Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) developed BPMN, which has been maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005. Version 2.0 of BPMN was released in January 2011, at which point the name was adapted to Business Process Model and Notation as execution semantics were also introduced alongside the notational and diagramming elements. Though it is an OMG specification, BPMN is also ratified as ISO 19510. The latest version is BPMN 2.0.2, published in January 2014.
Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a standard for business process modeling that provides a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD), based on a flowcharting technique very similar to activity diagrams from Unified Modeling Language (UML). The objective of BPMN is to support business process management, for both technical users and business users, by providing a notation that is intuitive to business users, yet able to represent complex process semantics. The BPMN specification also provides a mapping between the graphics of the notation and the underlying constructs of execution languages, particularly Business Process Execution Language (BPEL).
The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a standard notation readily understandable by all business stakeholders. These include the business analysts who create and refine the processes, the technical developers responsible for implementing them, and the business managers who monitor and manage them. Consequently, BPMN serves as a common language, bridging the communication gap that frequently occurs between business process design and implementation.
Currently there are several competing standards for business process modeling languages used by modeling tools and processes. Widespread adoption of a single standard would help unify the expression of basic business process concepts (e.g., public and private processes, choreographies), as well as advanced process concepts (e.g., exception handling, transaction compensation).
BPMN is constrained to support only the concepts of modeling applicable to business processes. Other types of modeling done by organizations for non-process purposes are out of scope for BPMN. Examples of modeling excluded from BPMN are:
In addition, while BPMN shows the flow of data (messages), and the association of data artifacts to activities, it is not a data flow diagram.
BPMN models are expressed by simple diagrams constructed from a limited set of graphical elements. For both business users and developers, they simplify understanding of business activities' flow and process. BPMN's four basic element categories are:
These four categories enable creation of simple business process diagrams (BPDs). BPDs also permit making new types of flow object or artifact, to make the diagram more understandable.
Flow objects are the main describing elements within BPMN, and consist of three core elements: events, activities, and gateways.
Flow objects are connected to each other using Connecting objects, which are of three types: sequences, messages, and associations.
Artifacts allow developers to bring some more information into the model/diagram. In this way the model/diagram becomes more readable. There are three pre-defined Artifacts and they are:
The vision of BPMN 2.0.2 is to have one single specification for a new Business Process Model and Notation that defines the notation, metamodel and interchange format but with a modified name that still preserves the "BPMN" brand. The features include:
The current version of the specification was released in January 2014.
|Attributes||BPMN 1.0||BPMN 1.1||BPMN 1.2||BPMN 2.0|
|Consortium||BPMI & iGrafx||OMG||OMG||OMG|
|Date of release||May 2004||January 2008||January 2009||January 2011|
|message flow||message flow|
|data objects||data object||
|Number of all elements||48||55||55||116|
The BPMN 1.2 minor revision changes consist of editorial corrections and implementation bug fixes. Consequently, these minor changes affect modeling tool vendors more than modelers (users).
Business process modeling is used to communicate a wide variety of information to a wide variety of audiences. BPMN is designed to cover this wide range of usage and allows modeling of end-to-end business processes to allow the viewer of the Diagram to be able to easily differentiate between sections of a BPMN Diagram. There are three basic types of sub-models within an end-to-end BPMN model: Private (internal) business processes, Abstract (public) processes, and Collaboration (global) processes:
Within and between these three BPMN sub-models, many types of Diagrams can be created. The following are the types of business processes that can be modeled with BPMN (those with asterisks may not map to an executable language):
BPMN is designed to allow all the above types of Diagrams. However, it should be cautioned that if too many types of sub-models are combined, such as three or more private processes with message flow between each of them, then the Diagram may become difficult to understand. Thus, the OMG recommends that the modeler pick a focused purpose for the BPD, such as a private or collaboration process.
The weaknesses of BPMN could relate to:
The BPMN specification includes an informal and partial mapping from BPMN to BPEL 1.1. A more detailed mapping of BPMN to BPEL has been implemented in a number of tools, including an open-source tool known as BPMN2BPEL. However, the development of these tools has exposed fundamental differences between BPMN and BPEL, which make it very difficult, and in some cases impossible, to generate human-readable BPEL code from BPMN models. Even more difficult is the problem of BPMN-to-BPEL round-trip engineering: generating BPEL code from BPMN diagrams and maintaining the original BPMN model and the generated BPEL code synchronized, in the sense that any modification to one is propagated to the other.
BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio, formerly BiZZdesign Architect, is a visual modeling and design tool for Enterprise Architecture, that supports the application of ArchiMate and TOGAF, as well other enterprise architecture frameworks.
The platform supports the modelling, visualisation, analysis and documentation of enterprise architecture from different viewpoints and with multiple views. Additionally it supports the modeling business goals and requirements. It also supports automatic data collection, and can import data from office applications.BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio is developed by BiZZdesign and first released in 2004 as BiZZdesign Architect. Its development is based on the results of the ArchiMate project, and intends to offer a high value enterprise architecture modelling tool which business management itself can control. In 2012 it is recognized by Gartner and Forrester Research as one of the leading enterprise architecture tools.Bizagi
Bizagi is a privately owned software company established in 1989 with headquarters in the UK, and offices in USA, Spain & Latin America. Its name is a portmanteau of "business" and "agility".The company designs and develops enterprise software for Business Process Management (BPM). Its three products form the Bizagi BPM Suite.Business Process Definition Metamodel
The Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM) is a standard definition of concepts used to express business process models (a metamodel), adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group). Metamodels define concepts, relationships, and semantics for exchange of user models between different modeling tools. The exchange format is defined by XSD (XML Schema) and XMI (XML for Metadata Interchange), a specification for transformation of OMG metamodels to XML. Pursuant to the OMG's policies, the metamodel is the result of an open process involving submissions by member organizations, following a Request for Proposal (RFP) issued in 2003. BPDM was adopted in initial form in July 2007, and finalized in July 2008.
BPDM provides abstract concepts as the basis for consistent interpretation of specialized concepts used by business process modelers. For example, the ordering of many of the graphical elements in a BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) diagram is depicted by arrows between those elements, but the specific elements can have a variety of characteristics. For example, all BPMN events have some common characteristics, and a variety of specific events are designated by the type of circle and the icon in the circle. The abstract BPDM concepts ensure implementers of different modeling tools will associate the same characteristics and semantics with the modeling elements to ensure models are interpreted the same way when moved to a different
tool. Users of the modeling tools do not need to be concerned with the abstractions—they only see the specialized elements.
BPDM extends business process modeling beyond the elements defined by BPMN and BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) to include interactions between otherwise-independent business processes executing in different business units or enterprises (choreography). A choreography can be specified independently of its participants, and used as a requirement for the specification of the orchestration implemented by a participant. BPDM provides for the binding of orchestration to choreography to ensure compatibility. Many current business process models focus on specification of executable business processes that execute within an enterprise (orchestration).
The BPDM specification addresses the objectives of the OMG RFP on which it is based:
BPDM "will define a set of abstract business process definition elements for specification of executable business processes that execute within an enterprise, and may collaborate between otherwise-independent business processes executing in different business units or enterprises."
Common metamodel to unify the diverse business process definition notations that exist in the industry containing semantics compatible with leading business process modeling notations.
A metamodel that complements existing UML metamodels so that business processes specifications can be part of complete system specifications to assure consistency and completeness.
The ability to integrate process models for workflow management processes, automated business processes, and collaborations between business units.
Support for the specification of web services choreography, describing the collaboration between participating entities and the ability to reconcile the choreography with supporting internal business processes.
The ability to exchange business process specifications between modeling tools, and between tools and execution environments using XMI.The RFP seeks to "improve communication between modelers, including between business and software modelers, provide flexible selection of tools and execution environments, and promote the development of more specialised tools for the analysis and design of processes."
For exchange of business process models, BPDM is an alternative to the existing process interchange format XPDL (XML Process Definition Language) from the WfMC (Workflow Management Coalition). The two specifications are similar in that they can be used by process design tools to exchange business process definitions. They are different in that BPDM provides a specification of semantics integrated in a metamodel, and it includes additional modeling capabilities such as choreography, discussed above. In addition, XPDL has many implementations, though only some support for XPDL 2.x, needed for interchanging BPMN. BPDM implementations are in preparation, including support for BPMN, and translation to XPDL.Business Process Execution Language
The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL), commonly known as BPEL (Business Process Execution Language), is an OASIS standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in BPEL export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively.Business Process Modeling Language
Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML-based language for business process modeling.
It was maintained by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) until June 2005 when BPMI and OMG (Object Management Group) announced the merger of their respective Business Process Management (BPM) activities to form the Business Modeling and Integration Domain Task Force (BMI DTF). It is deprecated since 2008.
BPML was useful to OMG in order to enrich UML with process notation.Business process automation
Business process automation (BPA), also known as business automation or digital transformation, is the technology-enabled automation of complex business processes. It can streamline a business for simplicity, achieve digital transformation, increase service quality, improve service delivery or contain costs. It consists of integrating applications, restructuring labor resources and using software applications throughout the organization. Robotic process automation is an emerging field within BPA and uses artificial intelligence.Business process modeling
Business process modeling (BPM) in business process management and systems engineering is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analysed, improved, and automated. BPM is typically performed by business analysts, who provide expertise in the modeling discipline; by subject matter experts, who have specialized knowledge of the processes being modelled; or more commonly by a team comprising both. Alternatively, the process model can be derived directly from events' logs using process mining tools.
The business objective is often to increase process speed or reduce cycle time; to increase quality; or to reduce costs, such as labour, materials, scrap, or capital costs. In practice, a management decision to invest in business process modeling is often motivated by the need to document requirements for an information technology project.
Change management programs are typically involved to put any improved business processes into practice. With advances in software design, the vision of BPM models becoming fully executable (and capable of simulations and round-trip engineering) is coming closer to reality.Comparison of Business Process Modeling Notation tools
This article provides a comparison of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) tools.Flowable
Flowable is an open-source workflow engine written in Java that can execute business processes described in BPMN 2.0. It is an actively maintained fork of Activiti (software).Function model
A function model or functional model in systems engineering and software engineering is a structured representation of the functions (activities, actions, processes, operations) within the modeled system or subject area.
A function model, similar with the activity model or process model, is a graphical representation of an enterprise's function within a defined scope. The purposes of the function model are to describe the functions and processes, assist with discovery of information needs, help identify opportunities, and establish a basis for determining product and service costs.List of BPEL engines
This is a list of notable Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) engines.List of BPMN 2.0 engines
This is a list of notable Business Process Model and Notation 2.0 (BPMN 2.0) Workflow Management Systems (WfMSs).MetaDONE
MetaDONE is a software environment for creating domain-specific modeling languages (DSML). MetaDONE is developed by the PReCISE Research Center of the University of Namur (Belgium). It supports multi-level modeling and is fully bootstrapped. User-defined languages can have several concrete notations that are defined declaratively with the GraSyLa language. This framework proposes several modeling languages (Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), User Requirements Notation (URN), Goal-oriented Requirements Language (GRL), Petri Net) that can be freely customized by the users.Model-driven engineering
Model-driven engineering (MDE) is a software development methodology that focuses on creating and exploiting domain models, which are conceptual models of all the topics related to a specific problem. Hence, it highlights and aims at abstract representations of the knowledge and activities that govern a particular application domain, rather than the computing (i.e. algorithmic) concepts.Object Management Group
The Object Management Group (OMG) is a computer industry standards consortium. OMG Task Forces develop enterprise integration standards for a range of technologies.Petri net
A Petri net, also known as a place/transition (PT) net, is one of several mathematical modeling languages for the description of distributed systems. It is a class of discrete event dynamic system. A Petri net is a directed bipartite graph, in which the nodes represent transitions (i.e. events that may occur, represented by bars) and places (i.e. conditions, represented by circles). The directed arcs describe which places are pre- and/or postconditions for which transitions (signified by arrows). Some sources state that Petri nets were invented in August 1939 by Carl Adam Petri—at the age of 13—for the purpose of describing chemical processes.
Like industry standards such as UML activity diagrams, Business Process Model and Notation and EPCs, Petri nets offer a graphical notation for stepwise processes that include choice, iteration, and concurrent execution. Unlike these standards, Petri nets have an exact mathematical definition of their execution semantics, with a well-developed mathematical theory for process analysis.Unified Modeling Language
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.The creation of UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design. It was developed by Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in 1994–1995, with further development led by them through 1996.In 1997 UML was adopted as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG), and has been managed by this organization ever since. In 2005 UML was also published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as an approved ISO standard. Since then the standard has been periodically revised to cover the latest revision of UML.Workflow Management Coalition
Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) is a consortium formed to define standards for the interoperability of workflow management systems.
ISO standards by standard number