Buttocks

The buttocks (singular: buttock) are two rounded portions of the anatomy, located on the posterior of the pelvic region of primates (including humans), and many other bipeds or quadrupeds, and comprise a layer of fat superimposed on the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles. The two gluteus maximus muscles stabilise the hip joint and are the largest muscles in the entire human body; responsible for propelling the entire body forward when running and walking, ensuring the proper functioning of the entire leg.[1] Physiologically, the buttocks enable weight to be taken off the feet while sitting. In many cultures, they play a role in sexual attraction.[2] Some cultures, such as that of Victorian England, have also used the buttocks as a primary target for corporal punishment,[3] as the buttocks' layer of subcutaneous fat offers protection against injury while still allowing for the infliction of pain. There are several connotations of buttocks in art, fashion, culture and humor, and the English language is replete with many popular synonyms that range from polite colloquialisms ("posterior", "backside" or "bottom") to vulgar slang ("arse," "ass," "bum," "butt," "booty," "prat"). In humans the buttocks are located between the lower back and the perineum.

Buttocks
Human buttocks
Buttocks of a female (upper) and a male (lower).
Details
ArterySuperior gluteal artery, inferior gluteal artery
NerveSuperior gluteal nerve, inferior gluteal nerve, superior cluneal nerves, medial cluneal nerves, inferior cluneal nerves
Identifiers
LatinClunis
MeSHD002081
TAA01.1.00.033
FMA76446
Anatomical terminology

Anatomy

The buttocks are formed by the masses of the gluteal muscles or "glutes" (the gluteus maximus muscle and the gluteus medius muscle) superimposed by a layer of fat. The superior aspect of the buttock ends at the iliac crest, and the lower aspect is outlined by the horizontal gluteal crease. The gluteus maximus has two insertion points: ​13 superior portion of the linea aspera of the femur, and the superior portion of the iliotibial tractus. The masses of the gluteus maximus muscle are separated by an intermediate intergluteal cleft or "crack" in which the anus is situated.

The buttocks allow primates to sit upright without needing to rest their weight on their feet as four-legged animals do. Females of certain species of baboon have red buttocks that blush to attract males. In the case of humans, females tend to have proportionally wider and thicker buttocks due to higher subcutaneous fat and proportionally wider hips. In humans they also have a role in propelling the body in a forward motion and aiding bowel movement.[4][5]

Some baboons and all gibbons, though otherwise fur-covered, have characteristic naked callosities on their buttocks. While human children generally have smooth buttocks, mature males and females have varying degrees of hair growth, as on other parts of their body. Females may have hair growth in the gluteal cleft (including around the anus), sometimes extending laterally onto the lower aspect of the cheeks. Males may have hair growth over some or all of the buttocks.

Society and culture

Connotations

Mooning
Students at Stanford University conduct a "mass-mooning" in May 1995

The English word of Greek origin "callipygian" indicates someone who has beautiful buttocks. However, the qualities that make buttocks beautiful or well-formed are not fixed, as sexual aesthetics of the buttocks vary considerably from culture to culture, from one period of fashion to another and even from person to person.

Depending on the context, exposure of the buttocks in non-intimate situations can cause feelings of embarrassment or humiliation, and embarrassment or amusement in an onlooker (see pantsing). Willfully exposing one's own bare buttocks as a protest, a provocation, or just for fun is called mooning.

In many punitive traditions, the buttocks are a common target for corporal punishment, which can be meted out with no risk of long-term physical harm compared with the dangers of applying it to other parts of the body, such as the hands, which could easily be damaged.[6] Within the Victorian school system in England, the buttocks have been described as "the place provided by nature" for this purpose.[3] A modern-day example can be seen in some Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore. Caning in Singapore is widely used as a form of judicial corporal punishment, with male convicts being sentenced to a caning on their bare buttocks.

In Western and some other cultures, many comedians, writers and others rely on the buttocks as a source of amusement, camaraderie and fun. There are numerous colloquial terms for the buttocks.

In American English, phrases use the buttocks or synonyms (especially "butt" and "ass") as a synecdoche or pars pro toto for a whole person, often with a negative connotation. For example, terminating an employee may be described as "firing his ass". One might say "move your ass" or "haul ass" as an exhortation to greater haste or urgency. Expressed as a function of punishment, defeat or assault becomes "kicking one's ass". Such phrases also may suggest a person's characteristics, e.g. difficult people are termed "hard asses". In America an annoying person or any source of frustration may be termed "a pain in the ass" (a synonym for "a pain in the neck"). People deemed excessively puritanical or proper may be termed "tight asses" (in Australia and New Zealand, "tight arse" refers to someone who is excessively miserly).

In the 2010s, the reality TV star Kim Kardashian is famous for her curvaceous buttocks, which have appeared on magazine covers. Kardashian appeared on the cover, and in a pictorial in Paper's winter issue in 2014 photographed by Jean-Paul Goude.[7] On the cover, her nude buttocks are featured above the caption: "Break the Internet", which generated considerable comment in both social and traditional media.[8][9]

Certain physical dispositions of the buttocks—particularly size—are sometimes identified, controversially, as a racial characteristic (see race). A famous example was the case of Saartjie Baartman, the so-called "Hottentot Venus".

Synonyms

See WikiSaurus:buttocks for a list of synonyms and slang words for buttocks in many languages. For unrelated homophones of butt(ocks), see also butt (disambiguation) and bud (disambiguation)
Stage Door Johnnies
A burlesque stage show with three men in Las Vegas
Fremont naked cyclists 2007 - 59
Seattle's nudist cyclists with painted buttocks
Japanese traditional swimwear FUNDOSHI red rokushaku back photomodel fthong 1
Japanese man in a traditional swimwear Fundoshi-rokushaku
Female buttocks inside a butterfly bikini
Some female clothing, such as the bikini, show part of the female buttocks. Thongs, in particular, leave almost all of the buttocks exposed.
Posterior view of human female and male, without labels
Posterior view of human female and male to show the comparison of their buttocks

The Latin name for the buttocks is nates (English pronunciation /ˈneɪtiːz/,[10] classical pronunciation nătes [ˈnateːs][11]) which is plural; the singular, natis (buttock), is rarely used. There are many colloquial terms to refer to them, including:

  • Backside, posterior, behind and its derivates (hind-quarters, hinder or the childish diminutive "heinie" (US usage only), strictly the whole body behind the hind leg-trunk attachment), rear or rear-end, derrière (French for "behind")—all strictly positional descriptions, as the inaccurate use of rump (as in 'rump roast', after a 'hot' spanking), thighs, upper legs; analogous are:
    • Aft, stern and poop, naval in origin; in nautical jargon, buttocks also designates the aftermost portion of a hull above the water line and in front of the rudder, merging with the run below the water line
    • Caboose, originally a ship's galley in wooden cabin on deck; also the "rear end" car of a freight train, considered a cute synonym suitable for any audience
    • Bottom (and the shortening "bot" as well as childish diminutives "bottie" or "botty"), but the use of similar-sounding "booty" or "bootie" may be related.
    • Tail (strictly anatomically a zoomorphism, humans only have a tail-bone, yet the illogical "tail feather" was popularized by musicians. When used to refer to a woman or to women in general, the term is derogatory; also used for the even more sensual phallus) and tail-end
    • Trunk, in American English, particularly when describing large buttocks: "junk in the trunk"
  • Apple, referring to the similar shape of the fruit, derived from the 1970s. Also likened to an upside-down heart, attributed from various, popular ads of the 1970s.
  • Arse or ass, arsehole or asshole, and (butt-)hole: a pars pro toto (strictly only the actual body cavity and directly adjoining anal region); also used as an insult for a person. The term arse or ass is Anglo-Saxon, and over a thousand years old.
  • Badonkadonk: onomatopoeic US slang meaning the voluptuously bouncing, large yet firm buttocks of a woman
  • Booty, US slang, used in the popular slang expression "booty call". It has been suggested that the word derives from a Bambara (West African) word for anus, buda.[12]
  • Breech, a metaphorical sense derived from on older form of the garment breeches (as the French culotte meaning pantoloons, via cul from Latin culus "butt"), so 'bare breech' means without breeches, i.e., trouserless butt
  • Bum: in British English, used frequently in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and many other English-speaking Commonwealth countries, also historically in the United States, is a mild often humorous term for buttocks, not necessarily in a vulgar or sexual context: "I've a boil on my bum, thrice as large as my thumb" (The Judge With The Sore Rump, St. George Tucker). A bum boy is an insulting term for a male homosexual.
  • Bumpy: a euphemistic term for the buttocks, used primarily with children
  • Buns, from Gaelic bun "bottom, base", mounds (cfr. Butte, a geographical mound, known since 1805 in American English, from (Old) French butte "mound, knoll") and orbs—shape-metaphors.
  • Bund: derived from Punjabi
  • Bunda: Brazilian Portuguese slang for buttocks, from Kimbundu mbunda, with same meaning.
  • Butt: the common term for a pair of buttocks in the US (singular, as one body-part; cognate but neither its root nor an abbreviation), used in everyday speech.
  • Cakes: slang word for buttocks
  • Can (a container) had an unusual development: the slang meaning "toilet" is recorded c. 1900, said to be a shortening of piss-can, the meaning "buttocks" from c. 1910, and the verb meaning "fire an employee" (to flush=dump?) from 1905.
  • Cheeks, a shape-metaphor within human anatomy, but also used in the singular: left cheek and right cheek; sounds particularly naughty because of the homonym and the adjective cheeky, lending themselves to word puns
  • Culo: (From Spanish/Italian) slang, usually meaning a woman's voluptuous, round and firm buttocks. Derived from a term for booty; in Spanish the term is considered vulgar and offensive, but less so in Spain than in Latin America.
  • Duffs: Ulster Irish origin
  • Dumper sometimes denotes the buttocks, especially when they are large.
  • Fanny: a socially acceptable term in print, in Canada and the United States at least, for many years before some of the bolder terms came along; and a subject of jokes, since "Fannie" can be a woman's name, diminutive of "Frances"; however, in British English fanny refers to the female genitals or vulva and is considered vulgar. The figure of a bare-bottomed lass named Fanny is ubiquitous in Provence (the southeast of France) wherever pétanque is played: traditionally when a player loses 13 to 0 it is said that “il est fanny” (he's fanny), and he has to kiss the bottom of a girl called Fanny; as there is rarely an obliging Fanny, there is always a substitute picture, woodcarving or pottery so that Fanny’s bottom is always available.[13]
  • Fourth point of contact: in military slang, because of the sequence of textbook parachute jump landing
  • Fundament (literally "foundation", not common in this general sense in English, but for the buttocks since 1297)
  • Gand or Gaand: a Hindi derivative
  • Hams, like buttocks generally as a plural, after the meat cut from the analogous part of a hog ; pressed ham refers to mooning against a window; brawn, a singular derived from the Frankish for ham or roast, is also used for both a muscular body part (but either on arms or legs) or boar meat, especially roast
  • Hurdies: Scots, origin unknown, also applied to the whole rump
  • Haunches
  • Moon was a common shape-metaphor for the butt in English since 1756, and the verb to moon meant 'to expose to (moon)light' since 1601, long before they were combined in US student slang in the verb (al expression) mooning "to flash the buttocks" in 1968.
  • Prat (British English, origin unknown; as in pratfall, a music hall term; also a term of abuse for a person)
  • Seat (of the trousers; or metaphorically): another long-standing socially acceptable term, referring to the use for sitting—but compare the sarcastic use of seat of wisdom and similar expressions, such as 'seat of learning', referring to use as target for an 'educational' spanking.
  • Sit-upon; has various independent counterparts in other languages, e.g., Dutch zitvlak ("sitting plain"), German Gesäß Italian sedere
  • Six; in military terminology, particularly in the United States Navy, it refers to the term "six o'clock", i.e., a point directly behind the referenced person.
  • Tuchis: Yiddish.
  • Tush or tushy (from the Yiddish language "tuchis" or "tochis" meaning "under" or "beneath")
  • Ultimatum (Latin, literally 'the furthest part') was used in slang c.1820s.

Related terms

  • The word "callipygian" is sometimes used to describe someone with notably attractive buttocks. The term comes from the Greek kallipygos, (first used for the Venus Kallipygos) which literally means "beautiful buttocks"; the prefix is also a root of "calligraphy" (beautiful writing) and "calliope" (beautiful voice); callimammapygian means having both beautiful breasts and buttocks.
  • Both the English (in) tails and the Dutch billentikker ('tapping the buttocks') are ironic terms for very formal coats with a significantly longer tail end as part of festive (especially wedding party) dress
  • Macropygia means 'heaving large buttocks, hindquarter', and occurs in biological species names,
  • A pygopag(ous) (from the Greek pygè 'buttock' and pagein 'attached') was a monster in Ancient (Greek) mythology consisting of two bodies joint by common buttocks, now a medical term for 'Siamese' twins thus joint back-to-back
  • Pygophilia is sexual arousal or excitement caused by seeing, playing with or touching the buttocks; people who have strong attraction to buttocks are called pygophilists.
  • Pygoscopia means observing someone's rear; pygoscopophobia a pathological fear to be its unwilling object
  • Pygalgia is soreness in the buttocks, i.e. a pain in the rump.
  • Steatopygia is a marked accumulation of fat in and around the buttocks.
  • Uropygial in ornithology means situated on or belonging to the uropygium, i.e. the rump of a bird.
  • "Bubble butt" has at least two connotations, which are at odds with each other: either a small, round and firm pair of buttocks resembling a pair of soap bubbles next to each other, or a large rear end, seemingly about to burst from the strain. In both cases, the term implies an appealing shapeliness about the buttocks.

Fashion

Georges Seurat - A Sunday on La Grande Jatte -- 1884 - Google Art Project
George Seurat's 1884 painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte depicts a woman on the right with a prominent bustle under her dress.

The 1880s were well known for the fashion trend among women called the bustle, which made even the smallest buttocks appear huge. The popularity of this fashion is shown in the famous Georges Seurat painting A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte in the two women to the far left and right. Like long underwear with the ubiquitous "butt flap" (used to allow baring only the bottom with a simple gesture, as for hygiene), this clothing style was acknowledged in popular media such as cartoons and comics for generations afterward.

More recently, the cleavage of the buttocks is sometimes exposed by some women, deliberately or accidentally, as fashion dictated trousers be worn lower, as with hip-hugger pants.

An example of another attitude in an otherwise hardly exhibitionist culture is the Japanese fundoshi.

In popular culture

D6B 1320 - Got Ass? Girls (12079087053)
Models participate in "got ass?", a competition to judge the woman with best buttocks, at AVN Adult Entertainment Expo, Las Vegas, 2014.
Studio Jean Jacques Lequeu

Jean-Jacques Lequeu (c. 1785).

Étude de fesses

Félix Vallotton (c. 1884).

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ http://www.refrence.com/science/gluteus-maximus-543e8854558908e7
  2. ^ Hennig, Jean-Luc (1995). The rear view: A brief and elegant history of bottoms through the ages. London: Souvenir. ISBN 0-285-63303-1.
  3. ^ a b "Police". The Times. London. 22 March 1894. "Mr. Curtis Bennett deprecated caning on the hands and boxing the ears, and said they were exceedingly dangerous forms of punishment. Nature provided a special place for boys to be punished upon and it should be used.
  4. ^ Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine, Page 586, Anthony G. Chila - 2010
  5. ^ Recent Advances in Pediatrics, 2013 Suraj Gupte, p 141
  6. ^ Zeno Chicarilli, M.D. et al. "Corporal Punishment to Children's Hands: A Statement by Medical Authorities as to the Risks". NoSpank.net. 3 January 2002.
  7. ^ Muller, Marissa G. (November 12, 2014). "Meet The Man Behind Kim Kardashian's 'Break The Internet' Cover: Jean-Paul Goude". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
  8. ^ Rothman, Michael (November 12, 2014). "Kim Kardashian Leaves Little to Imagination in Raciest Magazine Cover Yet". ABC News. Disney Media Networks. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  9. ^ Fortini, Amanda (November 2014). "NO FILTER: An Afternoon With Kim Kardashian". Paper. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
  10. ^ "nates - Definitions from Dictionary.com".
  11. ^ A New Dictionary of the Latin and English Languages, published Ward, Lock & Co., London, 1908
  12. ^ Elijah Wald, Talking 'Bout Your Mama: The Dozens, snaps, and the deep roots of Rap, Oxford University Press, 2012, p.206
  13. ^ "Pétanque. La Fanny, Légende". Laboulebleue.fr. Archived from the original on 2009-02-02. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  14. ^ "Hong Kong Lifestyle Brand G.O.D. Puts The "Moon" In Mooncakes". Jing Daily. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
Sources

External links

Buttock augmentation

Gluteoplasty (Greek gloutόs, rump + plassein, to shape) denotes the plastic surgery and the liposuction procedures for the correction of the congenital, traumatic, and acquired defects and deformities of the buttocks and the anatomy of the gluteal region; and for the aesthetic enhancement (by augmentation or by reduction) of the contour of the buttocks.

The corrective procedures for buttock augmentation and buttock repair include the surgical emplacement of a gluteal implant (buttock prosthesis); liposculpture (fat transfer and liposuction); and body contouring (surgery and liposculpture) to resolve the patient’s particular defect or deformity of the gluteal region. Moreover, in the praxis of sexual reassignment surgery, the prosthetic and liposculpture augmentation of the buttocks can be performed on transsexual and transgender women to enhance the anatomic curvature of the gluteal region in order to establish the markedly feminine buttocks and hips that project more (to the rear and to the side) than do masculine hips.

Buttock cleavage

Buttock cleavage is minor exposure of the buttocks and the intergluteal cleft between them, often because of low-rise pants.

The crena is another formal term for the cleft between the buttocks, and the medical term is posterior rugae.

Caning

Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single cane usually made of rattan, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks (see spanking) or hand(s) (on the palm). Caning on the knuckles or shoulders is much less common. Caning can also be applied to the soles of the feet (foot whipping or bastinado). The size and flexibility of the cane and the mode of application, as well as the number of the strokes, vary greatly — from a couple of light strokes with a small cane across the seat of a junior schoolboy's trousers, to a maximum of 24, very hard, wounding cuts on the bare buttocks with a large, heavy, soaked rattan as a judicial punishment in some Southeast Asian countries.

The thin cane generally used for corporal punishment is not to be confused with a walking stick, sometimes also called a cane (especially in American English), but which is thicker and much more rigid, and more likely to be made of stronger wood than of cane.

Cheek

The cheeks (Latin: buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear. "Buccal" means relating to the cheek. In humans, the region is innervated by the buccal nerve. The area between the inside of the cheek and the teeth and gums is called the vestibule or buccal pouch or buccal cavity and forms part of the mouth. In other animals the cheeks may also be referred to as jowls.

Cultural history of the buttocks

Sexualization of the buttocks, especially of the female gender, has occurred throughout history.

Dupa biskupa

Dupa biskupa [ˈdupa bisˈkupa] refers to several friendly card games in Poland. The name is a Polish phrase meaning 'bishop's buttocks'.

Folliculitis

Folliculitis is the infection and inflammation of one or more hair follicles. The condition may occur anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The rash may appear as pimples that come to white tips on the face, chest, back, arms, legs, buttocks, or head.

Grinding (dance)

Grinding, (also known as juking, freak dancing or freaking wining) is a type of close partner dance where two or more dancers rub or bump their bodies against each other, most often with a female dancer rubbing her buttocks against a male dancer's crotch area. The male dancer will typically place his hands on the female dancer's waist, hips, or buttocks.Grinding gained widespread popularity as a hip hop dance in night clubs, and eventually moved on to high school and middle school dances in the US and Canada where there have been cases of administrators attempting to ban it due to its explicit nature.A predecessor to grinding as a sexually charged high-contact social dance was "The Bump", popular in the 1970s, in which the contact between partners generally involved the hips or buttocks of one dancer "bumping" those of the other dancer in temporary contact. Other predecessor elements of grinding may be attributed to the 1987 film Dirty Dancing, and the lambada, a brief dance craze of the 1980s that featured grinding actions, as seen in the films The Forbidden Dance and Lambada. A more explicit form of the dance is known as daggering.

Intergluteal cleft

The intergluteal cleft, also known medically by various synonyms and colloquially as the butt crack or ass crack, is the groove between the buttocks that runs from just below the sacrum to the perineum, so named because it forms the visible border between the external rounded protrusions of the gluteus maximus muscles. The intergluteal cleft is located superior to the anus.

Mooning

Mooning is the act of displaying one's bare buttocks by removing clothing, e.g., by lowering the backside of one's trousers and underpants, usually bending over, whether also exposing the genitals or not. Mooning is used in the English-speaking world to express protest, scorn, disrespect, or provocation, or can be done for shock value, fun, or as a form of exhibitionism.

Some jurisdictions regard mooning to be indecent exposure, sometimes depending on the context.

Nevermind the Buttocks

"Nevermind the Buttocks" is the nineteenth episode of the second season of the American mystery television series Veronica Mars, and the forty-first episode overall. Written by Phil Klemmer and directed by Jason Bloom, the episode premiered on UPN on April 18, 2006.

The series depicts the adventures of Veronica Mars (Kristen Bell) as she deals with life as a high school student while moonlighting as a private detective. In this episode, Veronica investigates the car that ran over a student's (Tommy Snider) dog, and it turns out that the case is connected to the bus crash mystery. Meanwhile, Wallace (Percy Daggs III) and Jackie (Tessa Thompson) start a relationship.

Pelvic thrust

The pelvic thrust is the thrusting motion of the pelvic region, which is used for a variety of activities, such as dance or sexual activity.

Rumpology

Rumpology, Asstrology or bottom reading is a pseudoscience akin to physiognomy, performed by examining crevices, dimples, warts, moles and folds of a person's buttocks in much the same way a chirologist would read the palm of the hand.

Shirime

Shirime (Japanese: 尻目, lit. "buttocks eye") is a strange yōkai with an eye in the place of his anus.

The story goes as follows:

Long ago, a samurai was walking at night down the road to Kyōto, when he heard someone calling out for him to wait. "Who's there?!" he asked nervously, only to turn around and find a man stripping off his clothes and pointing his bare buttocks at the flabbergasted traveler. A huge glittering eye then opened up where the strange man's anus should have been.

This creature was so liked by the haiku poet and artist Buson, he included it in many of his yōkai paintings.

Steatopygia

Steatopygia is the state of having substantial levels of tissue on the buttocks and thighs. This build is not confined to the gluteal regions, but extends to the outside and front of the thighs, and tapers to the knee producing a curvaceous figure. The term is from the Greek στέαρ stéar meaning "tallow" and πυγή pugḗ meaning "rump".Steatopygia, a genetic characteristic leading to increased accumulation of adipose tissue in the buttock region, is found in women of sub-Saharan African origin, most notably (but not solely) among the Khoisan of southern Africa and Pygmies of central Africa. It has also been observed among the Andamanese people, such as the Onge tribe, in the Andaman Islands of the Indian Ocean. This genetic characteristic is prevalent among women but also occurs to a lesser degree in men.Steatopygia would seem to have been a characteristic of a population which once extended from the Gulf of Aden to the Cape of Good Hope, from which peoples the Khoisan and Pygmies may be remnants. Among the Khoisan, it begins in infancy and is fully developed by the time of the first pregnancy. While the Khoisan afford the most noticeable examples of its development, it is by no means rare in other parts of Africa.

It has been suggested that this feature was once more widespread. Paleolithic Venus figurines, sometimes referred to as "Steatopygian Venus" figures, discovered from Europe to Asia presenting a remarkable development of the thighs, and even the prolongation of the labia minora, have been used to support this theory. Whether these were intended to be lifelike or exaggeratory, even idealistic, is unclear. These figures however do not qualify as steatopygian, since they exhibit an angle of approximately 120 degrees between the back and the buttocks, while steatopygia is diagnosed by modern medical standards at an angle of about 90 degrees only.The reputed freak show attraction, Saartjie Baartman is believed to have had this characteristic.

Taylor Mead's Ass

Taylor Mead's Ass (1964) is a film by Andy Warhol featuring Taylor Mead, consisting entirely of a shot of Mead's buttocks, and filmed at The Factory.According to Watson's Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties, Taylor Mead had achieved a degree of fame that "inspired a backlash." One example was a letter to the editors at The Village Voice in August 1964 which complained about "films focusing on Taylor Mead's ass for two hours." Mead replied in a letter to the publication that no such film was found in the archives, but "we are rectifying this undersight." Two days later, Warhol shot the "sixty-minute opus that consisted entirely of Taylor Mead's Ass," during which Mead first exhibits a variety of movement, then appears to "shove a variety of objects up his ass." The film was Mead's last for Warhol "for more than three years", at the end of 1964, "Mead felt betrayed by Warhol for not showing the film."The film was described as "seventy-six seriocomic minutes of this poet/actor's buttocks absorbing light, attention, debris" by Wayne Koestenbaum, in Art Forum. In his book, Andy Warhol, Koestenbaum writes "Staring at his cleft moon for 76 minutes, I begin to understand its abstractions: high-contrast lighting conscripts the ass into being a figure for whiteness itself, particularly when the ass merges with the blank leader at each reel's end. The buttocks, seen in isolation, seem explicitly double: two cheeks, divided in the centre by a dark line. The bottom's double structure recalls Andy's two-paneled paintings . . . "In the 2006 film Idiocracy, a theatrical film from the year 2505 is depicted called Ass which, like Taylor Mead's Ass, consists of a closeup of someone's exposed buttocks for 90 minutes, and according to the movie, "it won 8 Oscars that year, including Best Screenplay".

Turnout (ballet)

In ballet, turnout (also turn-out) is rotation of the leg at the hips which causes the feet (and knees) to turn outward, away from the front of the body. This rotation allows for greater extension of the leg, especially when raising it to the side and rear. Turnout is an essential part of classical ballet technique.Turnout is measured in terms of the angle between the center lines of the feet when heels are touching, as in first position. Complete turnout (a 180° angle) is rarely attainable without conditioning.

Various exercises are used to improve turnout by increasing hip flexibility (to improve movement range), strengthening buttocks muscles (to enable a dancer to maintain turnout), or both.

Wobble Up

"Wobble Up" is a song recorded by American singer Chris Brown. It was released on April 18, 2019, as the third single from Chris Brown's ninth studio album Indigo, and features vocals from American rappers Nicki Minaj and G-Eazy.

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