Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West is a 1970 book by American writer Dee Brown that covers the history of Native Americans in the American West in the late nineteenth century. The book expresses details of the history of American expansionism from a point of view that is critical of its effects on the Native Americans. Brown describes Native Americans' displacement through forced relocations and years of warfare waged by the United States federal government. The government's dealings are portrayed as a continuing effort to destroy the culture, religion, and way of life of Native American peoples.[1] Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor is often considered a nineteenth-century precursor to Dee Brown's writing.[2]

Before the publication of Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Dee Brown had become well versed in the history of the American frontier. Having grown up in Arkansas, he developed a keen interest in the American West, and during his graduate education at George Washington University and his career as a librarian for both the US Department of Agriculture and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, he wrote numerous books on the subject.[3] Brown's works maintained a focus on the American West, but ranged anywhere from western fiction to histories to even children's books. Many of Brown's books revolved around similar Native American topics, including his Showdown at Little Bighorn (1964) and The Fetterman Massacre (1974).[4]

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee was first published in 1970 to generally strong reviews. Published at a time of increasing American Indian activism, the book has never gone out of print and has been translated into 17 languages.[5] The title is taken from the final phrase of a twentieth-century poem titled "American Names" by Stephen Vincent Benet. The full quotation – "I shall not be there. I shall rise and pass. Bury my heart at Wounded Knee." – appears at the beginning of Brown's book.[6] Although Benet's poem is not about the plight of Native Americans, Wounded Knee was the location of the last major confrontation between the US Army and Native Americans. It is also the vicinity of where Crazy Horse's parents buried his heart and some of his bones after his murder in 1877.

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee cover
AuthorDee Brown
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
SubjectUnited States History, Native Americans
GenreNon-fiction
Historical
PublisherNew York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
Publication date
1970
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback)
Pages487
ISBN0-03-085322-2
OCLC110210
970.5
LC ClassE81 .B75 1971

Synopsis

In the first chapter, Brown presents a brief history of the discovery and settlement of America, from 1492 to the Indian turmoil that began in 1860. He stresses the initially gentle and peaceable behavior of Indians toward Europeans, especially given their apparent lack of resistance to early colonial efforts at Europeanization. It was not until the further influx of European settlers, gradual encroachment, and eventual seizure of American lands by the "white man" that the Native people were shown to exhibit forms of major resistance.[1]:1–12

Brown completes his initial overview by briefly describing incidents up to 1860 that involve American encroachment and Indian removal, beginning with the defeat of the Wampanoags and Narragansetts, Iroquois, and Cherokee Nations, as well as the establishment of the West as the "permanent Indian frontier" and the ultimate breaches of the frontier as a means to achieve Manifest Destiny.[1]:3–12

In each of the following chapters, Brown provides an in-depth description of a significant post-1860 event in American Western expansion or Native American eradication, focusing in turn on the specific tribe or tribes involved in the event. In his narrative, Brown primarily discusses such tribes as the Navajo Nation, Santee Dakota, Hunkpapa Lakota, Oglala Lakota, Cheyenne, and Apache people. He touches more lightly upon the subjects of the Arapaho, Modoc, Kiowa, Comanche, Nez Perce, Ponca, Ute, and Minneconjou Lakota tribes.

Navajo

Brown discusses the plights of Manuelito and the Navajo people in New Mexico, who make treaties and other efforts to maintain peace with Euro-Americans despite their encroachment upon Navajo land, stealing livestock and burning entire villages as punishment for perceived misbehavior. The second, third and fourth generation European immigrants occupy land in Navajo country not only to build their own forts, the first of which was Fort Defiance, but also claim rights to the surrounding prized Navajo lands as pasture for their livestock. Various disputes occur between the Navajo and the Euro-Americans, culminating in a horse race between Manuelito and a US Army lieutenant who wins as a result of dishonesty and trickery. The consequence is a massacre of Navajo bystanders.[1]:14–20

The US Army General James Carleton orders the Navajos to relocate to a reservation at Bosque Redondo, where the Apaches had recently been moved, but is met with resistance. Employing a scorched-earth campaign, Kit Carson and Carleton force a large majority of resistant Navajos and Apaches to surrender and flee to the reservation. Manuelito and a few other Navajo leaders refuse to surrender but finally agree to relocate to the Bosque in 1866 "for the sake of the women and children", signing a peace treaty on June 1, 1868.[1]:23–36

Sioux

Santee Dakota

The narrative of the Sioux begins with Brown's discussion of the Santee Dakota tribe. Following a poor harvest and lack of promised support from the US government in the early 1860s, members of the tribe became angry at white people. After the murder of several white men and women by young Dakota, the frustrated Santee tribe, led by Chief Little Crow, attacked Fort Ridgely and a nearby town. When the Santees refuse to surrender their white hostages to Colonel Sibley, they are forced into battle again at Yellow Medicine River. The Santees lose and over three dozen Santee warriors are executed in December 1862. Santee chiefs, including Chief Little Crow, were killed during the following six months, and the remaining Santees are removed to a Missouri River and Crow Creek reservation.[1]:37–65

Oglala Lakota

Brown's discussion of the Oglala Lakota begins with the US Army's 1865 invasion of the Powder River country in Montana. The army is confronted with opposition from the local Lakota and Cheyenne tribes. This and other skirmishes result in heated conflict between the US Army and the Oglala Lakotas led by Chiefs Red Cloud and Roman Nose, forcing the US Army to retreat for the winter. The high death toll among US troops fostered great confidence in the Native Americans who began a journey to the Black Hills.[1]:101–119

By the US Army's request, the Sioux chiefs and approximately 2000 other warriors arrived at Fort Laramie in May 1866 for treaty talks. The tribes quickly learned of the army's intent to build roads and railroads through Sioux land. As construction progresses, the Sioux plan an attack on the white men and harass white traffic through the Powder River country. Red Cloud unknowingly leads approximately 3,000 Lakota into an ambush, later called the Fetterman Massacre, at Peno Creek where 81 white men and 200 Lakotas are killed. Conflict continues between the US Army and the Lakota for years despite peace commissioners being sent to Powder River to address differences. In 1868 the US Army retreats upon the signing of the peace treaty with Red Cloud.[1]:120–146

In 1869 Red Cloud is invited to Washington D.C. to speak with Donehogawa, a member of the Iroquois tribe who is serving as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the US government. Chief Red Cloud and his tribe members express their discontent with the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie which defined their reservation land as bordered by the Missouri River rather than the Powder River. Commissioner Donehogawa corrected this mistake by declaring the Powder River country as reserved for Lakota hunting grounds. Donehogawa's agency was later accused of being like a "savage Indian" and the agency was unable to purchase supplies for the reservations. Donehogawa was subsequently forced to resign his commission.[1]:175–190

In 1874, when rumors of gold in the Black Hills were delivered by Custer and his men to the white settlers on the plains, miners and panhandlers flooded the Black Hills, angering the Lakota and Dakota living there. A peace council in 1875 tried to arrange for the US government to either purchase the mineral rights or outright ownership of the Black Hills, but both proposals were rejected by the Sioux. In 1876, a series of battles occur between the Sioux and US troops which initially ends when the Sioux defeat General Custer and his troops at the Battle of Little Bighorn on June 25. The humiliated US Army sends a peace council to sign a treaty that forces the Sioux out of the Black Hills to the Missouri River. The troops follow this treaty with numerous attacks on Lakota villages.[1]:273–313

Hunkpapa and Minneconjou Lakota

Following the removal of the Lakota from the Black Hills to the Missouri River Reservation, Sitting Bull, in exile in Canada and participating in unsuccessful peace talks, returns to American soil and surrenders at Fort Buford. He is removed to the Hunkpapa reservation at Standing Rock; he subsequently joins Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show. The Lakota were ultimately forced to sign a treaty in 1890 that further divided and limited their reservation.

Sitting Bull is later arrested in an attempt by US authorities to suppress Sitting Bull's endorsement of the Ghost Dance which they considered a religious disturbance. The two Native American policemen sent to arrest Sitting Bull killed him.[1]:415–438 Following the death of Sitting Bull, a conflict arose that resulted in the Hunkpapas and Minneconjous tribes fleeing Standing Rock. Deciding against further resistance, the tribes join Red Cloud at Pine Ridge where they encounter Major Whitside in late December 1890. The tribes are subsequently directed to Wounded Knee, where a member of the Minneconjou tribe called Black Coyote refuses to surrender his rifle. The US Army reacts with violence which results in the deaths of 150–350 Native Americans and 25–31 US Army soldiers. The Lakota that survived the assault fled to Pine Ridge, and returned to Wounded Knee the next day only to bury their families and comrades.[1]:439–445

Cheyenne and Arapaho

The 1858 Pikes Peak gold rush in Colorado creates a swarm of white settlers onto Cheyenne and Arapaho lands and instigates treaty talks that result in removal of Cheyenne and Arapaho territory to any area between Sand Creek and the Arkansas River. When the Civil War brings the US Army into Cheyenne and Arapaho territory, the resulting conflict endorses the murder of "hostile Indians". The Cheyenne tribe responds with numerous strikes on the army outposts.[1]:67–102

In early 1866, the Southern Cheyenne Dog Soldiers are asked to sign the treaty that would relocate them to the south with Black Kettle and his tribe. When they refuse, Roman Nose organizes an attack which is thwarted by the coming of winter. In the following year a peace council is held between the General Hancock's army and the Cheyenne which ends when Hancock's army burns the Cheyenne camp to force their cooperation. After a series of retaliatory assaults, a treaty is signed by the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche tribes which relocates them to the reservation south of Arkansas River. Roman Nose doesn't sign the treaty. Instead he leads his Dog Soldiers on more war parties and is eventually killed. Generals Custer and Sheridan burn Black Kettle's village and the remaining band of Dog Soldiers are killed.[1]:147–174

After the surrender and removal, the Northern Cheyenne tribe led by Little Wolf and Dull Knife are unable to sustain themselves on the poor land at Fort Reno, and they form a hunting party to hunt buffalo north of their reservation. Their hunt was unsuccessful, and the tribe continues to suffer severe losses due to health problems from malnutrition and a measles epidemic. Chiefs Little Wolf and Dull Knife decide to move north but this leads to more violent encounters with the US Army. The tribes are reduced to nearly 10% of their earlier population. Dull Knife and his tribe try to join Red Cloud, and they defy orders to return to their southern, buffalo-depleted reservation. Battles ensue, and Dull Knife's tribe is pursued north until the majority of the tribe are killed. The survivors take refuge at Red Cloud's reservation.[1]:331–349

Apache

The friendly relations between the Apaches and Euro-Americans, that were once signified by the Apaches allowing white travelers to pass through their land unmolested, began to diminish when Apache Chief Cochise was imprisoned for allegedly stealing cattle and kidnapping a white boy from a settler's farm. When Cochise escaped, he and his warriors killed three white men, and the army responded by hanging male members of Cochise's family. Cochise spent the next two years leading attacks on the Euro-Americans. In 1865, after Cochise refuses a treaty designed to relocate his Chiricahua tribe to a reservation, the Apaches successfully avoid contact with white men for a number of years. But in 1871, a group of settlers, Mexicans, and warriors from competing tribes massacre an Apache village, and Cochise and his followers retreat into the mountains. They stay there until the chief agrees to move the Apache to a reservation in the Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona. He dies soon thereafter in 1874.[1]:191–217

The Apache nation was divided after Cochise's death, and they soon become infamous for raiding white villages. The Chiricahua Apaches, avoiding attempts to relocate to a reservation, flee into Mexico. Victorio and his Warm Springs Apaches are removed to the San Carlos agency in southeastern Arizona in 1877. The entire tribe is eventually killed, to stop their raids on white settlers. Geronimo and his tribe leave their reservation only to return heavily armed and determined to free their fellow Apaches. This results in the stationing of Apache guerillas in Mexico. Negotiations with Geronimo and the guerillas continue over the next few years as alleged stories of the guerillas’ brutalities and atrocities circulate. In 1886, Geronimo flees once again before being incarcerated and transported to a reservation in Florida with the remaining Chiricahua Apaches.[1]:391–413

Modoc

Captain Jack, the Chief of the Modoc tribe located in Northern California, is described as a Native American friendly to the "white people" who settled in his country. As larger numbers of settlers trespass onto Modoc land and small disputes arise between the Modocs and white settlers, the US government coerces a treaty, over Captain Jack's reluctance, that will relocate the Modocs to a reservation in Oregon and shared with the Klamaths. Conflicts between the two tribes quickly begin, and the Modocs return south to California. Their return is halted by a skirmish between the tribe and an army battalion in 1872, and the Modocs divert to the California lava beds. Another group of Modocs, led by Hooker Jim, murdered 12 white settlers and forced Captain Jack to lead his tribe into a battle against the US Army. A peace commission led by General Canby, conducts peace talks with Captain Jack who eventually, under pressure from Hooker Jim's Modocs, agrees to kill Canby should the original Modoc land not be returned to the tribe. As feared, Canby refuses to return the land to the Modocs, and he is killed by Captain Jack. Hooker Jim betrays Captain Jack to the army, and he is hanged on October 3, 1873.[1]:224–240

Kiowa and Comanche

After the Battle of Washita in 1868, General Sheridan ordered all tribes involved to surrender at Fort Cobb; the Kiowa tribe refused. The Kiowa chiefs are arrested and both the Kiowa and Comanche people are forced onto the Fort Cobb reservation. The Kiowas and Comanches, led by Satanta and Big Tree, decide to attack the white men, and they kill 7 teamsters. This results in the arrest and imprisonment of both chiefs. Lone Wolf, another Kiowa Chief, arranges for the release of White Bear and Big Tree so they can attend the peace talks at Fort Sill. In early 1874, while on parole, White Bear and Big Tree lead the Kiowa and Comanche tribes on an attack against white settlers in order to preserve the buffalo. When both tribes flee their reservations, they are hunted down by the US Army. Upon their surrender in early 1875, they are exiled in Florida.[1]:241–271

Nez Percé

Despite maintaining peaceful relations with whites, the Nez Perces are forced to sign a treaty in 1863 which removes them to a small reservation in Idaho. Chief Joseph and his tribe designated this agreement as the "thief treaty". Being highly offended by the treaty terms, and the sudden influx of gold miners and cattle farmers onto Nez Perce land, the tribe refused to move to the Lapwai Reservation, choosing instead to fight the US Army at White Bird Canyon in June 1877. After winning that battle, the tribe fled to Montana, trying to join Sitting Bull in Canada, but then they lost the battle at the Bear Paw Mountains in August and were forced to surrender. Some members of the tribe managed to find refuge in Canada, but those that surrendered were split between the Lapwai reservation and the Colville reservation in Washington.[1]:315–3360

Ponca

Despite having previously signed treaties guaranteeing their ownership of the land on the Niobrara River, the Ponca land was taken from via a subsequent US treaty and given to the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota tribes just before they were added to a list of tribes to be exiled to Indian Territory following Custer's defeat. Ponca Chief Standing Bear was arrested along with other chiefs for refusing to leave voluntarily. The Ponca tribe was forced onto the Quapaw reservation, where over one quarter of their population died. Standing Bear returned to the Niobrara and takes his case to a white man's court in 1879 arguing that he is a person protected by the US Constitution. Standing Bear won his case but is informed by General Sherman that the case is specific to him and does not maintain validity for the other Poncas, who were forced to remain in Indian Territory.[1]:351–366

Utes

The Utes are a Colorado tribe whose land was gradually overrun by mineral and gold miners. Chief Ouray signed a treaty in 1863 allowing settlers to mine Ute land and relinquishing all mineral rights. He signed another treaty in 1868 that allotted 16 million acres of forests and meadows in the Rockies as a personal reservation that prohibited white trespass. When disputes arose, Nathan Meeker attempted to assimilate the Utes into Euro-American culture, but William Vickers opposed the idea and started "The Utes Must Go!" campaign in 1879. Vickers called on the US cavalry to prevent an uprising by the Utes. The Utes responded by killing all the white men at the White River Indian agency. In 1881, as a result of outrage over the White River Massacre, the Utes were removed to a marginal reservation in Utah.[1]:367–389

Key characters

Native Americans

European-Americans

Historical context

American Indian Movement

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee was published less than three years following the establishment of AIM, the American Indian Movement, formed in Minneapolis, Minnesota in 1968. AIM moved to promote modern Native American issues and to unite America's dividing Native American population, similar to the Civil Rights and Environmental Movements that gained support at that time. The publication of Brown's book came at the height of the American Indian Movement's activism. In 1969, AIM occupied Alcatraz Island for 19 months in hopes of reclaiming Native American land after the San Francisco Indian Center burned down.[7] In 1973, less than three years after the book's release, AIM and local Oglala and neighboring Sicangu Lakota took part in a 71-day occupation at Wounded Knee[8] in protest of the government of Richard Wilson, the chairman of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, which resulted in the death of two Indians and injury of the US Marshal.[9] The resulting 1974 trial ended in the dismissal of all charges due to the uncovering of various incidents of government misconduct.[10]

Vietnam War

At the time of the publication of Brown's book, the United States was engaged in the Vietnam War. The actions of the United States Army in Vietnam were frequently criticized in the media and critics of Brown's narrative often drew comparisons between its contents and what was seen in the media. The primary comparison made was the similarity between the massacre and atrocities against Native Americans in the late nineteenth century as portrayed by Dee Brown's book and the 1968 massacre of hundreds of civilians in Southern Vietnam at My Lai for which twenty-five US Army members were indicted. Native American author N. Scott Momaday, in his review of the narrative, agreed with the viability of the comparison, stating "Having read Mr. Brown, one has a better understanding of what it is that nags at the American conscience at times (to our everlasting credit) and of that morality which informs and fuses events so far apart in time and space as the massacres at Wounded Knee and My Lai."[5] Thirty years later, in the foreword of a modern printing of the book by Hampton Sides, it is argued that My Lai had a powerful impact on the success of Brown's narrative, as "Bury My Heart landed on America's doorstep in the anguished midst of the Vietnam War, shortly after revelations of the My Lai massacre had plunged the nation into gnawing self-doubt. Here was a book filled with a hundred My Lais, a book that explored the dark roots of American arrogance while dealing a near-deathblow to our fondest folk myth."[11]

Reception of the book

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee received ultimately positive reviews upon its publication. TIME magazine reviewed the book saying: "In the last decade or so, after almost a century of saloon art and horse operas that romanticized Indian fighters and white settlers, Americans have been developing a reasonably acute sense of the injustices and humiliations suffered by the Indians. But the details of how the West was won are not really part of the American consciousness ... Dee Brown, Western historian and head librarian at the University of Illinois, now attempts to balance the account. With the zeal of an IRS investigator, he audits US history's forgotten set of books. Compiled from old but rarely exploited sources plus a fresh look at dusty Government documents, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee tallies the broken promises and treaties, the provocations, massacres, discriminatory policies and condescending diplomacy."[12] The Pulitzer-Prize winning Native American author N. Scott Momaday noted the book contains strong documentation of original sources, such as council records and firsthand descriptions. Stating that "it is, in fact, extraordinary on several accounts," he further compliments Brown's writing by saying that "the book is a story, whole narrative of singular integrity and precise continuity; that is what makes the book so hard to put aside, even when one has come to the end."[5]

Peter Farb reviewed the book in 1971, in the New York Review of Books, writing "The Indian wars were shown to be the dirty murders they were."[13] Other critics could not believe that the book was not written by a Native American and that Dee Brown was a white man, as the book's Native perspective felt so real.[4] Remaining on bestseller lists for over a year following its release in hardback, the book remains in print 40 years later. Translated into at least 17 languages, it has sold nearly four million copies and remains popular today.

Despite the book's widespread acceptance by journalists and the general public, scholars such as Francis Paul Prucha criticized it for lacking sources for much of the material, except for direct quotations; he said that content was selected to present a particular point of view, rather than to be balanced, and that the narrative of government-Indian relations suffered from not being placed within the perspective of what else was occurring within the government and the country at the time.[14]

Brown was candid about his intention to present the history of the settlement of the West from the point of view of the Indians - "its victims," as he wrote. He noted, "Americans who have always looked westward when reading about this period should read this book facing eastward."[1]:xvi

Adaptations

Film

HBO Films produced a made-for-television film adaptation by the same title of the Brown's book for the HBO television network. The film stars Adam Beach, Aidan Quinn, Anna Paquin, and August Schellenberg with a cameo appearance by actor and former US Senator Fred Thompson as President Grant. It debuted on the HBO television network Sunday, May 27, 2007[15] and covers roughly the last two chapters of Brown's book, focusing on the narrative of the Lakota tribes leading up to the death of Sitting Bull and the Massacre at Wounded Knee.[16] The film received 17 Primetime Emmy nominations and went on to win six awards, including the category of Outstanding Made For Television Movie.[17] It also garnered nominations for three Golden Globe Awards, two Satellite Awards, and one Screen Actors Guild Award.

Children's literature

Bestselling author of Lincoln's Last Days, Dwight Jon Zimmerman adapted Brown's book for children in his work entitled The Saga of the Sioux. The narrative deals solely with the Sioux tribe as the representatives of the story told in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, written from the perspective of the Sioux chiefs and warriors from 1860 to the events at the Massacre at Wounded Knee. The book includes copious photographs, illustrations, and maps in support of the narrative and to appeal to its middle school demographic.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Brown, Dee (2007). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York City: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. ISBN 0-03-085322-2. OCLC 110210.
  2. ^ Jackson, Helen Hunt (1985). A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the United States Government's Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-4209-4438-9.
  3. ^ Brown, Dee (Jan 1995). "A Talk with Dee Brown" (DOC). Louis L'Amour Western Magazine (Interview). Interviewed by Dale L. Walker – via www.stgsigma.org. (Interview conducted in Fall 1994.)
  4. ^ a b "Dee Brown (1908–2002)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. 5 Oct 2015. Retrieved 9 Apr 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Momaday, N. Scott (7 Mar 1971). "A History of the Indians of the United States". The New York Times. New York City. p. BR46.
  6. ^ Benét, Stephen Vincent (1927). "American Names". poets.org. Retrieved 6 Jan 2017.
  7. ^ Wittstock, Laura Waterman; Salinas, Elaine J. "A Brief History of the American Indian Movement" (PDF). migizi.org. Minneapolis: MIGIZI Communications, Inc. Retrieved 9 Apr 2013.
  8. ^ Martin, Douglas (14 Dec 2002). "Dee Brown, 94, Author Who Revised Image of West". The New York Times. New York City.
  9. ^ "History – Incident at Wounded Knee". usmarshals.gov. United States Marshals Service. Retrieved 6 Jan 2017.
  10. ^ Conderacci, Greg (20 Mar 1973). "At Wounded Knee, Is It War or PR?". The Wall Street Journal. New York City: Dow Jones & Company.
  11. ^ Sides, Hampton (2007). Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York City: Henry Holt and Company, LLC. pp. 391–413. ISBN 0-03-085322-2. OCLC 110210.
  12. ^ Sheppard, R.Z. (1 Feb 1971). "The Forked-Tongue Syndrome". Time. New York City: Time Inc. Retrieved 1 May 2007.
  13. ^ Farb, Peter (16 Dec 1971). "Indian Corn". The New York Review of Books. New York City.
  14. ^ Prucha, Francis Paul (Apr 1972). "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Review". The American Historical Review. Washington, D.C.: American Historical Association. 77 (2): 589–590. doi:10.2307/1868839.
  15. ^ "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee". imdb.com. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 9 Apr 2013.
  16. ^ Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, directed by Yves Simoneau (2007; Calgary, Alberta, Canada: HBO Films, 2007.), DVD.
  17. ^ "Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee". emmys.com. Retrieved 6 Jan 2017.
  18. ^ Zimmerman, Dwight J. (2011). Saga of the Sioux: An Adaptation from Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York City: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

External links

59th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards

The 59th Annual Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards were held at the Shrine Auditorium on September 8, 2007, and were hosted by comedian-actor Carlos Mencia. The ceremony was broadcast a week later on September 15 on E!, the night before the Primetime telecast on Fox. This is in conjunction with the annual Primetime Emmy Awards and is presented in recognition of technical and other similar achievements in American television programming.

Adam Beach

Adam Beach (born November 11, 1972) is a Canadian actor. He is best known for his roles as Victor in Smoke Signals, Frank Fencepost in Dance Me Outside, Tommy in Walker, Texas Ranger, Kickin' Wing in Joe Dirt, U.S. Marine Corporal, Ira Hayes in Flags of Our Fathers, Private Ben Yahzee in Windtalkers, Dr. Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa) in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, NYPD Detective Chester Lake in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, and Officer Jim Chee in the film adaptations of Skinwalkers, Coyote Waits, and A Thief of Time. He starred in the Canadian 2012-2014 series Arctic Air, and played Slipknot in the 2016 film Suicide Squad. He also played Squanto in Disney's Squanto: A Warrior's Tale. He plays Black Hawk in Hostiles (2018).

Aidan Quinn

Aidan Quinn (born March 8, 1959) is an Irish-American actor, who made his film debut in Reckless (1984). He has starred in over 40 feature films, including Desperately Seeking Susan (1985), The Mission (1986), Stakeout (1987), Avalon (1990), Benny & Joon (1993), Legends of the Fall (1994), Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (film) (1994), Blink (1994), Michael Collins (1996), Practical Magic (1998), Song for a Raggy Boy (2003), and Unknown (2011).

Quinn has received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for his work in An Early Frost (1985) and Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007). He currently plays Captain Thomas "Tommy" Gregson in the CBS television series Elementary.

Anna Paquin

Anna Hélène Paquin ( PAK-win; born 24 July 1982) is a New Zealand-Canadian actress. She was born in Manitoba and brought up in Wellington, New Zealand, before moving to Los Angeles during her youth. She completed a year at Columbia University, before leaving to focus on her acting career. As a child, she played the role of Flora McGrath in Jane Campion's romantic drama film The Piano (1993), despite having had little acting experience. For her performance, she received the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress at the age of 11, making her the second-youngest winner in Oscar history.Paquin was a successful child actress, receiving multiple Young Artist Award nominations for her roles in Fly Away Home (1996), The Member of the Wedding (1997), and A Walk on the Moon (1999), and was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture for appearing in Cameron Crowe's comedy-drama film Almost Famous (2000). She played mutant superheroine Rogue in multiple films of the X-Men franchise and was nominated for a Saturn Award for her performance in the first installment.

Paquin played the lead role of Sookie Stackhouse in the HBO vampire drama television series True Blood (2008–2014). For her performance in the series, Paquin won the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series – Drama in 2009, and was nominated for an additional Golden Globe Award in 2010, as well as three Saturn Awards and a Screen Actors Guild Award in 2010. Among other accolades, Paquin has been nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her work on the 2007 television film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee and a Golden Globe Award for her work on the 2009 television film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler.

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (film)

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee is a 2007 historical drama television film adapted from the book of the same name by Dee Brown. The film was written by Daniel Giat, directed by Yves Simoneau and produced by HBO Films. The book on which the movie is based is a history of Native Americans in the American West in the 1860s and 1870s, focusing upon the transition from traditional ways of living to living on reservations and their treatment during that period. The title of the film and the book is taken from a line in the Stephen Vincent Benet poem "American Names." It was shot in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Chevez Ezaneh

Chevez Ezaneh (born August 12, 1992) is a young Dene actor who has played characters who are Native Americans, including the young Charles Eastman in the HBO TV film Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Ezaneh won a Young Artist Award in 2008 for the "Best Performance in a TV Movie.

Coincidence and Likely Stories

Coincidence and Likely Stories was the thirteenth studio album by Buffy Sainte-Marie but her first in sixteen years, during which time she had been raising her son and working on the children's television show Sesame Street. The album itself was largely recorded at Sainte-Marie's home before being sent to producer Chris Birkett for the final production and mixing in London.

The album showed her continuing with the electronic music she had first developed on Illuminations and the tribal themes seen on Sweet America, her last pre-retirement album.

Although the album received some very favourable reviews and was often seen as her best work since Illuminations, it failed to make any impression in the United States. Coincidence and Likely Stories became her only album to chart in the UK, and featured two minor hit singles there.

The album title itself comes from the first line of the song "Disinformation":

Coincidence and likely stories/they dog your trail like a pack of lies"Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" was covered by Indigo Girls for their album 1200 Curfews (1995).

Dee Brown (writer)

Dorris Alexander "Dee" Brown (February 29, 1908 – December 12, 2002) was an American novelist, historian, and librarian. His most famous work, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970) details the history of American expansionism from the point of view of the Native Americans.

Duane Howard

Duane Howard (born 1963) is an Aboriginal Canadian actor who is best known for his role as the Arikara chief Elk Dog in the 2015 film The Revenant. He has also appeared in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007), Pathfinder (2007), the television series Godless (2017), The Sun at Midnight (2016) and other films.

Gila (band)

Gila was a psychedelic rock band from Stuttgart, Germany.

In My Mind (Heather Headley song)

"In My Mind" is a song by American recording artist Shannon Sanders from his debut studio album, Outta Nowhere (1999). The song was covered by Trinidadian recording artist Heather Headley for her second studio album of the same name (2006). It was released on September 27, 2005 as the album's lead single, peaking at number seventy-five on the Billboard Hot 100 in early April 2006, while the song's remixes by the Freemasons and Dave Hernandez topped the Hot Dance Club Play.Headley's version of the track appeared on the April 20, 2008 episode of the comedy-drama television series The Game, titled "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee".

Inventing the Indian

Inventing the Indian is a 2012 BBC documentary first broadcast on 28 October on BBC 4, exploring the stereotypical view of Native Americans in the United States in cinema and literature.Presented by Rich Hall and Dallas Goldtooth, a Native American, it uncovers myths about the American Indian and how they live currently. Hall looks at films including Soldier Blue, Stagecoach and A Man Called Horse, and books including The Last of the Mohicans, Black Elk Speaks and Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. It also covered Geronimo and Sitting Bull.

Mario Davignon

Mario Davignon is a Canadian costume designer, who won the Genie Award for Best Costume Design at the 25th Genie Awards in 2005 for the film Head in the Clouds. He was a nominee for the award on five other occasions, at the 23rd Genie Awards in 2003 for Savage Messiah, at the 27th Genie Awards in 2007 for Tideland, at the 31st Genie Awards in 2011 for The Trotsky, at the 5th Canadian Screen Awards in 2017 for Race, and at the 6th Canadian Screen Awards in 2018 for Hochelaga, Land of Souls (Hochelaga, terre des âmes).

He won a Costume Designers Guild Award at the Costume Designers Guild Awards 2007, and was a finalist for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie, or Special, for his work on Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.

In 2015, Davignon collaborated with clothing retailer Le Château to produce and sell a line of clothing based on his designs for the film After the Ball.

Nathan Lee Chasing His Horse

Nathan Lee Chasing His Horse, aka Nathan Chasing Horse and Nathan Chases His Horse (born April 28, 1976) is a Native American actor. Formerly from the Rosebud Lakota Sioux Nation, he has spent most of his adult life in California, and now lives in Las Vegas, NV.Chasing His Horse played the part of Smiles A Lot (Lakota: Iȟá s’a) in Kevin Costner's movie Dances with Wolves. He appeared in three TNT telefilms with First Nations actor Eric Schweig: The Broken Chain, Into the West and Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.

On July 6, 2015, Chasing His Horse was banned from the Fort Peck Indian Reservation as a "safety threat", due to charges of "human trafficking, drug dealing, spiritual abuse and intimidation of tribal members."

Sean Wei Mah

Sean Wei Mah (born 14 December 1976) is a Plains Cree First Nations actor and artist, who is sometimes credited as Sean Mah. He portrayed "High Horse" in the 2003 TV miniseries Dreamkeeper, "Heavy Shield" in the 2005 TV mini-series Into the West, and "Ben Wheelock" in the 2005 film It Waits. Sean portrayed "Bull Head" in HBO's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (2007). Sean portrayed "Whitecloud" in Hallmark's Goodnight For Justice (2011).

Wake the Sleeper

Wake the Sleeper is the 21st studio album by the rock band Uriah Heep. It is their first studio album since 1998's Sonic Origami. It is also their first album since 1980's "Conquest" without long-time drummer Lee Kerslake, who had to withdraw from the band due to ill health in 2007, putting an end to the band's longest-lasting lineup (which existed for 21 years).

The album was released on 2 June 2008 in Europe, after having the September 2007 release rescheduled (initially to March 2008) as a result of the purchase of Sanctuary Records by Universal Music. This was to allow proper promotion of the album, rather than it be 'lost' during the changeover and, although frustrating for them, was something the band members supported.

Wake the Sleeper was released in the United States on 26 August 2008.

This album will also be released as a 12" vinyl album in a gatefold sleeve.The song "What Kind of God" was inspired by the book "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" by Dee Brown (1970), which refers to the Wounded Knee Massacre.Wake the Sleeper was nominated by Classic Rock Magazine as the Album of the Year.On the supporting tour the band would generally play all songs from the album, interspersed with songs from their past releases.

Wounded Knee

Wounded Knee may refer to

Wounded Knee Massacre

The Wounded Knee Massacre (also called the Battle of Wounded Knee) occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota.

The previous day, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles (8.0 km) westward to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made camp. The remainder of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, led by Colonel James W. Forsyth, arrived and surrounded the encampment. The regiment was supported by a battery of four Hotchkiss mountain guns.On the morning of December 29, the U.S. Cavalry troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. Simultaneously, an old man was performing a ritual called the Ghost Dance. Black Coyote's rifle went off at that point, and the U.S. army began shooting at the Native Americans. The disarmed Lakota warriors did their best to fight back.By the time the massacre was over, between 250 and 300 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded (4 men and 47 women and children, some of whom died later); some estimates placed the number of dead at 300. Twenty-five soldiers also died, and 39 were wounded (6 of the wounded later died). At least twenty soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. In 2001, the National Congress of American Indians passed two resolutions condemning the military awards and called on the U.S. government to rescind them.The Wounded Knee Battlefield, site of the massacre, has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1990, both houses of the U.S. Congress passed a resolution on the historical centennial formally expressing "deep regret" for the massacre.

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