Bus transport forms a significant part of public transport in Singapore, with over 3.9 million rides taken per day on average as of 2016. There are more than 576 scheduled bus services, operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses, Tower Transit Singapore and Go-Ahead Singapore. The newest bus operator, Go-Ahead Singapore started operation from 4 September 2016. There are also around 5,400 buses currently in operation.
|Bus Transport in Singapore|
|Hubs||26 Bus Interchanges|
|Daily ridership||3.9 million|
When Singapore first gained independence in 1965, the public transport system was inadequate to cope with the population, while the buses were old and slow. Furthermore, the system was beleaguered with frequent problems such as poor management and substandard services and quality.
The main bus operator was the Singapore Traction Company (STC), plying routes in the city area. Apart from that, there were many small and individual Chinese private bus companies, each plying a small part of the rural and fringe areas of the island, with only a few routes each. Therefore, a simple journey from the East to the West of the island could involve several bus transfers, and could last a few hours aboard noisy and rickety buses.
As Singapore Traction Company had a 30-year monopoly and had no direct competition, its services were usually substandard, while the small Chinese bus companies also had a shortage of resources and funds. Moreover, many bus companies had labour problems. There were quite a few cases of labour unrest. In the late 1950s, the situation deteriorated. Militant bus workers, manipulated by communist-controlled unions, resorted to strikes in a demand for better work conditions and pay. These work stoppages plagued the entire bus system into chaos.
A famous bus strike was the Hock Lee bus riots on May 12, 1955, where workers from the Hock Lee Amalgamated Bus Company began to go on strike. They were members of the Singapore Bus Workers' Union (SBWU) and were protesting against bad working conditions, long working hours and a low pay. Students from the Chinese Middle schools even came to join and support the strikers. The situation was so bad that in 1955, the Chinese bus companies were hit by a total of 57 strikes. In 1956, the 'Great STC Strike' lasted 146 days. The strikers crippled the country's transport system. The chaotic conditions usually left the commuters in a lurch.
In 11 April 1971, the bus system was reorganised. Many small bus companies were amalgamated into three larger bus companies, namely the Amalgamated Bus Company, Associated Bus Services, and the United Bus Company. However, the STC had suffered great financial losses within the period of 1971 and had to permanently closed its bus operations on 1 December 1971, with the revocation of its omnibus license.
In 1 November 1973, the three bus companies were merged into a one single organisation, called Singapore Bus Service (the predecessor of SBS Transit), which came into operation in 1 November 1973. It was hoped that this would create economies of scale and ultimately improve bus services. Bus lanes were introduced in 1974 and Scheme B bus transport were introduced together:
The government mooted the idea of a second bus company in the early 1980s. The idea was to provide some degree of competition to SBS. Therefore, Trans-Island Bus Services (TIBS) was formed on 31 May 1982, as the second major public bus operator. Trans-Island started operations on 3 April 1983.
Ong Teng Cheong, the then Minister for Communications, remarked that "Each company will act as a natural impetus to enhance the performance and efficiency of the other in the spirit of healthy competition and in the process help bring about a better level of service."
The new bus stop stands were introduced in November 1993 and integrated both SBS (red), TIBS (yellow), City Shuttle Services (orange) and Bus-Plus Services (green) into the bus stop stand, thus allowing operator changes. Bus stop poles were also designated with a 5-digit bus stop code. Scheme B bus services were then coloured in plain text formatting, together with other Premium services. The bus stop stands were separated individually, CBD (with 4 to 5 columns each), Town Centre (with 3 columns each and also for MRT stations), and general bus stop poles.
In August 1994, the government announced the transfer of 17 SBS services to Trans-Island bus services. This was to help TIBS in its early years.
In 1999, the government announced the final transfer of bus services to Trans-Island bus services in exchange of SBS who had won the whole right of North East line.
In 1 November 2001, Singapore Bus Services changed its name to SBS Transit. This was to reflect its status as a multi-modal transport operator, as it had won the tender to operate the new North East line and the Punggol LRT line and Sengkang LRT line.
In late 2001, Trans-Island became a subsidiary of the SMRT Corporation (SMRT). Trans-Island Bus Service was renamed as SMRT Buses on 10 May 2004.
Plans are made to convert bus interchanges into being air-conditioned (Integrated Transport Hubs (ITHs)) as opposed to the current open-air. So far, eleven bus interchanges have been converted or are undergoing conversion. They include:
In April 2013, the Land Transport Authority announced that Bulim Bus Depot will be built by the authority itself. It will be located off Jurong West Avenue 2. It will be the first depot that LTA is developing and funding, as part of the review of the enhanced structural assistance the Government is providing the bus industry announced in Committee of Supply (COS) 2012. The depot is intended for SMRT Buses Ltd, to accommodate the additional buses that it is bringing in over the next few years. The operator’s existing bus depots and bus park are reaching full capacity, and the new facility is necessary to support the higher number of buses as the overall bus capacity is progressively increased under the Bus Service Enhancement Programme (BSEP). Subsequently, announced by LTA on 29 May 2013, Loyang Bus Depot will be built, located off Loyang Avenue.
In May 2014, the Land Transport Authority announced a radical change to the bus industry, switching from a privatised model to a Bus Contracting Model in which bus operators bid for routes. LTA took over all operating assets, such as buses, bus stations, bus depots and fleet management systems. Commuters benefit from shorter waiting times and improved service levels. All bus routes were bundled into 14 packages. Bus operators will bid for each package in a competitive tendering process. Should they win a bid, they will run the package routes for five years, with a two-year extension for good performance. The LTA will lease the buses and infrastructure to the operators, who will be obliged to maintain them. All fares will still be maintained by the LTA for affordability.
In November 2014, the LTA put the first package up for tender, comprising routes from Bukit Batok, Jurong East and Clementi Bus Interchanges, supported by Bulim Bus Depot . The tender was awarded to Tower Transit Singapore in May 2015. Subsequently, another foreign operator, Go-Ahead Singapore won the second tender in November that year, comprising routes from Punggol and Pasir Ris Bus Interchanges, and supported by Loyang Bus Depot. The tender for the third package, comprising routes from Ang Mo Kio, Yio Chu Kang and Yishun Bus Interchanges, supported by the Seletar Bus Depot was awarded to incumbent operator SBS Transit. In 2018, the Bukit Merah Bus Package which operates several routes in the south-western and central parts of Singapore, and comprising cross-border services 160 and 170, was also awarded to SBS Transit.
In December 2018, LTA will soon trial its on-demand public bus (ODPB) services. It allows commuters in the Joo Koon and Marina-Downtown areas to request the on-demand services during off-peak hours on weekdays. During the trial, regular bus services serving the areas specified will still be available, though at lower frequencies.
Singapore's buses consist of single deck and double deck buses and they are operated by all four operators, SBS Transit, SMRT Buses, Tower Transit Singapore and Go-Ahead Singapore. Articulated buses are operated by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses.
In April 1996, SBS Transit introduced a demonstrator Volvo B10MA bus (registration SBS998Y) fitted with a three-door version of the Duple Metsec bodywork similar to that of Volvo's B10M buses. With a length of 19 metres (62 ft), this bus earned the title of "Asia's Longest Bus". In 1997, SBS Transit purchased another articulated bus, the Mercedes-Benz O405GN (registration SBS999U), again as a demonstrator. This bus had Volgren CR221L bodywork. In March 2006, SBS Transit sold all its articulated buses to New Zealand after encountering drivability issues with the Volvo B10MA bus and air conditioning problems with the Mercedes-Benz bus, and also deciding that double-decker buses could carry more passengers while taking up less road space, as opposed to SMRT's stance that "articulated buses offer greater accessibility and efficiency".
Singapore has many different bus services plying through the island. These bus routes are categorised accordingly:
Bishan Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving Bishan in Singapore. The interchange commenced passenger service as Bishan Bus Terminal in 1988, with Services 56 and 58. Located at Bishan Street 13, it is designed in a unique squarish configuration with the building wrapping around the bus parking area.
The Ministry of Education Language Centre (MOELC) lies across the field to the north. Passengers also able to transfer to the Circle Line from an entrance located right outside the interchange.Bukit Batok Bus Interchange
Not to be confused with Bukit Batok Bus Depot.Bukit Batok Interchange is an interchange bus station located at Block 631 Bukit Batok Central, Singapore, near West Mall Shopping Centre and Bukit Batok MRT Station. The sheltered concourse is built underneath a multi-storey carpark similar in design to the old Serangoon Interchange.
The interchange has two vehicular concourse areas, North and South.The North concourse features five sawtooth berths, two of which are used for alighting and the remaining three for boarding, with queuing lanes installed. Buses park at a bus park opposite the passenger concourse, and separate ingress and egress lanes lead to Bukit Batok Central.
The South concourse features fifteen end-on berths, which are shared among five bus services. Two end-on berths are reserved for wheelchair boarding and alighting. A combined ingress and egress lane cuts underneath the interchange and leads to a junction with Bukit Batok Central. Both concourses are able to accommodate double-deck buses.It is currently operated by Tower Transit Singapore, which operates 9 services under the Bulim Bus Package.Bukit Panjang Bus Interchange
Bukit Panjang Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving Bukit Panjang New Town, Singapore. It is diagonally opposite Bukit Panjang Plaza and adjacent to Bukit Panjang MRT/LRT Station on the Downtown MRT and Bukit Panjang LRT lines.Bus Services Industry Act
The Bus Services Industry Act 2015 is a statute of the Parliament of Singapore that provide for the Land Transport Authority (LTA) to take over the regulation of the operators of bus services, depots and interchanges from the Public Transport Council (PTC).Bus contracting model of Singapore
The Bus Contracting Model (BCM), formerly known as the Government Contracting Model, is a contracting model introduced by the Land Transport Authority in 2014 for public buses in Singapore, implemented in 2016. The BCM is based on the Transperth model in Perth, Western Australia with quality incentive elements from London Buses. Under the BCM, local and overseas bus operators bid for contracts to operate public bus services on behalf of LTA. The LTA has also adopted a new unified lush green livery and logo for all buses, and now procures and owns the bus fleet for all public bus services in Singapore.City Shuttle Service
The City Shuttle Service was a network of bus services operated in Singapore between May 1975 and April 2007 by NTUC Comfort and Singapore Shuttle Bus.Clementi Bus Interchange
Clementi Bus Interchange is an air-conditioned bus interchange in Clementi New Town, beside Clementi MRT Station. It is located at the junction of Clementi Avenue 3 and Commonwealth Avenue West, situated within the Clementi Mall and integrated with Clementi MRT Station. This interchange serves mainly commuters travelling to the various housing estates, schools, recreational areas, healthcare centres and places of worship in Clementi and West Coast.Compassvale Bus Interchange
Compassvale Bus Interchange, located opposite Sengkang Bus Interchange, is a bus interchange in Sengkang, Singapore, built to increase the capacity of the existing interchange. It is bordered by Compassvale Road, Sengkang East Way and Sengkang Square. Despite its name, it is not located near LRT station with the same name, but is actually named after the road which it is located at, Compassvale Road.Eunos Bus Interchange
Eunos Bus Interchange is a bus interchange located in Geylang East, Singapore. It is located and built just outside Eunos MRT Station. It is surrounded by Eunos Road 2, Eunos Avenue 1 and Sims Avenue.
The interchange is designed with traditional Malay roof structure and shape, but using modern materials such as steel beams, similar to that of the Eunos MRT station. It gives a sense of identity to the area as the bus interchange lies close to Geylang and also to honour Eunos Abdullah whom secured 700-hectares of land for the Malay settlements in the early 1900s.
This bus interchange is the sole bus interchange not located in the respective town centre.HarbourFront Bus Interchange
HarbourFront Bus Interchange is located within HarbourFront along Seah Im Road in Bukit Merah planning area, Singapore. The interchange serves the nearby residential estates of Telok Blangah and Bukit Purmei and also the HarbourFront commercial district, including HarbourFront Centre and VivoCity. The interchange is directly connected to HarbourFront MRT Station. It is the southernmost bus interchange in Singapore.Hougang Central Bus Interchange
Hougang Central Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving the town of Hougang. It is located directly above Hougang MRT Station. This bus interchange was planned to be an integrated transport hub.List of former bus stations in Singapore
This is a non-exhaustive listing of former bus interchanges or terminals that were once part of Singapore's bus system, and decommissioned due to geographical retention or the introduction of new town centres, or creation of consolidated transportation hubs.Pasir Ris Bus Interchange
Pasir Ris Bus Interchange is a bus interchange located at Pasir Ris in the eastern part of Singapore. It is located off Pasir Ris Drive 3, adjacent to Pasir Ris MRT Station and near White Sands Shopping Centre. This bus interchange also serves as a pick-up/drop-off point for shuttle buses ferrying NSF men heading to the SAF Ferry Terminal for their shuttle ferry to Pulau Tekong.Sembawang Bus Interchange
Sembawang Bus Interchange is a bus interchange located in Sembawang, Singapore. Opened on 2 December 2005, it provides hassle-free transfer to the nearby Sembawang MRT Station.
This is one of the interchanges in a residential estate to not have any feeders or intratown services.Sentosa Beach Tram
Sentosa Beach Tram is the tram which serves Sentosa beaches: Palawan Beach, Siloso Beach and Tanjong Beach. It has been classified as a bus and tram. The tram vehicles are articulated buses. The connection is at Beach Station.Serangoon Bus Interchange
Serangoon Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving Serangoon New Town in Singapore, and is within walking distance from Serangoon. Opened on 3 September 2011, it is the smallest air-conditioned bus interchange in Singapore with 8 services and 17 bus bays.Tampines Bus Interchange
Tampines Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving Tampines in Singapore. It is an open-air building located in the town centre near the Tampines MRT Station, with the allocated Block 512. There are 29 bus services operating from the bus interchange, making it the 4th busiest bus interchange in Singapore.Tampines Concourse Bus Interchange
Tampines Concourse Bus Interchange is a bus interchange serving Tampines in Singapore. Tampines Concourse Bus Interchange, located roughly 300 metres away from Tampines Bus Interchange, was built to increase the capacity of the existing interchange. It is bordered by Tampines Concourse and Tampines Avenue 7.Tuas Bus Terminal
Tuas Bus Terminal (Chinese: 大士巴士终站) is a bus terminal located in Tuas in the western part of Singapore. This terminal serves industrial workers at Jurong Industrial Estate and Tuas Industrial Estate from Boon Lay Bus Interchange.
The terminal was relocated to a new site above the Tuas Depot on the 7 October 2017.
On 18 June 2017, 2 new service, 247 & 248, were introduced in conjunction with the Tuas West MRT Extension opening. On 7 October 2017, all 4 services were relocated to the new site.