In cinematography, butterflies (also known as overheads) are structures on which materials are mounted so to control lighting in a scene or photograph. Materials commonly used on butterflies include: flags (black, opaque materials), nets (layers of neutral-colored bobinette), and diffusions (translucent white materials of different densities) for the purposes of blocking, dimming, and scattering light respectively. In general, butterflies are used only for very large materials (6 ft x 6 ft or greater), while smaller sizes are usually sewn on to portable frames (similar in construction to picture frames) for ease of placement and storage.
In industry, butterflies are often called for by their dimensions, which are standard: 6 ft. x 6 ft, 8x8, 12x12, and 20x20. The materials themselves tend to be created at smaller sizes—usually about 8 inches less in each dimension—so as order to ensure a flat, stretched surface when mounted on the butterfly.
While portable frames usually consist of light-blocking and scattering materials (flags, nets, and diffusions), butterflies may also be rigged with reflective materials such as silver lame for redirecting light.Christo Coetzee
Christo Coetzee (24 March 1929 – 12 November 2000) was a South African assemblage and Neo-Baroque artist closely associated with the avant-garde art movements of Europe and Japan during the 1950s and 1960s. Under the influence of art theorist Michel Tapié, art dealer Rodolphe Stadler and art collector and photographer Anthony Denney, as well as the Gutai group of Japan, he developed his oeuvre alongside those of artists strongly influenced by Tapié's Un Art Autre (1952), such as Georges Mathieu, Alfred Wols, Jean Dubuffet, Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Pierre Soulages, Antoni Tàpies and Lucio Fontana.Flag (lighting)
A flag is a device used in lighting for motion picture and still photography to block light. It can be used to cast a shadow, provide negative fill, or protect the lens from a flare. Its usage is generally dictated by the director of photography, but the responsibility for placing them can vary by region, usually devolving to either the gaffer and electricians (in the UK and much of ‘The Commonwealth’) or the key grip and lighting grips (in the US and Canada).
Flags come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, from mere square inches ("dots and fingers") to many square feet ("meat axes"). Most "industry-standard" flags consist of a square wire frame stitched with black duvetyne, which minimizes any reflected light and keeps the flag lightweight. Flags are distinguished from larger light-cutting tools such as overhead rigs or butterflies in that they can be mounted on individual C-stands, as opposed to being affixed to collapsible frames.
The above notwithstanding, given smaller budgets or extenuating circumstances, virtually any opaque object can be used to flag light.
A smaller variant with an articulated arm, colloquially known as a French flag, is occasionally attached to the movie camera at the discretion of the focus puller (AKA the 1st AC) solely for the purpose of blocking light flares which the matte box and its accessories cannot reach.Index of articles related to motion pictures
The film industry is built upon a large number of technologies and techniques, drawing upon photography, stagecraft, music, and many other disciplines. Following is an index of specific terminology applicable thereto.James Bama
James Elliott Bama (born April 28, 1926, Washington Heights, New York) is an American artist known for his realistic paintings and etchings of Western subjects. Life in Wyoming led to his comment, "Here an artist can trace the beginnings of Western history, see the first buildings, the oldest wagons, saddles and guns, and be up close to the remnants of Indian culture ... And you can stand surrounded by nature's wonders."Marlene Dietrich
Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich (, German: [maɐ̯ˈleːnə ˈdiːtʁɪç]; 27 December 1901 – 6 May 1992) was a German actress and singer who held both German and American citizenship. Throughout her long career, which spanned from the 1910s to the 1980s, she continually reinvented herself.In 1920s Berlin, Dietrich acted on the stage and in silent films. Her performance as Lola-Lola in The Blue Angel (1930) brought her an international profile and a contract with Paramount Pictures. Dietrich starred in Hollywood films such as Morocco (1930), Shanghai Express (1932), and Desire (1936). She successfully traded on her glamorous persona and "exotic" looks, and became one of the highest-paid actresses of the era. Throughout World War II, she was a high-profile entertainer in the United States. Although she still made occasional films after the war, Dietrich spent most of the 1950s to the 1970s touring the world as a marquee live-show performer.
Dietrich was known for her humanitarian efforts during the war, housing German and French exiles, providing financial support and even advocating their US citizenship. For her work on improving morale on the front lines during the war, she received several honors from the United States, France, Belgium, and Israel. In 1999, the American Film Institute named Dietrich the ninth greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema.Marlene Dietrich filmography
Marlene Dietrich was a German-American actress.
In the 1920s, she acted on the Berlin stage and in silent films, making her film debut in 1922. She was propelled to international fame by director Josef von Sternberg, who cast her as Lola-Lola in The Blue Angel (1930). The film's commercial success brought her a contract with Paramount Pictures in the United States.
Paramount sought to market Dietrich as a German answer to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's Swedish sensation, Greta Garbo. Her first American film, Morocco (1930), directed by Sternberg, earned Dietrich her only Oscar nomination. She would appear in several other films directed by Sternberg, including Dishonored (1931), Blonde Venus (1932), and Shanghai Express (1932).
Dietrich and Sternberg's last two film collaborations, The Scarlet Empress (1934) and The Devil Is a Woman (1935)—the most styled of their collaborations—were their least successful at the box office. Her first sound film without Sternberg was 1933's The Song of Songs, directed by Rouben Mamoulian, although she and Sternberg would later work together another two times.
But without Sternberg, Dietrich—along with Fred Astaire, Joan Crawford, Mae West, Greta Garbo, Katharine Hepburn, Dolores del Río and others—was labeled "box office poison" after the movie Knight Without Armour (1937) proved an expensive box office failure. In 1939, however, her stardom was revived when she played a cowboy saloon girl in the light-hearted western Destry Rides Again opposite James Stewart, singing "See What the Boys in the Back Room Will Have".
While Dietrich arguably never fully regained her former screen glory, she continued performing in movies, including appearances for such distinguished directors as Billy Wilder, Alfred Hitchcock, and Orson Welles, in successful films that included A Foreign Affair (1948), Stage Fright (1950), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), Touch of Evil (1958), and Judgment at Nuremberg (1961). Her final film appearance was as herself in the 1984 documentary, Marlene.
In 1999, the American Film Institute named Dietrich as the ninth-greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema.Portrait photography
Portrait photography or portraiture in photography is a photograph of a person or group of people that captures the personality of the subject by using effective lighting, backdrops, and poses. A portrait picture might be artistic, or it might be clinical, as part of a medical study. Frequently, portraits are commissioned for special occasions, such as weddings or school events. Portraits can serve many purposes, from usage on a personal Web site to display in the lobby of a business.