The Bushveld is a sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa named after the term veld. It encompasses most of Limpopo Province and a small part of the North West Province of South Africa, the Central and North-East Districts of Botswana and the Matabeleland South and part of the Matabeleland North provinces of Zimbabwe. Kruger National Park in South Africa has a number of 'Bushveld' camps.
The elevation of this region varies from 750 to 1,400 m and the annual rainfall from 350 mm in the west to 600 mm in parts of the northeast. There are four significant mountain ranges in this region:the Magaliesberg which runs from Rustenburg in the west to Bronkhorstspruit in the east and forms the southern border of the Bushveld; the Drakensberg escarpment that forms the eastern border of the Bushveld and runs from Tzaneen in the north to Belfast in the south; the Waterberg range that is in the middle of the Bushveld and the Soutpansberg range just north of Louis Trichardt. The latter is the northernmost mountain range in South Africa.
As implied by the region's name, the Bushveld's well-grassed plains are dotted by dense clusters of trees and tall shrubs. The grasses found here are generally tall and turn brown or pale in winter, which is the dry season throughout most of Southern Africa. The undisturbed portions of this habitat, such as much of the Waterberg Biosphere, are home to many large mammal species including white rhino, black rhino, giraffe, blue wildebeest, kudu, impala and a variety of further antelope species and other game.
The Bushveld is one of the most mineral-rich regions of the world. This is due to the Bushveld igneous complex, an extremely rich saucer-shaped geological formation that stretches over more than 50,000 square kilometers. This formation contains most of the world's reserves of minerals such as andalusite, chromium, fluorspar, platinum and vanadium. The complex includes the Merensky Reef, which is the world's biggest source of platinum as well as platinum-group metals.
As most of the region tends to be dry, the Bushveld is mostly beef cattle and game farming country, with only a few drought-resistant crops such as sorghum and millet being farmed, usually under irrigation.
Towns and cities in the region include:
Breviceps adspersus (common rain frog or bushveld rain frog) is a species of frog in the family Brevicipitidae.
It is found in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, temperate shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, temperate grassland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, arable land, pastureland, plantations, and urban areas.Bushveld Igneous Complex
The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust. It has been tilted and eroded forming the outcrops around what appears to be the edge of a great geological basin: the Transvaal Basin. It is approximately 2 billion years old and is divided into four different limbs: the northern, southern, eastern, and western limbs. The Bushveld Complex comprises the Rustenburg Layered suite, the Lebowa Granites and the Rooiberg Felsics, that are overlain by the Karoo sediments. The site was first discovered around 1897 by Gustaaf Molengraaff.Located in South Africa, the BIC contains some of the richest ore deposits on Earth. The complex contains the world's largest reserves of platinum-group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, osmium, iridium, rhodium, and ruthenium along with vast quantities of iron, tin, chromium, titanium and vanadium. These are used in, but not limited to, jewellery, automobiles and electronics. Gabbro or norite is also quarried from parts of the complex and rendered into dimension stone. There have been more than 20 mine operations. There have been studies of potential uranium deposits. The complex is well known for its chromitite reef deposits, particularly the Merensky reef and the UG-2 reef. It represents about 75 percent of the world’s platinum and about 50 percent of the world's palladium resources. In this respect, the Bushveld complex is unique and one of most economically significant mineral deposit complex in the world.Bushveld elephant shrew
The bushveld elephant shrew or bushveld sengi (Elephantulus intufi) is a species of elephant shrew in the family Macroscelididae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and hot deserts.Bushveld gerbil
The Bushveld gerbil (Gerbilliscus leucogaster) is a species of gerbil found in Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, and hot deserts.Bushveld horseshoe bat
The Bushveld horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus simulator) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae.
It is found in Botswana, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Its natural habitats are moist savanna, caves, and subterranean habitats (other than caves). It is threatened by habitat loss.Bushveld pipit
The Bushveld pipit, bush pipit, or little pipit, (Anthus caffer) is a species of bird in the pipit and wagtail family Motacillidae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and dry savanna.Charaxes achaemenes
Charaxes achaemenes, the bushveld emperor or bush charaxes, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae found across Africa.The wingspan is 55–60 mm in males and 60–70 mm in females. Flight period is year-round.Larvae feed on Pterocarpus rotundifolius, Pterocarpus angolensis, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Dalbergia boehmii, Piliostigma thonningii, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Dalbergia nitidula, and Brachystegia spiciformis.Colotis ione
Colotis ione, the bushveld purple tip, common purple tip, or violet tip, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is found in the dry parts of Africa south of the Sahara.
The wingspan is 45–52 mm.
The larva feed on Maerua, Boscia, Capparis, Ritchiea, and Cadaba species.Colotis pallene
Colotis pallene, also known as the Bushveld orange tip, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae found in southern Africa.The wingspan is 28–35 mm. The adults fly year-round, peaking in late summer and autumn.The larva feed on Capparis species.Gerbilliscus
Gerbilliscus is a genus of rodent in the family Muridae. It contains the following species:
Cape gerbil (Gerbilliscus afra)
Boehm's gerbil (Gerbilliscus boehmi)
Highveld gerbil (Gerbilliscus brantsii)
Guinean gerbil (Gerbilliscus guineae)
Gorongoza gerbil (Gerbilliscus inclusus)
Kemp's gerbil (Gerbilliscus kempi)
Bushveld gerbil (Gerbilliscus leucogaster)
Black-tailed gerbil (Gerbilliscus nigricaudus)
Phillips's gerbil (Gerbilliscus phillipsi)
Fringe-tailed gerbil (Gerbilliscus robustus)
Savanna gerbil (Gerbilliscus validus)Jock of the Bushveld
Jock of the Bushveld is a true story by South African author Sir James Percy FitzPatrick. The book tells of FitzPatrick's travels with his dog, Jock, a Staffordshire Bull Terrier cross, during the 1880s, when he worked as a storeman, prospector's assistant, journalist and ox-wagon transport-rider in the Bushveld region of the Transvaal (then the South African Republic).Lephalale
Lephalale or Ellisras is a coal mining town in the Limpopo province of South Africa immediately east of the Waterberg Coalfield. The town was established as Ellisras in 1960 and named after Patrick Ellis and Piet Erasmus who settled on a farm there in the 1930s. In 2002, Ellisras was renamed Lephalale by the provincial government of Limpopo, after the main river that crosses the municipality. Lephalale is divided into three main subsections, Ellisras, Onverwacht and Marapong. Lephalale is derived from the setswana language meaning "to flow".List of cities and towns in Limpopo
This is a list of cities and towns in the Limpopo province of South Africa. Since 2003, a number of cities and towns have changed their names and may yet to be widely accepted and some of these place names remain the same as previously.Merensky Reef
The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa which together with an underlying layer, the Upper Group 2 Reef (UG2), contains most of the world's known reserves of platinum group metals (PGMs) or platinum group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium. The Reef is 46 cm thick and bounded by thin chromite seams or stringers. The composition consists predominantly of cumulate rocks, including leuconorite, anorthosite, chromitite, and melanorite.Rankotea
Rankotea is a village located just outside the town of Brits in the North West province under the Madibeng municipality of South Africa. The village has a vanadium extracting mine called Bushveld Vametco located just before you enter the residence. Bushveld Vametco mine provides the community of Rankotea with funds where they may need them like funding few students of Rankotea with university fees. It also has provided funds to renovate schools and clinics. The community includes a primary school named Rantsou and a secondary school named Ramadikela. It also have a power station named RoshCon. The residents use the health care service of the mobile clinic provided by Madibeng that comes once a month and during the month they use that of the community of Mothotlung. They also use the SAPS and Postal Office of Mothotlung.Rhyacian
The Rhyacian Period ( ; Greek: ῥύαξ, romanized: rhýax, meaning "stream of lava") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2300 Mya to 2050 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined chronometrically.The Bushveld Igneous Complex and other similar intrusions formed during this period.The Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation began at the start of the Rhyacian and lasted 100 million years.For the time period from 2250 Ma to 2060 Ma, an alternative period based on stratigraphy rather than chronometry, named either the Jatulian or the Eukaryian, was suggested in the geological timescale review 2012 edited by Gradstein et al., but as of February 2017, this has not yet been officially adopted by the IUGS. The term Jatulian is, however, used in the regional stratigraphy of the Paleoproterozoic rocks of Fennoscandia.Spialia colotes
Spialia colotes, the Bushveld sandman, is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae. It is found in Angola, Botswana and from South Africa to Ethiopia and south-western Arabia.
These skippers are dark brown with white spots on both sides of the wings.The wingspan is from 21–28 mm.The flight period is from December to May, with a single brood.The larvae feed on Hibiscus fuscus.Veld
Veld ( or ), also spelled veldt, is a type of wide open rural landscape in Southern Africa. Particularly, it is a flat area covered in grass or low scrub, especially in the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Botswana. A certain sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa has been officially defined as the Bushveld by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Trees are found only in a few places—frost, fire and grazing animals allow grass to grow but prevent the growth of trees.Ypthima impura
Ypthima impura, the impure ringlet (known in Afrikaans as the vuil-ringetjie), is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in most of Sub-Saharan Africa.
The wingspan is 32–36 mm for males and 34–38 mm for females. Adults are on wing year round with peak in early summer and autumn in southern Africa. The butterfly usually has three ocelli on the underside of their hindwing, although these may not appear during the dry season.The larvae feed on Poaceae grasses. Larvae have also been reared on Ehrharta erecta. Females are usually more sedentary than males, with stouter abdomens.
Regions of Africa