|Bushy-tailed mongoose range|
(green - extant, pink - probably extant)
The bushy-tailed mongoose (Bdeogale crassicauda) is a mammal in the family Herpestidae found in central Africa, from southern Kenya to central Mozambique. It has dense brown/black fur, short wooly ears, and a plush muzzle. It is often under reported because of its small size, strict nocturnal activity, and elusiveness. This species is not sexually dimorphic in color but there are slight differences in size. Martinoli et al. Tail is wide and bushy, They and their other closely related cousin, the Black- footed mongoose, have large posterior cusps on their p3 tooth. These expanded molars indicate that it is primarily an insectivore, although other carnivorous habits have been documented.
Head- Body length (mm): 407 M/ 383 F; Tail-length (mm): 230 M&F; Foot length (mm): 77.7 M/ 74.9 F; and body mass (g): 1273 M/ 1300 F (M being males and F being females).
Overall it is usually 40–50 cm (16–20 in) long and weighs around 0.9–1.6 kg (2.0–3.5 lb).
The ancestral state of the mongoose family had all of these attributes: a strong sagittal crest, presence of superior premolar, absence of posterior cusp on P3, and short claws on the forefoot.
The bushy tailed mongoose is closely related to the black-footed mongoose (Bdeogale nigripes). Perez's study of genes within the family Herpestidae showed the genus Bdeogale is monophyletic. Close cousins of this clade include the genera Ichneumia and Cynictis.
Evolution has selected for foot specialization within the Bdeogale family. Suppression of pollex and hallux bones and shortening of other digits have led this family to have only 4 toes on both the hindlimbs and forelimbs (symmetrical toes).
Because of this animals size and stealthiness, the range in which they occur is not completely known. Although, it has been documented that they prefer locations that are easy for them to hide in that are also near rivers.
An experiment by Pettorelli et al. was carried out in northern Tanzania using camera traps to find out total species distribution. Bushy tailed mongooses were spotted in over 31 different trap locations. The study even showed the Bushy tailed mongoose persists in locations not previously known (Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Biharamulo-Burigi-Kimisi Game Reserve, and Mahale Mountains National Park). In the locations recorded, the camera trap data shows this species prefers Acacia woodlands and riparian zones. An interesting thing to note is they also showed avoidance to croplands and open areas.
Capture- mark- recapture experiments by Martinoli et al. showed that Bushy Tailed mongooses used open shrubland 14.3% of the time and multilayered forest 85.7% of time. These areas where the animals were caught have low environmental variance like temperature, humidity, etc. The researchers inferred that Bushy tailed mongooses have a low tolerance to environmental change. For this information to true, they suggested repeating the experiment in other places this species is known to be found.
As said by Petteorelli et al. and Martinolli et al., this species has a strict range of tolerance and specific habitat preference. Although this species is listed by the IUCN as of least concern, habitat degradation and fragmentation could cause many problems for this species including land use dynamics (shifting its territory to grazing area for cattle) and prey depletion. The potential for illicit harvesting of its own species could become a concern as well. In Martinoli et al. they assumed that by decreasing areas of National Parks, it might force increased predation by larger predators (servals, caracals, and other canid predators).
The Arabuko-Sokoke Forest is located on the coast of Kenya, 110 km north of Mombasa and is protected as a national Forest Reserve. The Arabuko-Sokoke National Park is only a small portion of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve, a few square kilometres in size and is located on the north-western edge of the forest. The National Park was gazetted only in the late 1980s and in fact straddles the Forest Reserve boundary with about 50% lying outside the boundary. This outer section actually lies outside an electric elephant fence installed in 2006/7 and is now fully inhabited by local communities to the extent that there is no sign on the ground to show where the National Park begins or ends. The National Park doesn't add any particular protection to the forest which is the largest fragment of coastal forest (420 square km) left in East Africa, and is an area of high endemism, containing endemic mammals, birds and plants. The Reserve, however, is jointly managed by the Kenya Forest Service, Kenya Wildlife Service, National Museums of Kenya and the Kenya Forest Research Institute and is one of the better protected forests in Kenya. The forest was first protected as a Crown Forest in 1943, and was gazetted in the 1960s. The forest is threatened by the desire for land by local people. Several national and international conservation organisations are working with the Kenya Wildlife Service to protect the park.
The forest contains three forest types, mixed forest, Brachystegia and Cynometra, each of which protects different communities of plants and animals.Asiatic linsang
The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.Bdeogale
Bdeogale is a genus of three species of mongoose native to the rainforests of central and western Africa. They are primarily terrestrial and insectivorous.Bengal mongoose
The Bengal mongoose (Herpestes javanicus palustris) is a subspecies of the small Asian mongoose. It is also known as the marsh mongoose, not to be confused with Atilax paludinosus, which is also called the marsh mongoose. Other synonyms include Indian marsh mongoose and Bengali water mongoose.Ferret-badger
Ferret-badgers are the five species of the genus Melogale, which is the only genus of the monotypic mustelid subfamily Helictidinae.
Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)
Vietnam ferret-badger (Melogale cucphuongensis)Galerella
Galerella is a genus of the mongoose family (Herpestidae) native to Africa and commonly called the slender mongooses.There are four or five species in this genus, with more than 30 subspecies.
Four of the species have long been established:
A recent addition is the black mongoose, Galerella nigrata, which now is considered a separate species by many scientists, following genetic analysis. It was previously seen as a variant of Galerella sanguinea.Haussa genet
The Haussa genet (Genetta thierryi) is a genet species native to West African savannas. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.Haussa genets have been sighted in Senegal's wooded steppes, in moist woodlands in Guinea-Bissau, and in rainforest in Sierra Leone, Ghana and Ivory Coast.Long-nosed mongoose
The long-nosed mongoose (Herpestes naso) is a mongoose native to Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania.Lutrogale
Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.Mongoose
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species (all African) in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the species Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.
Six species in the family Eupleridae are endemic to the island of Madagascar. These are called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the family Herpestidae, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae since 2006.
Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, and Viverridae families.Mustelinae
Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).Namaqua slender mongoose
The Namaqua slender mongoose (Galerella sanguinea swalius), also known as the Namibian slender mongoose, is a subspecies of the slender mongoose. It is endemic to Namibia.Narrow-striped mongoose
The narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata) is a member of the family Eupleridae, subfamily Galidiinae and endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the Madagascar dry deciduous forests of western and southwestern Madagascar, where it lives from sea level to about 125 m (410 ft) between the Tsiribihina and Mangoky rivers. In Malagasy it is called bokiboky (pronounced "Boo-ky Boo-ky").Nyctereutes
Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.
Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.Paradoxurus
Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:
the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.West African oyan
The West African oyan (Poiana leightoni), also known as the West African linsang, is a linsang species native to the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa.
It is one of the least known small carnivores in Africa.Wildlife of Yemen
The wildlife of Yemen is substantial and varied. Yemen is a large country in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula with several geographic regions, each with a diversity of plants and animals adapted to their own particular habitats. As well as high mountains and deserts, there is a coastal plain and long coastline. The country has links with Europe and Asia, and the continent of Africa is close at hand. The flora and fauna have influences from all these regions and the country also serves as a staging post for migratory birds.
Extant Carnivora species