Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World. They range in length from 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in). They make up the family Otididae (formerly known as Otidae). Bustards are omnivorous and opportunistic, eating leaves, buds, seeds, fruit, small vertebrates, and invertebrates.
|Kori bustard (Ardeotis kori)|
Bustards are all fairly large with the two largest species, the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) and the great bustard (Otis tarda), being frequently cited as the world's heaviest flying birds. In both the largest species, large males exceed a weight of 20 kg (44 lb), weigh around 13.5 kg (30 lb) on average and can attain a total length of 150 cm (59 in). The smallest species is the little brown bustard (Eupodotis humilis), which is around 40 cm (16 in) long and weighs around 600 g (1.3 lb) on average. In most bustards, males are substantially larger than females, often about 30% longer and sometimes more than twice the weight. They are among the most sexually dimorphic groups of birds. In only the floricans is the sexual dimorphism reverse, with the adult female being slightly larger and heavier than the male.
The wings have 10 primaries and 16–24 secondary feathers. There are 18–20 feathers in the tail. The plumage is predominantly cryptic.
Bustards are omnivorous, feeding principally on seeds and invertebrates. They make their nests on the ground, making their eggs and offspring often very vulnerable to predation. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. Most prefer to run or walk over flying. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays, such as inflating throat sacs or elevating elaborate feathered crests. The female lays three to five dark, speckled eggs in a scrape in the ground, and incubates them alone.
|Phylogeny of Otididae|
Bustards are gregarious outside the breeding season, but are very wary and difficult to approach in the open habitats they prefer. Most species are declining or endangered through habitat loss and hunting, even where they are nominally protected.
The last bustard in Britain died in approximately 1832, but the bird is being reintroduced through batches of chicks imported from Russia. In 2009, two great bustard chicks were hatched in Britain for the first time in more than 170 years. Reintroduced bustards also hatched chicks in 2010.
Some Indian bustards are also called Floricans. The origin of the name is unclear. Thomas C. Jerdon writes in The Birds of India (1862)
I have not been able to trace the origin of the Anglo-Indian word Florikin, but was once informed that the Little Bustard in Europe was sometimes called Flanderkin. Latham gives the word Flercher as an English name, and this, apparently, has the same origin as Florikin.— Jerdon's Birds of India, 2nd ed. ii. 625.
The Hobson-Jobson dictionary however casts doubt on this theory stating that
We doubt if Jerdon has here understood Latham correctly. What Latham writes is, in describing the Passarage Bustard, which, he says, is the size of the Little Bustard: Inhabits India. Called Passarage Plover. … I find that it is known in India by the name of Oorail; by some of the English called Flercher. (Suppt. to Gen. Synopsis of Birds, 1787, 229. Here we understand the English to be the English in India, and Flercher to be a clerical error for some form of floriken.
The Arabian bustard (Ardeotis arabs) is a species of bustard which is found across the Sahel region of Africa and south western Arabia. It is part of the large-bodied genus, Ardeotis, and, though little known, appears to be a fairly typical species in that group.Australian bustard
The Australian bustard (Ardeotis australis) is a large ground bird inhabiting grassland, woodland and open agricultural country across northern Australia and southern New Guinea. It is also commonly referred to as the plains turkey, and in Central Australia as bush turkey, particularly by Aboriginal people, though this name may also be used for the Australian brushturkey as well as the orange-footed scrubfowl.Black-bellied bustard
The black-bellied bustard (Lissotis melanogaster), also known as the black-bellied korhaan, is an African ground-dwelling bird in the bustard family. Some authorities place it in the genus Eupodotis.Buttonquail
Buttonquail or hemipodes are members of a small family of birds, Turnicidae, which resemble, but are unrelated to, the quails of Phasianidae. They inhabit warm grasslands in Asia, Africa, Europe, and Australia. There are 16 species in two genera, with most species being found in the genus Turnix and only one being found in the genus Ortyxelos.
Buttonquails are small, drab, running birds, which avoid flying. The female is the more richly colored of the sexes. While the quail-plover is thought to be monogamous, Turnix buttonquails are sequentially polyandrous; both sexes cooperate in building a nest in the earth, but normally only the male incubates the eggs and tends the young, while the female may go on to mate with other males. The eggs hatch after an incubation period of 12 or 13 days, and the young are able to fly within two weeks of hatching.Denham's bustard
Denham's bustard, Stanley bustard or Stanley's bustard (Neotis denhami) is a large bird in the bustard family. It breeds in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a species of open ground, including agricultural land, grassland, flood-plains and burnt fynbos. It is resident, but some inland populations move to lower altitudes in winter. The common names for this species refer to the English explorer, Major Dixon Denham, and the English naturalist Edward Smith-Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby.Eurimbula National Park
Eurimbula National Park is a protected area in the locality of Eurimbula, Queensland, Australia, in the Gladstone Region near Agnes Water, 411 km north of Brisbane.Flag of Wiltshire
There are three flag designs associated with the English county of Wiltshire. Like the proposed flags of many other counties, two of the three have no official status as they were not designed by the College of Arms. One of the designs, the "Bustard Flag", was approved by a full meeting of the Wiltshire Council on 1 December 2009, as a county flag and subsequently registered with the Flag Institute.Great Indian bustard
The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) or Indian bustard is a bustard found on the Indian subcontinent. A large bird with a horizontal body and long bare legs, giving it an ostrich like appearance, this bird is among the heaviest of the flying birds. Once common on the dry plains of the Indian subcontinent, as few as 150 individuals were estimated to survive in 2018 (reduced from an estimated 250 individuals in 2011) and the species is critically endangered by hunting and loss of its habitat, which consists of large expanses of dry grassland and scrub. These birds are often found associated in the same habitat as blackbuck. It is protected under Wildlife Protection Act 1972 of India.Great bustard
The great bustard (Otis tarda) is a bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Otis. It breeds in open grassland and farmland in southern and central Europe, and across temperate Asia. European populations are mainly resident, but Asian birds move farther south in winter. Portugal and Spain now have about 60% of the world's population. It became extinct in Great Britain when the last bird was shot in 1832. Recent attempts to reintroduce it into England have met with some success and there is a population of 40 birds on Salisbury Plain, a British Army training area. Here the lack of public access allows them the freedom needed as a large ground-nesting bird. It is classified by the IUCN as "vulnerable".Houbara bustard
The houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata), also known as African houbara, is a large bustard native to North Africa, Canary Islands and southwestern Asia, where it lives in arid habitats. It is dull brown with black markings on the wings, a greyish neck and a black ruff along the side of the neck. Males are larger and heavier than females.
The houbara bustard formerly included MacQueen's bustard, which is native to Asia.Kori bustard
The kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) is the largest flying bird native to Africa. It is a member of the bustard family, which all belong to the order Otidiformes and are restricted in distribution to the Old World. It is one of the four species (ranging from Africa to India to Australia) in the large-bodied genus Ardeotis. In fact, the male kori bustard may be the heaviest living animal capable of flight.
This species, like most bustards, is a ground-dwelling bird and an opportunistic omnivore. Male kori bustards, which can be more than twice as heavy as the female, attempt to breed with as many females as possible and then take no part in the raising of the young. The nest is a shallow hollow in the earth, often disguised by nearby obstructive objects such as trees.Little bustard
The little bustard (Tetrax tetrax) is a large bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Tetrax. The genus name is from Ancient Greek and refers to a gamebird mentioned by Aristophanes and others.It breeds in southern Europe and in western and central Asia. Southernmost European birds are mainly resident, but other populations migrate further south in winter. The central European population once breeding in the grassland of Hungary became extinct several decades ago.
This species is declining due to habitat loss throughout its range. It used to breed more widely, for example ranging north to Poland occasionally. It is only a very rare vagrant to Great Britain despite breeding in France.
Although the smallest Palearctic bustard, the little bustard is still pheasant-sized at 42–45 cm (17–18 in) long with a 90–110 cm (35–43 in) wingspan and a weight of 830 g (29 oz). In flight, the long wings are extensively white. The breeding male is brown above and white below, with a grey head and a black neck bordered above and below by white.
The female and non-breeding male lack the dramatic neck pattern, and the female is marked darker below than the male. Immature bustards resemble females. Both sexes are usually silent, although the male has a distinctive "raspberry-blowing" call: prrt.
This species is omnivorous, taking seeds, insects, rodents and reptiles. Like other bustards, the male little bustard has a flamboyant display with foot stamping and leaping in the air. Females lay 3 to 5 eggs on the ground.
This bird's habitat is open grassland and undisturbed cultivation, with plants tall enough for cover. It has a stately slow walk, and tends to run when disturbed rather than fly. It is gregarious, especially in winter.
On 20 December 2013, the Cypriot newspapers 'Fileleftheros' and 'Politis', as well as news website 'SigmaLive', reported the discovery of a dead little bustard in the United Nations Buffer Zone. The bird had been shot by poachers hunting illegally in the zone. The shooting was particularly controversial amongst conservationists and birders since the little bustard is a very rare visitor to Cyprus and had not been officially recorded in Cyprus since December 1979.Ludwig's bustard
The Ludwig's bustard (Neotis ludwigii) is a species of bird in the bustard family, and named after Baron von Ludwig. It is a medium-to-large sized species. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and South Africa. Its habitats include semi-arid grasslands.
The Ludwig's bustard can weigh from 3 to 7.3 kg (6.6 to 16.1 lb), with a mean of 6.3 kg (14 lb) for the much larger male and 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) for the female. Length ranges from 76 to 85 cm (30 to 33 in) in females and 80 to 95 cm (31 to 37 in) in males. It lives largely on large insects (mainly locusts), as well as flowers and seeds. Although it lives in semi-arid areas it seems to shift locally to follow the presence of rainfall. During extreme concentrations of rainfall, as many as 230 Ludwig's bustards have been seen at once feeding on locusts.This little-known species is now considered endangered. It is thought to be the bird species in Southern Africa most seriously at risk of dying from collisions with power lines , with collisions more likely during winter and in wetter areas, with high variability in collision rates between years.MacQueen's bustard
MacQueen's bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) is a large bird in the bustard family. It was earlier included as a subspecies of the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) and sometimes known as the "Asian houbara". The subspecies are geographically separated from the houbara found west of the Sinai Peninsula in North Africa with a population in the Canary Islands. MacQueen's bustard is found in the desert and steppe regions of Asia, east from the Sinai Peninsula extending across Kazakhstan east to Mongolia. These two species are the only members of the genus Chlamydotis. MacQueen's is a partial latitudinal migrant while the houbara bustard is more sedentary. In the 19th century, vagrants were found as far west of their range as Great Britain. Populations have decreased by 20 to 50% from 1984 to 2004 due mainly to hunting and land-use changes. It is the unofficial provincial bird of Balochistan, Pakistan.Northern black korhaan
The northern black korhaan (Afrotis afraoides), also known as the white-quilled bustard, is a species of bird in the bustard family, Otididae. It is widely distributed across Southern Africa. Its habitat is primarily open grassland and scrub.Rüppell's korhaan
The Rüppell's Korhaan also known as Rüppell's bustard (Eupodotis rueppellii) is a species of bird in the family Otididae. It is a small bustard, only 60 cm long. The head and neck are grey, with black stripes down the throat (less marked in females), through the eye, and on the sides of the neck, and white cheeks. The body is sandy brown above, and white below. The legs are sandy yellow-brown. Rüppell's Korhaan received its name to recognize Wilhelm Rüppell, a German explorer, collector and naturalist.It is native to southwestern Africa in Angola and Namibia,Collar, N. J. "The bustards and their conservation." Bustard in Decline, Jaipur (1982): 244-255. It is one of Namibia’s 13 native birds found in the western part of the country. On overage they inhabit areas with low rainfall such as deserts, plains, and savannahs. Where their exceptionally senses play a major role in their security. It is most likely found in Namibrand nature reserve, Mirabib, Ganab in the Namib-Naukluft Park, Bloedkoppie, and in the Spitzkoppe surroundings.
Rüppell's Korhaan are usually monogamous but sometimes breed in large family groups. It lays eggs all year round with a peak season from February to May. Nest are made among rocks and stone with some occasional plant coverage. It can lay 1-3 eggs at a time that are incubated solely by the female. Rüppell's Korhaan are omnivorous, having a diet of mostly invertebrates such as small reptiles and termites and they also eat leaves and seeds. Eating is usually done by pecking the ground as they walk.
Bustards are highly susceptible to the loss or modification of habitat, nearly always as a result of increasing pressures from agriculture, hunting, poaching for sport and food, and disturbances especially during breading season. As a result of their elusiveness, natural shyness, large home ranges, combined with their camouflage have made them one the most difficult groups to obtain any sufficient biological, population, or mortality data on. The conservation of these animals is almost entirely the responsibility of Namibia.Seventeen Seventy, Queensland
Seventeen Seventy, also written as 1770, is a coastal town and locality in Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia, built on the site of the second landing in Australia by James Cook and the crew of HM Bark Endeavour in May 1770 (Cook's first landing in what is now the state of Queensland). Originally known as Round Hill – after the creek it sits on – the name was changed on 24 June 1936 after the town allotments were surveyed in 1935 to recognise the historical importance of the town. The community of Seventeen Seventy hold the re-enactment of this historic landing each year as part of the 1770 Festival held in May.Southern black korhaan
The southern black korhaan (Afrotis afra) or black bustard, is a species of bird in the bustard family, Otididae. This small bird is found in western and southern South Africa, from Little Namaqualand to Cape Town and east to Grahamstown. It has undergone rapid population decline as a result of the loss and fragmentation of its habitat due to the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural land. Due to this habitat destruction, the species is considered vulnerable for its risk of extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.White-bellied bustard
The white-bellied bustard or white-bellied korhaan (Eupodotis senegalensis) is an African species of bustard. It is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa in grassland and open woodland habitats.
20 living species in nine genera