Bush dog

The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America.[1][2] In spite of its extensive range, it is very rare in most areas except in Suriname, Guyana and Peru;[2][3] it was first identified by Peter Wilhelm Lund from fossils in Brazilian caves and was believed to be extinct.[3] The bush dog is the only living species in the genus Speothos,[1] and genetic evidence suggests that its closest living relative is the maned wolf of central South America[4] or the African wild dog.[5] The species is listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.

In Brazil it is called cachorro-vinagre ("vinegar dog") or cachorro-do-mato ("bush dog"). In Spanish-speaking countries it is called perro vinagre ("vinegar dog"), zorro vinagre ("vinegar fox"), perro de agua ("water dog"), or perro de monte ("bush dog").

Bush dog[1]
Speothos venaticus Zoo Praha 2011-5 (cropped)
Bush dog at Prague Zoo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Speothos
Species:
S. venaticus
Binomial name
Speothos venaticus
(Lund, 1842)
Subspecies
  • S. v. panamensis (Panamanian bush dog)
  • S. v. venaticus (South American bush dog)
  • S. v. weijie (southern bush dog)
Bush Dog area
Bush dog range

Description

Adult bush dogs have soft long brownish-tan fur, with a lighter reddish tinge on the head, neck and back and a bushy tail, while the underside is dark, sometimes with a lighter throat patch. Younger individuals, however, have black fur over their entire bodies.[3] Adults typically have a head-body length of 57–75 cm (22–30 in), with a 12.5–15 cm (5–6 in) tail. They have a shoulder height of 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and weigh 5–8 kg (11–18 lb).[6] They have short legs relative to their body, as well as a short snout and relatively small ears.[3]

The teeth are adapted for its carnivorous habits. Uniquely for an American canid, the dental formula is

Dentition
3.1.4.1
3.1.4.2

for a total of 38 teeth.[3] The bush dog is one of three canid species (the other two being the dhole and the African wild dog) with trenchant heel dentition, having a single cusp on the talonid of the lower carnassial tooth that increases the cutting blade length.[3] Females have four pairs of teats and both sexes have large scent glands on either side of the anus.[3] Bush dogs have partially webbed toes, which allow them to swim more efficiently.[7]

Distribution and habitat

Waldhund
Bush dog
Chiens de buissons
Bush dogs with pups

Bush dogs are found from Costa Rica[8] in Central America and through much of South America east of the Andes, as far south as central Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil. They primarily inhabit lowland forests up to 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) elevation,[3] wet savannas and other habitats near rivers, but may also be found in drier cerrado and open pasture.[2] The historic range of this species may have extended as far north as Costa Rica where the species may still survive in suitable habitat.[2][9][10]

There are three recognised subspecies:[1][3]

  • the South American bush dog (Speothos venaticus venaticus) - southern Colombia and Venezuela, the Guyanas, most of Brazil, eastern Ecuador and Peru, Bolivia, northern Paraguay
  • the Panamanian bush dog (Speothos venaticus panamensis) - Panama, northern Colombia and Venezuela, western Ecuador
  • the southern bush dog (Speothos venaticus wingei) - southern Brazil and Paraguay, extreme northeastern Argentina

Behavior

Bush dogs are carnivores and hunt during the day. Their typical prey are pacas, agouti and capybaras, all large rodents. Although they can hunt alone, bush dogs are usually found in small packs. The dogs can bring down much larger prey, including peccaries and rheas, and a pack of six dogs has even been reported hunting a 250 kg (550 lb) tapir. When hunting paca, part of the pack chases it on land and part wait for it in the water, where it often retreats.[3]

Bush dogs appear to be the most gregarious South American canid species. They use hollow logs and cavities such as armadillo burrows for shelter. Packs consist of a single mated pair and their immediate kin, and have a home range of 3.8 to 10 square kilometres (1.5 to 3.9 sq mi).[3] Only the adult pair breed, while the other members of the pack are subordinate, and help with rearing and guarding any pups.[11] Packmates keep in contact with frequent whines, perhaps because visibility is poor in the undergrowth where they typically hunt.[12] While eating large prey, parents position themselves at either ends of the animal, making it easier for the pups to disembowel it.[3]

Reproduction

Bushdogs
Bush dogs mating

Bush dogs mate throughout the year; oestrus lasts up to twelve days and occurs every 15 to 44 days.[13] Like many other canids, bush dog mating includes a copulatory tie, during which the animals are locked together.[13] Urine-marking plays a significant role in their pre-copulatory behavior.[14][15]

Gestation lasts from 65 to 83 days and normally results in the birth of a litter of three to six pups, although larger litters of up to 10 have been reported.[3] The young are born blind and helpless and initially weigh 125 to 190 grams (4.4 to 6.7 oz). The eyes open after 14 to 19 days and the pups first emerge from the nativity den shortly thereafter.[3] The young are weaned at around four weeks and reach sexual maturity at one year.[16] They can live for up to 10 years in captivity.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b c d e DeMatteo, K.; Michalski , F. & Leite-Pitman, M.R.P. (2011). "Speothos venaticus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2011: e.T20468A9203243. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T20468A9203243.en. Retrieved 25 December 2017. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o de Mello Beiseigel, B. & Zuercher, G.L. (2005). "Speotheos venaticus". Mammalian Species: Number 783: pp. 1–6. doi:10.1644/783.1.
  4. ^ Wayne, R.K.; et al. (1997). "Molecular systematics of the Canidae". Systematic Biology. 46 (#4): 622–653. doi:10.1093/sysbio/46.4.622. PMID 11975336.
  5. ^ Nyakatura, K.; et al. (2012). "Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates". BMC Biology. 10 (#12). doi:10.1186/1741-7007-10-12.
  6. ^ "Speothos venaticus | ARKive". ARKive. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  7. ^ David Attenborough (November 20, 2002). The Life of Mammals, Episode 5: Meat Eaters (Documentary – 16:9 Stereo). United Kingdom: BBC/Discovery Channel. Event occurs at 17:10 min.
  8. ^ Alvarado, Laura. New Mammal Species Found in Costa Rica. Available at: https://news.co.cr/new-mammal-species-found-in-costa-rica/68595/
  9. ^ Rosa, C. L., de la and Nocke, C. C. 2000. A Guide to the Carnivores of Central America: Natural History, Ecology, and Conservation. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.
  10. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffman, Michael; and MacDonald David W. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals, and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN; 2004. p77.
  11. ^ Macdonald, D.W. (1996). "Social behaviour of captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus)". Journal of Zoology. 239 (#4): 525–543. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05941.x.
  12. ^ Macdonald, D. (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. p. 31. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
  13. ^ a b Porton, I.J.; et al. (1987). "Aseasonality of bush dog reproduction and the influence of social factors in the estrous cycle" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 68 (#4): 867–871. doi:10.2307/1381569. JSTOR 1381569.
  14. ^ Porton, Ingrid. "Bush dog urine-marking: its role in pair formation and maintenance." Animal behaviour 31.4 (1983): 1061-1069.
  15. ^ Kleiman, Devra G. "Social behavior of the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dog (Speothos venaticus): a study in contrast." Journal of Mammalogy 53.4 (1972): 791-806.
  16. ^ Bekoff, M.; et al. (1981). "Life-history patterns and sociality in canids: body size, reproduction, and behavior". Oecologia. 50 (#3): 386–390. doi:10.1007/BF00344981.

Bibliography

External links

Adjule

The Adjule, also known as Kelb-el-khela, is a canine said to inhabit North Africa, particularly the areas in and around the Sahara Desert in Mauritania. Reported primarily by the nomadic Tuaregs, and Théodore Monod in 1928, the adjule is said to be a totally unknown canine that resembles a dog or wolf, but today is described as an isolated population of the African wild dog. Some alternative names are kelb el khela ("bush dog") for the male and tarhsît for the female. However, despite a continuing firm belief the existence of the canine has since been debunked and its sightings attributed to wild canines mistaken for the adjule, such as the African wild dog which is now extinct in certain areas of the Sahara. There is one unconfirmed sighting of a canid-like animal from the coastal area of Mauritania in 1992; hunters living in the coastal areas of the Western Sahara, to the north of Mauritania, described an animal resembling a wild dog, which hunted in packs. However, this sighting was not confirmed as having been of the Lycaon pictus species (IUCN/CSG, 1997).

Antisana Ecological Reserve

Antisana Ecological Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Ecológica Antisana) is a protected area in Ecuador situated in the Napo Province, Quijos Canton and Archidona Canton.

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Bahuaja-Sonene National Park

Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Bahuaja-Sonene) is a protected area located in the regions of Puno and Madre de Dios, in Peru.

Blue Dog Coalition

The Blue Dog Coalition, commonly known as the Blue Dogs or Blue Dog Democrats, is a caucus of United States Congressional Representatives from the Democratic Party who identify as fiscally-responsible, centrist Democrats. The caucus is not an ideological group but rather a group of Democrats who share a pragmatic approach to governance, an independence from leadership of both parties, and unite on the mission of fiscal responsibility and enhancing national defense. Since its founding, the Coalition's membership has changed but the mission has remained the same. Today, the Coalition primarily consists of Democrats who are socially progressive and fiscally conservative.The co-chairs for the 116th Congress are U.S. Representatives Anthony Brindisi (NY-22), Lou Correa (CA-46), Stephanie Murphy (FL-07), and Tom O'Halleran (AZ-01). The co-chair for the Blue Dog PAC, the Coalition's political organization, is Rep. Kurt Schrader. Rep. Stephanie Murphy is the first woman of color to lead the Blue Dog Coalition in the organization's history.

Canidae

The biological family Canidae

(from Latin, canis, “dog”) is a lineage of carnivorans that includes domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes, foxes, jackals, dingoes, and many other extant and extinct dog-like mammals. A member of this family is called a canid (, ).The cat-like feliforms and dog-like caniforms emerged within the Carnivoramorpha 43 million years before present. The caniforms included the fox-like genus Leptocyon whose various species existed from 34 million years ago (Mya) before branching 11.9 Mya into Vulpini (foxes) and Canini (canines).Canids are found on all continents except Antarctica, having arrived independently or accompanied human beings over extended periods of time. Canids vary in size from the 2-m-long (6 ft 7 in) gray wolf to the 24-cm-long (9.4 in) fennec fox. The body forms of canids are similar, typically having long muzzles, upright ears, teeth adapted for cracking bones and slicing flesh, long legs, and bushy tails. They are mostly social animals, living together in family units or small groups and behaving co-operatively. Typically, only the dominant pair in a group breeds, and a litter of young is reared annually in an underground den. Canids communicate by scent signals and vocalizations. They are very intelligent. One canid, the domestic dog, long ago entered into a partnership with humans and today remains one of the most widely kept domestic animals.

Culpeo

The culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), sometimes known as the zorro culpeo or Andean fox, is a South American fox species. It is the second-largest native canid on the continent, after the maned wolf. In appearance, it bears many similarities to the widely recognized red fox. It has grey and reddish fur, a white chin, reddish legs and a stripe on its back that may be barely visible.

The culpeo's diet consists largely of rodents, rabbits, birds and lizards, and to a lesser extent, plant material and carrion. The culpeo does attack sheep on occasion and is therefore often hunted or poisoned. In some regions it has become rare, but overall the species is not threatened with extinction.

The culpeo was domesticated to form the Fuegian dog, but this animal became extinct some time between 1880 and 1919.

Environment of Argentina

The Environment of Argentina is characterised by high biodiversity.

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (Prosopis alba and Prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem.The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4,000 m (13,000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar and puma; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine black and white tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, and swallows.

The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia.

The western mountains are home to animals including the llama, guanaco and vicuña which are among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean mountain cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean condor.

Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar. The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants.

The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and king crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. The hornero was elected the national bird after a survey in 1928.

Fox

Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or brush).

Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Approximately another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes; these foxes are either part of the paraphyletic group of the South American foxes, or of the outlying group, which consists of bat-eared fox, gray fox, and island fox. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with about 47 recognized subspecies. The global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe, especially in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Maned wolf

The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America. Its markings resemble those of foxes, but it is not a fox, nor is it a wolf. It is the only species in the genus Chrysocyon (meaning "golden dog").

This mammal is found in open and semiopen habitats, especially grasslands with scattered bushes and trees, in south, central-west, and southeastern Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina, Bolivia east and north of the Andes, and far southeastern Peru (Pampas del Heath only). It is very rare in Uruguay, possibly being displaced completely through loss of habitat. IUCN lists it as near threatened, while it is considered a vulnerable species by the Brazilian government (IBAMA).

It is known locally as aguará guazú (meaning "large fox" in the Guarani language), or kalak in the Toba Qom language, lobo de crin, lobo de los esteros, or lobo colorado, and lobo-guará in Brazil. It also is called borochi in Bolivia.

Mustelinae

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).

Nyctereutes

Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Paradoxurus

Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Short-eared dog

The short-eared dog (Atelocynus microtis), also known as the short-eared zorro and small-eared dog, is a unique and elusive canid species endemic to the Amazonian basin. This is the only species assigned to the genus Atelocynus.

Speothos

Speothos is a genus of canid found in Central and South America. The genus includes the living bush dog, Speothos venaticus, and an extinct Pleistocene species, Speothos pacivorus. Unusually, the fossil species was identified and named before the extant species was discovered, with the result that the type species of Speothos is S. pacivorus.

Speothos pacivorus

Speothos pacivorus is an extinct species in the genus Speothos, a relative of the extant bush dog. The fossil species dates to the Late Pleistocene. When compared to the bush dog, S. pacivorus had an overall larger body size and a double-rooted second lower molar.

Extant Carnivora species

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