Businessperson

A businessperson (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.[1] An entrepreneur is an example of a businessperson.

The term "businessperson" may refer to a founder, owner, or majority shareholder of a commercial enterprise; or it can characterize a high-level executive who does the everyday running and management of a company even if that executive is not the owner.[2] The term may sometimes refer to someone who is involved in an upper-level management role in a corporation, company, enterprise, firm, organization, or agency.

History

Prehistoric period: Traders

Since a "businessman" can mean anyone in industry or commerce,[3] businessmen have existed as long as industry and commerce have existed. "Commerce" can simply mean "trade", and trade has existed through all of recorded history. The first businessmen in human history were traders or merchants.

Medieval period: Rise of the merchant class

Merchants emerged as a "class" in medieval Italy. Between 1300 and 1500, modern accounting, the bill of exchange, and limited liability were invented, and thus the world saw "the first true bankers", who are certainly businessmen.[4]

Around the same time, Europe saw the "emergence of rich merchants."[5] This "rise of the merchant class" came as Europe "needed a middleman" for the first time, and these "burghers" or "bourgeois" were the people who played this role.[6]

Renaissance to Enlightenment: Rise of the capitalist

Europe became the dominant global commercial power in the 16th century, and as Europeans developed new tools for business, new types of business people began to use those tools. In this period, Europe developed and used paper money, cheques, and joint-stock companies (and their shares of stock).[7] Developments in actuarial science led to insurance.[8] Together, these new tools were used by a new kind of businessman, the capitalist. These people owned or financed businesses as bankers, but they were not merchants of goods. These capitalists were a major force in the Industrial Revolution...

Modern period: Rise of the manager

The newest kind of businessperson is the manager. One of the first true managers was Robert Owen (1771–1858), an industrialist in Scotland.[9] He studied the "problems of productivity and motivation", and was followed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, who was the first person who studied work.[10] After World War I, management became popular due to the example of Herbert Hoover and the Harvard Business School, which offered degrees in business administration (management).[11]

Salary

Salaries for businesspeople vary.[12][13] The salaries of the top chief executive officers can be millions of dollars per year. For example, the head of Discovery Inc., David M. Zaslav, made $156 million in 2014.[14] The high salaries which executives earn have often been a source of criticism from many who believe they are paid excessively.[15]

Business guru

Some leading business theorists look to leaders in academic research on business or to successful business leaders for guidance. Collectively, these people are called "business gurus."

See also

References

  1. ^ Compare: "businessman". WebFinance Inc. 2018. Retrieved 2018-07-06. businessman[:] A person who is employed by an organization or company. Businessmen are often associated with white collar jobs. In order to avoid sexism or the perpetuation of stereotypes, the term is often replaced with "businessperson". The term "businesswoman" is less commonly used.
  2. ^ Compare: "BUSINESSMAN". Audioenglish. Retrieved 2016-08-27. The noun BUSINESSMAN has 1 sense: 1. a person engaged in commercial or industrial business (especially an owner or executive)
  3. ^ "BUSINESSMAN". Audioenglish. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  4. ^ Roberts, J.M. (2013). The Penguin History of the World, Sixth Edition. New York: Penguin. p. 506.
  5. ^ Roberts, J.M. (2013). The Penguin History of the World, Sixth Edition. New York: Penguin. p. 509.
  6. ^ Roberts, J.M. (2013). The Penguin History of the World, Sixth Edition. New York: Penguin. p. 510.
  7. ^ Roberts, J.M. (2013). The Penguin History of the World, Sixth Edition. New York: Penguin. p. 558.
  8. ^ Roberts, J.M. (2013). The Penguin History of the World, Sixth Edition. New York: Penguin. p. 559.
  9. ^ Drucker, Peter (2008). Management, Revised Edition. New York: Collins Business. p. 13.
  10. ^ Drucker, Peter (2008). Management, Revised Edition. New York: Collins Business. p. 14.
  11. ^ Drucker, Peter (2008). Management, Revised Edition. New York: Collins Business. pp. 15–16.
  12. ^ "Business and Financial Occupations". Bureau of Labor and Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  13. ^ "Management Occupations". Bureau of Labor and Statistics. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  14. ^ "100 Highest Paid CEOs". AFL-CIO. AFL-CIO  . Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  15. ^ Gretchen Gavett. "CEOs Get Paid Too Much". Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2015-09-18.

External links

1863 in Norway

Events in the year 1863 in Norway.

Beth E. Mooney

Beth Elaine Mooney (born 1955) is an American financial executive who is the first woman to be CEO of a top-20 U.S. bank. On May 1, 2011 KeyCorp named Mooney its chairman and chief executive officer of the Cleveland, Ohio-based bank. From November 2010 until May 1, 2011 she was the president and the chief operating officer at KeyCorp.

D.V. Waldron

D. V. Waldron was a businessperson in 19th-century Los Angeles, California. He was the first person, in 1873, to receive a permit for a streetcar line in Los Angeles, and was a member of the Los Angeles Common Council.

Dave Thomas (businessman)

Rex David Thomas (July 2, 1932 – January 8, 2002) was an American businessman and philanthropist. Thomas was the founder and chief executive officer of Wendy's, a fast-food restaurant chain specializing in hamburgers. He is also known for appearing in more than 800 commercial advertisements for the chain from 1989 to 2002, more than any other company founder in television history.

Elizabeth Holmes

Elizabeth Anne Holmes (; born February 3, 1984) is the founder and former CEO of Theranos, a now-defunct company known for its false claims to have devised revolutionary blood tests that used very small amounts of blood. In 2015, Forbes named Holmes as the youngest and wealthiest self-made female billionaire in America due to a $9 billion valuation of Theranos. By the next year, following revelations of potential fraud, Forbes revised her net worth to zero dollars, and Fortune named Holmes one of the "World's Most Disappointing Leaders".The decline of Theranos began in 2016 when a series of journalistic and regulatory investigations revealed doubts about the company's technology claims and whether Holmes had potentially misled investors and the government. In 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission charged Theranos and Holmes with deceiving investors by "massive fraud" through false or exaggerated claims about the accuracy of her blood-testing technology, which Holmes settled by paying a $500,000 fine, returning shares to the company, relinquishing her voting control of Theranos, and being barred from serving as an officer or director of a public company for ten years. In June 2018, a federal grand jury indicted Holmes and former Theranos COO Ramesh Balwani on nine counts of wire fraud and two counts of conspiracy to commit wire fraud for distributing blood tests with falsified results to consumers.The early credibility of Theranos was in part interpreted as an effect of Holmes's personal connections with an ability to recruit the support of influential people including Henry Kissinger, George Shultz, James Mattis, and Betsy DeVos. Holmes was in a relationship with her COO Ramesh "Sunny" Balwani, whom she met when she was 18 and he was 37. Holmes's career, the rise and dissolution of her company, and the subsequent fallout is the subject of a book, Bad Blood by Wall Street Journal reporter John Carreyrou, and an upcoming film of the same name directed by Adam McKay and starring Jennifer Lawrence.

Frank McEnulty

Frank Edward McEnulty (born 1956) is an American businessperson and politician. In the 2008 presidential election, he was the vice presidential nominee of the Reform Party of the United States of America, and the presidential nominee of the New American Independent Party. His running mate for the latter was Bobby Klingler. In total, he received 833 votes in the presidential election for his presidential candidacy and 481 for his vice-presidential candidacy.

Hewlett Packard Enterprise

Hewlett Packard Enterprise Company (commonly referred to as HPE) is an American multinational enterprise information technology company based in Palo Alto, California, founded on 1 November 2015 as part of splitting of the Hewlett-Packard company. HPE is a business-focused organization with two divisions: Enterprise Group, which works in servers, storage, networking, consulting and support, and Financial Services.

The split was structured so that the former Hewlett-Packard Company would change its name to HP Inc. and spin off Hewlett Packard Enterprise as a newly created company. HP Inc. retained the old HP's personal computer and printing business, as well as its stock-price history and original NYSE ticker symbol for Hewlett-Packard; Enterprise trades under its own ticker symbol: HPE. According to notes from 2015, HPE's revenue was slightly less than that of HP Inc. In 2017, it spun off its Enterprise Services business and merged it with Computer Sciences Corporation to become DXC Technology. It also spun off its software business and merged it with Micro Focus. HPE ranked No. 107 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Landisburg, West Virginia

Landisburg is an unincorporated community in Fayette County, West Virginia, United States. Landisburg is located along West Virginia Route 41 11 miles (18 km) east of Oak Hill.

The community was named after H. M. Landis, a businessperson in the lumber industry. The Dr. John Hughart House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001.

Mahan, West Virginia

Mahan is an unincorporated community in Fayette County, West Virginia, United States. Mahan is located off exit 66 on the West Virginia Turnpike.

The community was named after Peter Mahan, a businessperson in the lumber industry.

Media proprietor

A media proprietor, media mogul or media tycoon refers to a successful entrepreneur or businessperson who controls, through personal ownership or via a dominant position in any media related company or enterprise, media consumed by a large number of individuals. Those with significant control, ownership, and influence of a large company in the mass media may also be called a tycoon, baron, or business magnate. Social media creators and founders can also be considered media moguls, as such channels deliver media to a large consumer base.

Nallen, West Virginia

Nallen is an unincorporated community in Fayette and Nicholas counties, West Virginia, United States. Nallen is located along West Virginia Route 41 12 miles (19 km) south of Summersville. Nallen has a post office with ZIP code 26680.The community was named after John I. Nallen, a businessperson in the lumber industry.

Pat Powers (businessman)

Patrick Anthony "Pat" Powers (8 October 1869 – 30 July 1948) was an American businessman who was involved in the movie and animation industry of the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. He was born in Buffalo, New York. According to the Buffalo Courier-Express obituary dated August 1, 1948, His sister, Mary Ellen Powers, lived in Buffalo for her entire life.

Patrick Pichette

Patrick Pichette is a Canadian businessperson. He was senior vice president and chief financial officer of Google Inc from 2008 until 2015. He is now a general partner at the venture capital fund iNovia Capital.

Pettus, West Virginia

Pettus is an unincorporated community in Raleigh County, West Virginia.

The community was named after W. H. Pettus, a businessperson in the coal-mining industry.

Powellton, West Virginia

Powellton is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fayette County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 619 at the 2010 census.The community most likely was named after Godwin H. Powell, a businessperson in the coal-mining industry.

Pullman, West Virginia

Pullman is a town in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 154 at the 2010 census.

Pullman was platted in 1883, and named after George Pullman, a businessperson in the rail industry.

Robert Mercer

Robert Leroy Mercer (born July 11, 1946) is an American computer scientist, who was a developer in early artificial intelligence and co-CEO of Renaissance Technologies, a hedge fund.Mercer played a key role in the Brexit campaign by donating data analytics services to Nigel Farage. He is also a major funder of organizations supporting right-wing political causes in the United States, such as Breitbart News and Donald Trump's 2016 campaign for president. He is the principal benefactor of the Make America Number 1 super PAC.In November 2017, Mercer announced he would step down from Renaissance Technologies and sell his stake in Breitbart News to his daughters.

Scott Davis (businessman)

D. Scott Davis (born 1952 in Medford, Oregon) is an American businessman and the Chairman of the Board of Directors United Parcel Service, Inc. (UPS). He was the company's chief executive officer until August 30, 2014.

Trek Bicycle Corporation

Trek Bicycle Corporation is a bicycle and cycling product manufacturer and distributor under brand names Trek, Electra Bicycle Company, Gary Fisher, Bontrager, Diamant Bikes, Villiger Bikes and, until 2008, LeMond Racing Cycles and Klein. With its headquarters in Waterloo, Wisconsin, Trek bicycles are marketed through 1,700 dealers across North America, subsidiaries in Europe and Asia as well as distributors in 90 countries worldwide. 99% of Trek bicycles are manufactured outside the United States, in countries including the Netherlands, Germany, and China.

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