continuing Proto-Indo-European language *ei.
Two variants of the word are reconstructed for Proto-Germanic, *īhaz (*ē2haz, PIE *eikos), continued in Old English as ēoh (also īh), and *īwaz (*ē2waz, Proto-Indo-European *eiwos), continued in Old English as īw (whence yew). The latter is possibly an early loan from the Celtic, compare Gaulish ivos, Breton ivin, Welsh ywen, Old Irish ēo. The common spelling of the rune's name, "Eihwaz", combines the two variants; strictly based on the Old English evidence, a spelling "Eihaz" would be more proper.
The Anglo-Saxon rune poem:
ᛇ Eoh byþ utan unsmeþe treoƿ,
heard hrusan fæst, hyrde fyres,
ƿyrtrumun underƿreþyd, ƿyn on eþle.The yew is a tree with rough bark,
hard and fast in the earth, supported by its roots,
a guardian of flame and a joy upon an estate.The rune is not to be confused with the Sowilo rune, which has a somewhat similar shape, or with Ehwaz, the rune expressing short e or ē1. In the Younger Futhark, there is the terminal -R rune ᛦ Yr "yew", but neither its shape nor its sound is related to the Eihwaz rune: it is, rather, a continuation of Algiz.Fade files
Fade Files is an electronic pop group based in Cardiff, Wales. Its members are Richard Griffiths (from Cardiff), Stefan Schmid (from Fribourg, Switzerland) and producer Mark Hopgood, from London. The group started in 2012 when Richard and Stefan began to demo songs together in Switzerland and Wales. Inspired initially by The Postal Service’s method of working from different parts of the country, their collaboration continued over the Internet. Mark joined in 2014, and the group writes and produces their music together in Switzerland, London or Wales, or sometimes by swapping files online. Their first single Byth yn Dod Lawr was produced in collaboration with Kris Jenkins.Ffa Coffi Pawb
Ffa Coffi Pawb (Welsh: "Everybody's Coffee Beans", phonetically: "Fuck Off To Everyone" [ˈfɑː ˈkɔfɪ ˈpaub]) was a band signed to Welsh music label, Ankst, active from 1986 to 1992.The band was made up of singer and guitarist Gruff Rhys (later of Super Furry Animals), drummer Dafydd Ieuan (also later of Super Furry Animals), Rhodri Puw (later of Gorky's Zygotic Mynci) and Dewi Emlyn (later tour manager for Gorky's Zygotic Mynci and Super Furry Animals). One of the band's tracks, "Dacw Hi", was eventually covered by the Furries on their Welsh language album Mwng.
The band released three albums, Clymhalio, Dalec Peilon and Hei Vidal!. In 2004, a compilation drawn from their albums was released under the title Am Byth ("Forever") on the Placid Casual label, with renewed interest from the success of Super Furry Animals.Fordyce, Aberdeenshire
Fordyce is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland that is slightly inland from the point where the Burn of Fordyce meets the sea between Cullen and Portsoy. It has existed since at least the 13th century.Garmond, Aberdeenshire
Garmond (Scottish Gaelic: Garbh Mhon(adh)) is a linear village in Monquhitter Parish which is located in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It was founded c.1760. Like the neighbouring villages of Cuminestown and New Byth, the residential part is located on the crest of a hill, the valley below being largely given over to farmland.
"The Garmond" is 1 mile North of Cuminestown and 7 miles East of Turriff.Gyfu
Gyfu is the name for the g-rune ᚷ in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning ‘gift’ or ‘generosity’:
The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is 𐌲 g, called giba. The same rune also appears in the Elder Futhark, with a suggested Proto-Germanic name *gebô ‘gift’. J. H. Looijenga speculates that the rune is directly derived from Latin Χ, the pronunciation of which may have been similar to Germanic g in the 1st century, e.g., Gothic *reihs compared to Latin rex (as opposed to the Etruscan alphabet, where /𐌗 had a value of [s]).
The gyfu rune is sometimes used as a symbol within modern mysticism, particularly amongst those interested in Celtic mythology. It’s described, for example, in the book The Runic Tarot as a representation of the giving-receiving balance in friendships.Hawkman (Katar Hol)
Hawkman (Katar Hol) is a DC Comics superhero. He is the Silver Age, Bronze Age, and New 52 Hawkman. Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, he first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34 (February–March 1961). There are two versions of Katar Hol, the Silver Age/Pre-Crisis version and the post-Hawkworld/Post-Crisis version.Hawkworld
Hawkworld is a comic book series published by American company DC Comics from 1989 to 1993. The initial story line was published as a three-issue mini-series and then, based on the high sales and interest level generated by this limited series, launched as an ongoing monthly book. Katar Hol and Shayera Thal were rebooted in the prestige format limited series.New Byth
New Byth is a small inland planned village in the Banff and Buchan committee area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland that lies a few miles northeast of Cuminestown. It was founded in 1764 by the then Laird of Byth, James Urquhart.
The village has few facilities, the former primary school having closed in 2005, followed by the Post Office in 2006, and the village pub in 2008. There are two former church buildings, the larger previously affiliated to the Church of Scotland and now derelict, the smaller associated with the United Free Church of Scotland until 1929 and still administered by the Church of Scotland though it is no longer used for church activities, instead being hired out as a general community hall. The village had an active branch of the Scottish Women's Rural Institute for 50 years to 2011, when it merged with the Monquhitter branch.
The village hosts an annual steam and vintage rally, usually on the Sunday closest to 1 July.Peorð
ᛈ is the rune denoting the sound p (voiceless bilabial stop) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. It is named peorð in the Anglo-Saxon rune-poem and glossed enigmatically as follows:
ᛈ peorð byþ symble plega and hlehter / ƿlancum [on middum], ðar ƿigan sittaþ / on beorsele bliþe ætsomne
"Peorð is a source of recreation and amusement to the great, where warriors sit blithely together in the beerhall."The name is not comprehensible from Old English, i.e. no word similar to peorð is known in this language.
According to a 9th-century manuscript of Alcuin (Codex Vindobonensis 795), written using the Gothic alphabet in Britain, the letters p (based on a Greek Π) and q (an inverted Π) are called "pairþra" and "qairþra", respectively. One of these names clearly is derived from the other. However, the names are not comprehensible in Gothic either, and it is not clear which is derived from which, although it is known that the Elder Futhark had a p, but no q rune.
In any case, it seems evident that peorð is related to pairþra.
The Anglo-Saxon futhorc adopted exactly the same approach for the addition of a labiovelar rune, ᛢ cƿeorð, in both shape and name based on peorð, but it is not known if the Gothic runes already had a similar variant rune of p, or if the labiovelar letter was a 4th-century creation of Ulfilas.
The Common Germanic name could be referring to a pear-tree (or perhaps generally a fruit-tree).
Based on the context of "recreation and amusement" given in the rune poem, a common speculative interpretation is that the intended meaning is "pear-wood" as the material of either a woodwind instrument, or a "game box" or game pieces made from wood.
From peorð, Proto-Germanic form *perðu, *perþō or *perþaz may be reconstructed on purely phonological grounds. The expected Proto-Germanic term for "pear tree" would be *pera-trewô (*pera being, however, a post-Proto-Germanic loan, either West Germanic, or Common Germanic, if Gothic pairþra meant "pear tree", from Vulgar Latin pirum (plural pira), itself of unknown origin).
The Ogham letter name Ceirt, glossed as "apple tree", may in turn be a loan from Germanic into Primitive Irish.
The earliest attestation of the rune is in the Kylver Stone futhark row (ca. AD 400). The earliest example in a linguistic context (as opposed to an abecedarium) is already in futhorc, in the Kent II, III and IV coin inscriptions (the personal names pada and æpa/epa), dated to ca. AD 700. On St. Cuthbert's coffin (AD 698), a p rune takes the place of Greek Ρ. The Westeremden yew-stick (ca. AD 750) has op hæmu "at home" and up duna "on the hill".
Looijenga (1997) speculates that the p rune arose as a variant of the b rune, parallel to the secondary nature of Ogham peith. The uncertainty surrounding the rune is a consequence of the rarity of the *p phoneme in Proto-Germanic, itself due to the rarity of its parent-phoneme *b in Proto-Indo-European.
The rune is discontinued in Younger Futhark, which expresses /p/ with the b rune, for example on the Viking Age Skarpåker Stone,
iarþ sal rifna uk ubhiminfor Old Norse
Jörð skal rifna ok upphiminn.
"Earth shall be rent, and the heavens above."Ross Honeywill
Ross Honeywill is an Australian social scientist. His books have been published in the US, China, Australia and New Zealand.An Adjunct Associate Professor in business and economics, Honeywill is Executive Director of the Centre for Social Economics, based in Melbourne Australia. He has a PhD from the University of Tasmania.He developed the Desire Economy model and the NEO typology - both population classifications revealing a measure of high-value consumption - for North America, Australia and Asia.He lives in Melbourne, Australia with conceptual artist and writer, Greer Honeywill.Sandhaven
Sandhaven is a small fishing village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland that lies between Rosehearty and Fraserburgh. It is joined to the West to the even smaller village of Pitullie.Wales
Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.
Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters.
At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the South Wales Coalfield's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea, Newport and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector, light and service industries and tourism.
Although Wales closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, and a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is officially bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.Whitehills
Whitehills is a small fishing village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland that lies three miles west of Banff on the Moray Firth.