Bus stop

A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus. The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage, where stops at busy locations may have shelters, seating, and possibly electronic passenger information systems; less busy stops may use a simple pole and flag to mark the location. Bus stops are, in some locations, clustered together into transport hubs allowing interchange between routes from nearby stops and with other public transport modes to maximise convenience.

People waiting at bus stop
Moments before the bus arrives, riders wait at SUNY Purchase.

Types of service

NH5 on a rainy day at Zoo Park in Visakhapatnam
A Highway Bus Stop in Visakhapatnam, India

For operational purposes, there are three main kinds of stops: Scheduled stops, at which the bus should stop irrespective of demand; request stops (or flag stop), at which the vehicle will stop only on request; and hail and ride stops, at which a vehicle will stop anywhere along the designated section of road on request.

Certain stops may be restricted to "discharge/set-down only" or "pick-up only". Some stops may be designated as "timing points", and if the vehicle is ahead of schedule it will wait there to ensure correct synchronization with the timetable. In dense urban areas where bus volumes are high, skip-stops are sometimes used to increase efficiency and reduce delays at bus stops. Fare stages may also be defined by the location of certain stops in distance or zone-based fare collection systems. Sunday stops are close to a church and used only on Sundays.[1]

History

From the 17th to the 19th century, horse drawn stage coaches ran regular services between many European towns, starting and stopping at designated Coaching inns where the horses could be changed and passengers board or alight, in effect constituting the earliest form of bus stop. The Angel Inn, Islington, the first stop on the route from London to York, was a noted example of such an inn. A seat in a Stage coach usually had to be booked in advance.

John Greenwood opened the first bus line in Britain in Manchester in 1824, running a fixed route and allowing passengers to board on request along the way without a reservation. Landmarks such as Public houses, rail stations and road junctions became customary stopping points.

Regular Horse drawn buses started in Paris in 1828 and George Shillibeer started his London horse Omnibus service in 1829. running between stops at Paddington (at a pub - The Yorkshire Stingo) and the Bank of England to a designated route and timetable. By the mid 19th Century guides were available to London bus routes including maps with routes and the main stops [2].

In the UK National National Public Transport Access Node database of all UK stops, developed by the Department of Transport in 2001, stops are classified as marked or custom and usage (i.e. unmarked stops where the driver will stop the vehicle on request). Use of a marked stop may be changed- the bus will always stop, or by request only.

Design

Haltestellenschild Jungfernstieg retouched
Bus stop sign in Hamburg with line numbers and major stops
YRT bin.jpeg
In many places, bus stop infrastructure includes bins for litter. Pictured is a rural bus stop in York Region, north of Toronto.

Bus stop infrastructure ranges from a simple pole and sign, to a rudimentary shelter, to sophisticated structures. The usual minimum is a pole mounted flag with suitable name/symbol. Bus stop shelters may have a full or partial roof, supported by a two, three or four sided construction. Modern stops are mere steel and glass/perspex constructions, although in other places, such as rural Britain, stops may be wooden brick or concrete built.[3]

The construction may include small inbuilt seats. The construction may feature advertising, from simple posters, to complex illuminated, changeable or animated displays. Some installations have also included interactive advertising. Advertising may be the primary reason for the shelter and the advertising pays for the bus shelter.[4] Design and construction may be uniform to reflect a large corporate or local authority provider, or installations may be more personal or distinctive where a small local authority such as a parish council is responsible for the stop. The stop may include separate street furniture such as a bench, lighting and a trash receptacle.

Individual bus stops may simply be placed on the sidewalk next to the roadway, although they can also be placed to facilitate use of a busway. More complex installations can include construction of a bus turnout or a bus bulb, for traffic management reasons, although use of a bus lane can make these unnecessary. Several bus stops may be grouped together to facilitate easy transfer between routes. These may be arranged in a simple row along the street, or in parallel or diagonal rows of multiple stops. Groups of bus stops may be integral to transportation hubs. With extra facilities such as a waiting room or ticket office, outside groupings of bus stops can be classed as a rudimentary bus station.

Convention is usually for the bus to draw level with the 'flag', although in areas of mixed front and rear entrance buses, such as London, a head stop, and more rarely a tail stop, indicates to the driver whether they should stop the bus with either the rear platform or the drivers cab level with the flag.[5]

In certain areas, the area of road next the bus stop may be specially marked, and protected in law. Often, car drivers can be unaware of the legal implications of stopping or parking in a bus-stop.[6]

In bus rapid transit systems, bus stops may be more elaborate than street bus stops, and can be termed 'stations' to reflect this difference. These may have enclosed areas to allow off-bus fare collection for rapid boarding, and be spaced further apart like tram stops. Bus stops on a bus rapid transit line may also have a more complex construction allowing level boarding platforms, and doors separating the enclosure from the bus until ready to board.

WardenVIVA6
A large suburban bus stop in York Region, near Toronto
Bus stop in Chandigarh
Bus stop shelter in Chandigarh
Minneapolis Club (20526189290)

Metro Transit bus stop shelter (ca. 1980) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

Saia bussipeatus

Sala bus stop shelter in Saaremaa, Estonia

Shortnur bus shelter

A bus shelter in India

Järvere bussipeatus

Wooden bus stop shelter in Sõmerpalu Parish, Estonia

Seliste bussipeatus

Bus stop shelter made from calcium-silicate bricks in Seliste, Estonia

Bus Stops 2 curitiba brasil

Bus Rapid Transit shelter for the RIT system in Curitiba, Brazil, known as "tubo" (tube)

Ashgabat bus stop IMG 5627 (26085205046)

Bus stop in Ashgabat with air conditioning

Bangkok Nus stop sign

Close-up of a bus stop sign in Bangkok, Thailand

Information

98b-line-sign
Bus stop info poster in Vancouver, British Columbia also shows rapid transit routes

Public facing information

Most bus stops are identified with a metal sign attached to a pole or light standard. Some stops are plastic strips strapped on to poles and others involve a sign attached to a bus shelter. The signs are often identified with a picture of a bus and/or with the words "bus stop" (or similar in non-English-speaking places).

The bus stop "flag" (a panel usually projecting from the top of a bus stop pole) will sometimes contain the route numbers of all the buses calling at the stop, optionally distinguishing frequent, infrequent, 24-hour, and night services. The flag may also show the logo of the dominant bus operator, or the logo of a local transit authority with responsibility for bus services in the area. Additional information may include an unambiguous, unique name for the stop, and the direction/common destination of most calling routes.

Bus stops will often include timetable information, either the full timetable, or for busier routes, the times or frequency that a bus will call at the specific stop. Route maps and tariff information may also be provided, and telephone numbers to relevant travel information services.

The stop may also incorporate, or have nearby, real time information displays with the arrival times of the next buses. Increasingly, mobile phone technology is being referenced on more remote stops, allowing the next bus times to be sent to a passenger's handset based on the stop location and the real time information. Automated ticket machines may be provided at busy stops.

Data model

Modern passenger information systems and journey planners require a detailed digital representation of stops and stations. The CEN Transmodel data model, and the related IFOPT data interchange standard, define how transport systems, including bus stops, should be described for use in computer models. In Transmodel, a single bus stop is modeled as a "Stop Point", and a grouping of nearby bus stops as a "Stop Area" or "Stop Place". The General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS) standard, originally developed by Google and TriMet,[7] defines a simple and widely used data interchange standard for public transport schedules. GTFS also includes a table of stop locations which for each stop gives a name, identifier, location, and identification with any larger station that the stop may be a part of.[8] OpenStreetMap also has a modelling standard for bus stops.[9]

The United Kingdom has collected a complete database of its public transport access points, including bus stops, into the National Public Transport Access Nodes (NaPTAN) database with details of 350,000 nodes and which is available as open Data from data.gov.uk.[10]

Safety

Pn-bus-stop-plesheevskaa-2000
Neglected bus shelter needing repair

Bus stops enhance passenger safety in a number of ways:

  • Bus stops prevent passengers from trying to board or alight in hazardous situations such as at intersections or where a bus is turning and is not using the curb lane.
  • A bus driver cannot be expected to continuously look for intending passengers. A bus stop means that the driver only needs to look for intending passengers at the approach to each bus stop.
  • Having bus stops requires passengers to group themselves prior to boarding, which reduces time spent at boarding.
  • At night, when passenger numbers are lower, restrictions are sometimes relaxed and passengers may be allowed to exit the bus anywhere within reason.[11]
  • Bus turnouts, or lay-bys, allow buses to stop without impeding the flow of traffic on the main roadway

Regulation

Temporary bus stop, Saint Marks Road - geograph.org.uk - 1018734
Sign marking a temporary bus stop in London

Some jurisdictions have introduced particularised legislative controls to foster safer bus stop design and management. The State of Victoria, Australia, for example, has enacted a Bus Safety Act which contains performance-based duties of care[12] which apply to all industry participants who are in a position to influence the safety of bus operations - what is called the "chain of responsibility". The safety duties apply to all bus services, both commercial and non-commercial, and to all buses regardless of seating capacity. Breach of the duty is a serious criminal offence which carries a heavy penalty.

The primary duty holder under the Bus Safety Act is the operator of the bus service, as the person who has effective responsibility and control over the whole operation.[13] However, the Act also contains a safety duty covering "people with responsibility for bus stops", including people who design, build, or maintain the stop, plus those who decide on its location.[14]

This duty was introduced in response to research showing that the most serious hazard associated with bus travel occurs when passengers, especially children, are crossing the road after alighting from the bus. The location and layout of a bus stop is therefore a factor in the level of risk.[15]

Safety duties are also imposed by the Bus Safety Act on a range of other people including -

  • "bus safety workers" including drivers, schedulers who set bus timetables, and mechanics and testers who repair or assess vehicle safety[16]
  • "procurers" - people who procure the bus service, known as the "customer" in the commercial charter sector.[17]

All of these persons can clearly affect bus safety. They are required by the Bus Safety Act to ensure that, in carrying out their activities, they eliminate risks to health and safety if 'practicable' - or work to reduce those risks 'so far as is reasonably practicable'. This familiar practicability formula is borrowed from Victoria's Rail Safety Act (and a subsequent national model Rail Safety Bill) and the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004.

Research

Many transit agencies have developed guidelines for preferred bus stop spacing. In most US cities, however, the typical bus stop spacing is between 650 and 900 feet (200–275 m), well below the optimal.

Bus stop capacity is often an important consideration in the planning of bus stops serving multiple routes within urban centers. Limited capacity may mean buses queue up behind each other at the bus stop, which can cause traffic blockages or delays. Bus stop capacity is typically measured in terms of buses/hour that can reliably use the bus stop. The main factors that affect bus stop capacity are:

  • Number of loading areas (or number of buses that can stop at one time)
  • Average dwell time (How much time it takes a bus to load/unload passengers)
  • G/C ratio of nearby traffic signal (green time / cycle length)
  • Clearance time (time it takes bus to re-enter the traffic stream)

Detailed procedures for calculating bus stop capacity and bus lane capacity using skip stops are outlined in Part 4 of the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, published by the US Transportation Research Board.

Transit agencies are increasingly looking at consolidation of possibly previously haphazardly placed bus stops as a way to improve service cheaply and easily. Bus stop consolidation evaluates the bus stops along an established bus route and develops a new pattern for optimal bus stop placement. Bus stop consolidation has been proven to improve operating efficiency and ridership on bus routes.

Fake bus stops

Some nursing homes have built fake, imitation bus stops for their residents who have dementia.[18] Some of these bus stops are even fitted with outdated advertisements and timetables – 30 years outdated.[18] The residents will sit at the bus stop waiting for a bus to take them to their imagined destination.[18] After some time, a staff member comes to escort the clients back to the home.[18]

In popular culture

Bus stops are common tropes in popular culture. In 1956 there was a Marilyn Monroe film called Bus Stop. A famous scene in the movie Forrest Gump takes place at a bus stop and almost all episodes of South Park series start by presenting the main characters in a bus stop.

In Japanese culture, the movie My Neighbor Totoro featured a bus stop, both for ordinary buses and a cat bus. The opening scene of the anime Air shows the main character getting off at a bus stop. The Japanese movie Summer Wars features a rural bus stop.

Renowned rabbis have taught lessons in Judaism from their interaction and experience with bus stops.[19][20][21][22][23][24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Andrew-Gee, Eric (7 May 2015). "Sunday streetcar stops near churches to be shuttered in June". Toronto Star. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  2. ^ Reynolds, James (1853). Reynolds's Cab Fares and Omnibus Guide, ... with maps. London, England: James REYNOLDS, Bookseller.
  3. ^ "Bus stop in Western Isles". wordpress.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  4. ^ Keenan, Edward (30 May 2019). "This useless Toronto transit shelter makes a good point — but not necessarily the one the city wants". Toronto Star. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Save BIG with $9.99 .COMs from GoDaddy!". Go Daddy. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  6. ^ Nottingham city transport Archived July 16, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Bus Lanes and Bus Stops - what's the problem?
  7. ^ "Pioneering Open Data Standards: The GTFS Story". beyondtransparency.org. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  8. ^ "stops.txt File | Static Transit | Google Developers". Google Developers. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  9. ^ "Bus Stop". OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  10. ^ "National Public Transport Access Nodes (NaPTAN)". data.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2010-03-25.
  11. ^ http://www.vestische.de/halten-auf-wunsch/articles/halten-auf-wunsch.html (Example for one such regulation, in German)
  12. ^ Bus Safety Act 2009, Part 3.
  13. ^ Bus Safety Act 2009, section 15.
  14. ^ Bus Safety Act 2009, section 18.
  15. ^ See Improving Bus Safety in Victoria, a discussion paper published by the Department of Transport in May 2009.
  16. ^ Bus Safety Act 2009, section 17.
  17. ^ Bus Safety Act 2009, section 16.
  18. ^ a b c d Paulick, Jane. "Bus-Stops at Old People's Homes Take Patients for a Ride". Deutsche Welle. June 6, 2008. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  19. ^ B. C. Glaberson (1 June 1999). The life and times of Reb Rephoel Soloveitchik of Brisk. Feldheim. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-58330-361-0. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  20. ^ Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach Archived 2010-07-31 at the Wayback Machine, Yated Neeman
  21. ^ Nisson Wolpin (2002). Torah leaders: a treasury of biographical sketches collected from the pages of the Jewish Observer. Mesorah Publications in conjunction with Agudath Israel of America. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-57819-773-6. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
  22. ^ A. L. Scheinbaum (February 1998). Peninim on the Torah. Peninim Publications in conjunction with "The Living Memorial," a project of the Hebrew Academy of Cleveland. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-9635120-6-2. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  23. ^ Yonason Rosenblum (2000). Rav Dessler: the life and impact of Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler the Michtav m'Eliyahu. Mesorah. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-57819-506-0. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  24. ^ "ArtScroll.com". www.artscroll.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.

External links

17 June 2008 Baghdad bombing

The 17 June 2008 Baghdad bombing was a suicide car bomb attack on a bus stop in northern Baghdad, the capital city of Iraq, on 17 June 2008, killing 51 people and wounding 75.

The attack happened in the Shia neighbourhood of Hurriya. The explosion struck during the early evening rush hour, when the bus stop was crowded with waiting passengers.

Borabanda

Borabanda is one of the most popular residential area in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. It is close to Erragadda, Kukatpally, Jublieehills and Madhapur. It is a highly populated area and its close proximity to Hi-Tech city make it more traffic prone. The famous landmarks in Borabanda are Pankha (Old Windmill), site-3- Hitech Hotel, Haji Mastan bakery, Mahboob tent house, Peeli Dargah, Vijetha theatre, Jai Shankar Function Hall and Chandra Garden.

Borabanda has a government hospital located near Peeli Dagrah and a Basthi Dawakhana at Borabanda Bus stop. The are two Tanks which are connected with Borabanda they are Sunnam Cheruvu and Maisamma Cheruvu.

Borabanda has famous religious place in it they are Sai baba temple at Bus stop, St Francis Xavier near Water reservoir, Peeli Dargah and Noor Masjid. Besides these Borabanda is famous for Bonalu Festival which is state festival of Telangana.

Borabanda has it own Railway Station with MMTS service which connects Falaknuma, Lingampally, Secundrabad and Nampally. Borabanda Police outpost is situated in Swaraj Nagar/Site II area of Borabanda region. It has a huge water reservoir.

Borabanda falls under jubilee hills constituency and the GHMC ward no for borabanda is 108. Borabanda is complete in itself with the presence of shops selling variety of goods and essentials.

All the TSRTC buses with letter "F"(ex: Route no :: 9F/9Y/F(Borabanda to Afzalgunj)) in their route numbers starts or ends at Borabanda Bus stop.

Even though the frequency of buses and travelers is huge , Borabanda is yet to have a proper Bus stop.

Bus Stop (1956 film)

Bus Stop is a 1956 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Joshua Logan for 20th Century Fox, starring Marilyn Monroe, Don Murray, Arthur O'Connell, Betty Field, Eileen Heckart, Robert Bray, and Hope Lange.

Unlike most of Monroe's films, Bus Stop is neither a full-fledged comedy nor a musical, but rather a dramatic piece; it was the first film she appeared in after studying at the Actors Studio in New York. Monroe does however sing one song: "That Old Black Magic" by Harold Arlen and Johnny Mercer.

Bus Stop was based on the play of the same title (which in turn was expanded from an earlier, one act play People in the Wind) by William Inge. The inspiration for the play came from people Inge met in Tonganoxie, Kansas.In the 1961–62 season, ABC adapted the play and film into a television series of the same name starring Marilyn Maxwell as the owner of the bus station and diner. In the segment "Chérie" which most closely follows the film, Tuesday Weld performed the role of Marilyn Monroe, and Gary Lockwood appeared as the Don Murray character.

Bus Stop (TV series)

Bus Stop is a 26-episode American drama which aired on ABC from October 1, 1961, until March 25, 1962, starring Marilyn Maxwell as Grace Sherwood, the owner of a bus station and diner in the fictitious town of Sunrise in the Colorado Rockies. The program was adapted from William Inge's play, Bus Stop, and Inge was a script consultant for the series, which followed the lives of travelers passing through the bus station and the diner. Maxwell's co-stars were Richard Anderson as District Attorney Glenn Wagner, Rhodes Reason as Sheriff Will Mayberry, Joan Freeman as waitress Elma Gahrigner, Bernard Kates as Ralph the coroner, and Buddy Ebsen as Virge Blessing.. Increasingly, as it became difficult to have guest stars be characters arriving by bus every week, the stories became more about people in the town which left little for Maxwell's character to do and led to her leaving the series after 13 episodes. She said, "There was nothing for me to do but pour a second cup of coffee and point the way to the men's room."

Bus Stop (William Inge play)

Bus Stop is a 1955 play by William Inge. The 1956 film of the same name was "opened up" in the beginning to include scenes on the bus and in places away from the diner.

Bus Stop (song)

"Bus Stop" is a song recorded and released as a single by the British rock band The Hollies in 1966. It reached No. 5 in the UK Singles Chart. It was the Hollies' first US top ten hit, reaching No. 5 on the Billboard charts in September 1966.

Bus station

A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. While the term bus depot can also be used to refer to a bus station, it generally refers to a bus garage. A bus station is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop. It may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue.

Bus station platforms may be assigned to fixed bus lines, or variable in combination with a dynamic passenger information system. The latter requires fewer platforms, but does not supply the passenger the comfort of knowing the platform well in advance and waiting there.

Bus turnout

A bus turnout, bus pullout, bus bay, bus lay-by (UK), or off-line bus stop is a designated spot on the side of a road where buses or trams may pull out of the flow of traffic to pick up and drop off passengers. It is often indented into the sidewalk or other pedestrian area. A bus bay is, in a way, the opposite of a bus bulb. With a bus bulb, the point is to save the bus the time needed to merge out of and back into moving traffic, at the cost of temporarily blocking that traffic while making a stop. With a bus bay, the goal is to not block traffic while the bus is stopped, but at the cost of the time necessary to merge back into flowing traffic. Bus bays, therefore, will generally produce longer dwell times than bus bulbs.

The dwell time can be reduced by traffic legislation. E. g. in the Czech Republic, the drivers in the running traffic lane are obliged to enable to the bus to leave the bus stop, but this obligation applies only in built up area. The Czech technical standards from 1970s and 1990s (ČSN 73 6425) preferred to build bus bays at all classes of roads, the new version ČSN 73 6425-1 from 2007 prefers bus stops in the running lane within traffic calming concept. On roads of higher classes, bus bays or bus stop lanes are obliged.

Chūō Expressway

The Chūō Expressway (中央自動車道, Chūō Jidōsha-dō, lit. Central Expressway) is a national expressway in Japan. It is owned and operated by NEXCO Central.

Eastmont Town Center

Eastmont Town Center is a shopping mall and social services hub located on 33 acres (130,000 m2) bounded by Foothill Boulevard, Bancroft and 73rd Avenues, and Church Street, in the Frick neighborhood of East Oakland. The mall opened in 1970 on the site of a 1920s-era Chevrolet automobile factory called Oakland Assembly. Architect William Pereira designed the building. It is physically almost next to, and by entry access a few blocks away from the similarly sized Evergreen Cemetery.

Election Night Special

"Election Night Special" is a Monty Python sketch parodying the coverage of United Kingdom general elections, specifically the 1970 general election, on the BBC by including hectic (and downright silly) actions by the media and a range of ridiculous candidates.

This sketch was featured in Episode 19 of the Monty Python's Flying Circus TV series, first broadcast on 3 November 1970. A somewhat different version of the sketch (leading into The Lumberjack Song) was also featured on the Monty Python Live at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane album. A longer edit of the Drury Lane version also appeared on the promotional flexidisc Monty Python's Tiny Black Round Thing. The sketch also provides the basis for an item in Monty Python's Big Red Book in the form of a mock pamphlet for the Silly Party, which alongside characters from the original sketch, also names both Paul Fox and Ian MacNaughton as Silly Party candidates.

Throughout the sketch, the linkman (John Cleese) and other commentators appear in a fixed sequence, either giving variations on their original statement or simply repeating it, as results are coming in from various constituencies. The election is mainly contested by two major parties, the Sensible Party and the Silly Party, though third-party candidates (a candidate for the Slightly Silly Party and a Very Silly Independent candidate) make their appearance.

Geha Interchange bus stop bombing

The Geha Interchange bus stop bombing was a suicide bombing which occurred on December 25, 2003 on a bus stop at the Geha Interchange on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, Israel. Four people were killed in the attack and 16 injured. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine claimed responsibility for the attack.

Hokuriku Expressway

The Hokuriku Expressway (北陸自動車道, Hokuriku Jidōsha-dō),

(abbreviated as Hokuriku Expwy (北陸道, Hokurikudō), is a 4-laned national expressway in Japan. It is owned and managed by East Nippon Expressway Company and Central Nippon Expressway Company.

Kempegowda Bus Station

Kempegowda Bus Station, more commonly known as Majestic Bus Station, is a large bus station in central Bangalore, India. It is located opposite the Bangalore City Railway Station. It is bordered by Seshadri Road to the north, Danavanthri Road to the east, Tank Bund Road to the south and Gubbi Thotadappa Road to the west.

This bus station provides connectivity to almost all the areas of Bangalore. One side of the bus station is used for intra-city buses by the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) while the other side is used by out-station buses operated by various state road transport corporations. The KSRTC side of the bus station also houses the Nadaprabhu Kempegowda (Majestic) metro station on the Namma Metro.

Former chief minister of Karnataka R. Gundu Rao is credited with building the station. The bus station not only eased congestion with buses and helped streamline the transport system but also helped the local area grow economically and was a major landmark of the city for many years.

Meishin Expressway

The Meishin Expressway (名神高速道路, Meishin Kōsoku-dōro) 193.9 kilometres (120.5 mi) is a toll expressway in Japan. It runs from a junction with the Tomei Expressway in Nagakute, Aichi (outside Nagoya) west to Nishinomiya, Hyōgo (between Osaka and Kobe). It is the main road link between Osaka and Nagoya, and, along with the Tōmei Expressway, forms the main road link between Osaka and Tokyo. East of the Chūgoku Expressway near Osaka, it is part of Asian Highway Network ().

The part east of interchange 29 (Yōkaichi) is owned by the Central Nippon Expressway Company; the rest is owned by the West Nippon Expressway Company.

Static Major

Stephen Ellis Garrett (November 11, 1974 – February 25, 2008), also known as Static Major, was a Grammy Award-winning American recording artist and record producer from Louisville, Kentucky, USA. He was a member of the R&B trio Playa. Static Major gained posthumous fame for writing and appearing on Lil Wayne's 2008 album Tha Carter III on the song "Lollipop". He was a songwriter for several artists, including Aaliyah, Ginuwine, Pretty Ricky, and Destiny's Child.Static wrote most of the lyrics on Aaliyah's self-titled 2001 album. A YouTube video featuring Static Major alongside Smoke E. Digglera of Playa was also heavily sampled on Drake's song "Look What You've Done" from his 2011 album Take Care. He died unexpectedly in his hospital room; his debut album was not released.

Tin Machine Tour

The Tin Machine Tour was a concert tour headlined by Anglo-American hard rock band Tin Machine. The tour commenced on 14 June 1989, following a performance of "Heaven's in Here" at the International Music Awards in New York City on 31 May 1989. It comprised 12 performances in six countries (USA, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, France, United Kingdom) in venues with a capacity of 2,000 or less. Joined onstage by Kevin Armstrong, Tin Machine performed the entirety of their eponymous debut album with the exception of "Video Crime," augmented with cover version of songs from Bob Dylan and Johnny Kidd & The Pirates.

Tram stop

A tram stop, tram station, streetcar stop, or light rail station is a place designated for a tram, streetcar, or light rail vehicle to stop so passengers can board or alight it. Generally, tram stops share most characteristics of bus stops, but because trams operate on rails, they often include railway platforms, especially if stepless entries are provided for accessibility. However, trams may also be used with bus stop type flags and with mid-street pavements as platforms, in street running mode.

Tōmei Expressway

The Tōmei Expressway (東名高速道路, Tōmei Kōsoku Dōro) is a national expressway on the island of Honshū in Japan. It is operated by Central Nippon Expressway Company. The expressway is designated as E1 under the "2016 Proposal for Realization of Expressway Numbering", because it parallels National Route 1. It is a part of Asian Highway Network

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