Burrow

A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. Burrows provide a form of shelter against predation and exposure to the elements and can be found in nearly every biome and among various biological interactions. Burrows can be constructed into a wide variety of substrates and can range in complexity from a simple tube a few centimeters long to a complex network of interconnecting tunnels and chambers hundreds or thousands of meters in total length, such as a well-developed rabbit warren.

Vertebrate burrows

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A black-tailed prairie dog, with young, emerges from its burrow

A wide variety of vertebrates construct or use burrows in many different types of substrate and can range widely in complexity. Mammals are perhaps most well known for burrowing, especially Insectivora like the voracious mole, and rodents like the prolific gopher, great gerbil and groundhog. The rabbit, a member of the family Lagomorpha, is a well-known burrower. There are estimates that a single groundhog burrow can occupy a full cubic metre, displacing 320 kilograms of dirt. Great gerbils live in family groups in extensive burrows, which can be seen on satellite images. Even the unoccupied burrows can remain visible in the landscape for years. The burrows are distributed regularly, although the occupied burrows appear to be clustered in space.[1][2] Even Carnivora like the meerkat, and marsupials, are burrowers. The largest burrowing animal is probably the polar bear when it makes its maternity den in snow or earth.[3]

Burrows by birds are usually made in soft soils; some penguins and other pelagic seabirds are noted for such burrows. The Magellanic penguin is an example, constructing burrows along coastal Patagonian regions of Chile and Argentina.[4] Other burrowing birds are puffins, kingfishers, and bee-eaters.

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Bird burrows on the Volga shore near Kstovo, Russia

Kangaroo mice construct burrows in fine sand.

Examples of vertebrate burrowing animals include a number of mammals, amphibians, fish (dragonet and lungfish[5]), reptiles, and birds (including small dinosaurs[6]).

Invertebrate burrows

Scabies mites construct their burrows in the skin of the infested animal or human. Termites construct burrows in the soil and wood. Ants construct burrows in the soil. Some sea urchins and clams can burrow into rock.

The burrows produced by invertebrate animals can be filled actively or passively. Dwelling burrows which remain open during the occupation by an organism are filled passively, by gravity rather than by the organism. Actively filled burrows, on the other hand, are filled with material by the burrowing organism itself.[7]

The establishment of an invertebrate burrow often involves the soaking of surrounding sediment in mucus in order to prevent collapse and to seal off water flow.[7]

Examples of burrowing invertebrates are insects, spiders, sea urchins, crustaceans, clams and worms.

Fossil burrows

Burrows are also commonly preserved in the fossil record as burrow fossils, a type of trace fossil.

ThalassinoidesIsrael
Crustacean burrows in a Jurassic limestone, southern Israel

See also

References

  1. ^ Wilschut, L.I.; Addink, E.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Dubyanskiy, V.M.; Davis, S.A.; Laudisoit, A.; Begon, M.; Burdelov, L.; Atshabar, B.B.; de Jong, S.M. (2013). "Mapping the distribution of the main host for plague in a complex landscape in Kazakhstan: An object-based approach using SPOT-5 XS, Landsat 7 ETM+, SRTM and multiple Random Forests". International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 23: 81–94. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2012.11.007. PMC 4010295.
  2. ^ Wilschut, L.I; Laudisoit, A.; Hughes, N.; Addink, E.A.; de Jong, S.M.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Reijniers, J.; Eagle, S.; Dubyanskiy, V.M.; Begon, M. (2015). "Spatial distribution patterns of plague hosts : point pattern analysis of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan". Journal of Biogeography. 42 (7): 1281–1292. doi:10.1111/jbi.12534. PMC 4737218.
  3. ^ "burrow". National Geographic Society. 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan, (2008) Magellanic penguin, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  5. ^ Dubiel, Russel; Blodgett, Robert H; Bown, Thomas M (May 1987). "Lungfish Burrows in the Upper Triassic Chinle and Dolores Formations, Colorado Plateau". Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 57: 512–521.
  6. ^ Varricchio, David J.; Martin, Anthony J.; Katsura, Yoshihiro (2007). "First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 274 (1616): 1361–1368. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.0443. PMC 2176205. PMID 17374596. Retrieved 2007-03-22.
  7. ^ a b Donovan, Stephen K., ed. (1994). The Palaeobiology of Trace Fossils. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-94843-8.
Barychelidae

Barychelidae, also known as brushed trapdoor spiders, is a spider family with about 300 species in 42 genera. Most spiders in this family build trapdoor burrows. For example, the 20 millimetres (0.79 in) long Sipalolasma builds its burrow in rotted wood, with a hinged trapdoor at each end. The 10 millimetres (0.39 in) long Idioctis builds its burrow approximately 5 centimetres (2.0 in) deep, just below the high tide level, sealing the opening with a thin trapdoor. Some species avoid flooding by plugging their burrows, while others can avoid drowning by trapping air bubbles within the hairs covering their bodies. Some members of this group have a rake on the front surface of their chelicerae used for compacting burrow walls. These spiders can run up glass like tarantulas, and some can stridulate, though it isn't audible to humans.

Bird nest

A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. Although the term popularly refers to a specific structure made by the bird itself—such as the grassy cup nest of the American robin or Eurasian blackbird, or the elaborately woven hanging nest of the Montezuma oropendola or the village weaver—that is too restrictive a definition. For some species, a nest is simply a shallow depression made in sand; for others, it is the knot-hole left by a broken branch, a burrow dug into the ground, a chamber drilled into a tree, an enormous rotting pile of vegetation and earth, a shelf made of dried saliva or a mud dome with an entrance tunnel. The smallest bird nests are those of some hummingbirds, tiny cups which can be a mere 2 cm (0.79 in) across and 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) high. At the other extreme, some nest mounds built by the dusky scrubfowl measure more than 11 m (36 ft) in diameter and stand nearly 5 m (16 ft) tall.Not all bird species build nests. Some species lay their eggs directly on the ground or rocky ledges, while brood parasites lay theirs in the nests of other birds, letting unwitting "foster parents" do the work of rearing the young. Although nests are primarily used for breeding, they may also be reused in the non-breeding season for roosting and some species build special dormitory nests or roost nests (or winter-nest) that are used only for roosting. Most birds build a new nest each year, though some refurbish their old nests. The large eyries (or aeries) of some eagles are platform nests that have been used and refurbished for several years.

In most species, the female does most or all of the nest construction, though the male often helps. In some polygynous species, however, the male does most or all of the nest building. The nest may also form a part of the courtship display such as in weaver birds. The ability to choose and maintain good nest sites and build high quality nests may be selected for by females in these species. In some species the young from previous broods may also act as helpers for the adults.

Burrow-with-Burrow

Burrow-with-Burrow is a civil parish in the English county of Lancashire.

The parish of Burrow-with-Burrow had a population of 191 recorded in the 2001 census,

decreasing to 182 at the 2011 Census.It is on the River Lune 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the Cumbrian town Kirkby Lonsdale. Administratively it forms part of the City of Lancaster, Lancaster itself being some 17 miles (27 km) away.

Settlements in the parish include Nether Burrow, Over Burrow, Overtown and Cowan Bridge.

The parish is sometimes referred to as "Burrow" for brevity.

Burrow Hall

Burrow Hall is a large 18th-century country house in Burrow-with-Burrow, Lancashire, England, which lies in the Lune Valley on the A683 some 2 miles (3 km) south of Kirkby Lonsdale.

The house is built of sandstone ashlar with a slate roof. The south facing façade is composed of seven bays, three of which project under a pediment. The east facing façade has ten bays. The hall is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building, and the stable block to the rear is listed Grade II*.The house has a number of impressive ornate plaster ceilings, attributed to Italians Francesco Vassalli and Martino Quadry who were also thought to have done work at Towneley Hall also in Lancashire and Shugborough in Staffordshire.

Burrow Hall was built over the site of the Roman Fort or Forts of GALACUM (also called CALACUM), the earliest of which are of the Flavian period. The principal remains are thought to be under the Main Hall, although archaeological work during the renovations in 2014 uncovered no significant evidence of that.

Burrowing owl

The burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) is a small, long-legged owl found throughout open landscapes of North and South America. Burrowing owls can be found in grasslands, rangelands, agricultural areas, deserts, or any other open dry area with low vegetation. They nest and roost in burrows, such as those excavated by prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). Unlike most owls, burrowing owls are often active during the day, although they tend to avoid the midday heat. Like many other kinds of owls, though, burrowing owls do most of their hunting from dusk until dawn, when they can use their night vision and hearing to their advantage. Living in open grasslands as opposed to forests, the burrowing owl has developed longer legs that enable it to sprint, as well as fly, when hunting.

Gobiidae

Gobiidae is a family of bony fish in the order Gobiiformes, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera, sometimes referred to as the "true gobies". Most of them are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm (3.9 in) in length. The Gobiidae includes some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, such as Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea,Trimmatom nanus are under 1 cm (3⁄8 in) long when fully grown,then Pandaka pygmaea standard length are 9mm (0.35 in),maximum known standard length are 11 mm (0.43 in). Some large gobies can reach over 30 cm (0.98 ft) in length, but that is exceptional. Generally, they are benthic, or bottom-dwellers. Although few are important as food for humans, they are of great significance as prey species for commercially important fish such as cod, haddock, sea bass, and flatfish. Several gobiids are also of interest as aquarium fish, such as the dartfish of the genus Ptereleotris. Phylogenetic relationships of gobiids have been studied using molecular data.

Groundhog

The groundhog (Marmota monax), also known as a woodchuck, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots. It was first scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The groundhog is also referred to as a chuck, wood-shock, groundpig, whistlepig, whistler, thickwood badger, Canada marmot, monax, moonack, weenusk, red monk and, among French Canadians in eastern Canada, siffleux. The name "thickwood badger" was given in the Northwest to distinguish the animal from the prairie badger. Monax (Móonack) is an Algonquian name of the woodchuck, which meant "digger" (cf. Lenape monachgeu). Young groundhogs may be called chucklings. Other marmots, such as the yellow-bellied and hoary marmots, live in rocky and mountainous areas, but the groundhog is a lowland creature. It is found through much of the eastern United States across Canada and into Alaska

J. W. Burrow

John Wyon Burrow (4 June 1935 in Southsea – 3 November 2009 in Witney, Oxfordshire) was an English historian of intellectual history. His published works include assessments of the Whig interpretation of history and of historiography generally. According to The Independent:

"John Burrow was one of the leading intellectual historians of his generation. His pioneering work marked the beginning of a more sophisticated approach to the history of the social sciences, one that did not treat the past as being of interest only in so far as it anticipated the present."

James Burrow

Sir James Burrow (28 November 1701 – 5 November 1782 at Starborough Castle, Lingfield, Surrey), was a Legal Reporter at Inner Temple, London, and was Vice President and twice briefly President of the Royal Society. He was knighted in 1773.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 7 April 1737, as “A Gentleman well versed in Natural and Mathematical knowledge”. He served as a member of the Royal Society Council from 1752 until 1782, initially as a Vice President from 1752, and then as a Council member. He twice served briefly as a President of the Royal Society, from October to November 1768 following the death of The Earl of Morton, and July to November 1772, following the death of James West.

As Vice President, he was involved in the Society's activities in organising the observation of the 1761 Transit of Venus, signing the Articles of Agreement between the Council of the Royal Society and Mr Charles Mason and Mr Jeremiah Dixon for their expedition to Bencoolen in the Island of Sumatra.

As a legal reporter, he wrote and published reports of the decisions of significant cases of English legal system. At the time, four reporters were formally appointed by the King 'to commit to writing, and truly to deliver, as well the words spoken, as the judgments and reasons thereupon given,' in the courts of Westminster. quoted in [1] His work is still cited in law courses.

Listed buildings in Burrow-with-Burrow

Burrow-with-Burrow is a civil parish in Lancaster, Lancashire, England. It contains 25 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, one is listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, one is at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade. It contains a number of small settlements, including Nether Burrow, Over Burrow, Overtown and Cowan Bridge, and is otherwise rural. The major building in the parish is Burrow Hall; this country house and structures associated with it are listed. Most of the older listed buildings are domestic or agricultural, including houses and associated structures, farmhouses, and farm buildings. Later listed structures are four milestones and four boundary stones. The other listed buildings are a bridge, and inscribed stones re-set into a different bridge.

Mazraeh-ye Zeynal Mardani

Mazraeh-ye Zeynal Mardani (Persian: مزرعهٔ زینل مردانی‎, also Romanized as Mazra‘eh-ye Zeynal Mardānī; also known as Borrow, Būrrow, and Zeynal Mardānī) is a village in Dadenjan Rural District, Meymand District, Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Mudskipper

Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the family Oxudercidae, in the subfamily Oxudercinae. There are 32 living species of mudskipper. Mudskippers are known for their unusual looks and the interesting abilities that they possess for being a fish that can happily survive both in and out of water. They can grow up to twelve inches long and most of them are a brownish green color that range anywhere from dark to light. During mating season the males will also develop brightly colored spots on them in order to attract the females. The spots can be red, green and even blue. They are also known for their protruding eyes found on the very top of their flat head. Their most noticeable feature however is their side pectoral fins that are located more forward and under their elongated body. These fins function a lot like the legs of a human or any other animal in that they allow the mud skipper to move from place to place. Although having the typical appearance of any other fish, these forward fins allow the mudskipper to “skip” across muddy surfaces and even give them the ability to climb trees and low branches. Because of these fins, mudskippers have also been found to be able to leap distances of up to two feet.

They typically live in burrows in intertidal habitats, and exhibit unique adaptations to this environment that are not found in most intertidal fishes, which typically survive the retreat of the tide by hiding under wet seaweed or in tide pools.These burrows are most often characterized by their smooth and vaulted ceilings. The way the males dig these burrows has been found to be directly linked to their ability to survive submerged in almost anoxic water. It has also been found to play a crucial role in the development of the eggs within the burrow. Mudskippers are quite active when out of water, feeding and interacting with one another, for example, to defend their territories and court potential partners. Once the male has completed digging his burrow he will resurface and will begin attempting to attract a female through assorted yet typical displays. These displays consist of body undulations, different postures and energetic movements in attempt to attract the female. Once the female has made her choice she will then proceed to follow the male into the burrow where she will lay hundreds of eggs and allow them to be fertilized. After fertilization occurs, the period of cohabitation between the male and female is rather short. Eventually, the female will leave and it is the male that ends up guarding the egg filled burrow from hungry predators.

Perhaps the most interesting trait of the mudskipper is their ability to both survive and thrive in and out of water. When leaving the water and moving into a more dry environment on land they are still able to breathe using water that is trapped inside their rather large gill chambers. They are also able to absorb oxygen from the lining of their mouth and throat allowing them to stay out of water for long periods of time. In fact, it has been discovered that they spend up to three quarters of their life on land. They are found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, including the Indo-Pacific and the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Oxudercinae is sometimes classified within the family Gobiidae (gobies). Recent molecular studies do not support this classification, as oxudercine gobies appear to be paraphyletic relative to amblyopine gobies (Gobiidae: Amblyopinae), thus being included in a distinct "Periophthalmus lineage", together with amblyopines. Mudskippers can be defined as oxudercine gobies that are "fully terrestrial for some portion of the daily cycle" (character 24 in Murdy, 1989). This would define the species of the genera Boleophthalmus, Periophthalmodon, Periophthalmus, and Scartelaos as "mudskippers". However, field observations of Zappa confluentus suggest that this monotypic genus should be included in the definition.

Nether Burrow

Nether Burrow is a small hamlet in the Lunesdale Valley of North Lancashire, England. It is a small settlement on the banks of the River Lune. There is not much there but there is a pub called the Highwayman Inn. It is on the A683 road between Lancaster and Kirkby Lonsdale. It forms part of the civil parish with the unusual name of Burrow-with-Burrow.

Rob Burrow

Robert Geoffrey Burrow (born 26 September 1982) is an English former professional rugby league footballer, who spent 16 years playing for the Leeds Rhinos in the Super League, before retiring in 2017. An England and Great Britain representative, he spent his entire professional career with Leeds. At 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall and weighing less than 11 st (70 kg; 150 lb), Burrow was known for many years as "the smallest player in Super League". Despite this, he was one of the most successful players in the competition's history, having won a total of 8 Super League championships, two Challenge Cups, been named to the Super League Dream Team on three occasions and won the Harry Sunderland Trophy twice.

Sarah Deal

Lieutenant Colonel Sarah Deal Burrow, United States Marine Corps, is the first female Marine who selected for Naval aviation training in 1993, and subsequently became the Marine Corps' first female aviator in 1995.

Skin condition

A skin condition, also known as cutaneous condition, is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands. The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment.Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane), morphology (chronic blistering conditions), cause (skin conditions resulting from physical factors), and so on.Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus, pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules, vesicles), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow). The diagnosis of many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information that can be correlated with the clinical presentation and any laboratory data. The introduction of cutaneous ultrasound has allowed the detection of cutaneous tumors, inflammatory processes, nail disorders and hair diseases.

Taj Burrow

Taj Burrow (born 2 June 1978) is an Australian retired professional surfer. Taj retired from the ASP World Tour in June 2016.

The Burrow (short story)

"The Burrow" (German: "Der Bau") is an unfinished short story by Franz Kafka in which a mole-like being burrows through an elaborate system of tunnels it has built over the course of its life. The story was published posthumously in Beim Bau der Chinesischen Mauer (Berlin, 1931). The first English translation, by Willa and Edwin Muir, was published by Martin Secker in London in 1933. It appeared in The Great Wall of China. Stories and Reflections (New York City: Schocken Books, 1946).Allegedly, Kafka had written an ending to the story detailing a struggle with the encroaching beast, but this completed version was among other works destroyed by lover Dora Diamant following Kafka's death.

Xyloryctidae

Xyloryctidae is a family of moths contained within the superfamily Gelechioidea described by Edward Meyrick in 1890. Most genera are found in the Indo-Australian region. While many of these moths are tiny, some members of the family grow to a wingspan of up to 66 mm, making them giants among the micromoths.

The first recorded instance of a common name for these moths comes from Swainson's On the History and Natural Arrangement of Insects, 1840, where members of the genus Cryptophasa are described as hermit moths. This is an allusion to the caterpillar's habit of living alone in a purely residential burrow in a tree branch, to which it drags leaves at night, attaching them with silk to the entrance to the burrow and consuming the leaves as they dry out.

The name 'timber moths' was coined by the Queensland naturalist Rowland Illidge in 1892, later published in 1895, and serves to distinguish these moths from other wood-boring Australian moths such as ghost moths (Hepialidae) and giant wood moths (Cossidae), which feed on sap or wood. It refers to the fact that the larvae of most members of this family are arboreal, whether they burrow into branches, bore into flower heads, tunnel under bark, or feed on lichens. Moths of the genus Maroga are pests of wattles (Acacia) and have crossed over from their wild host plant to become serious pests of cultivated stone fruit trees, particularly cherries.

Formerly, Xyloryctidae were placed in the Oecophoridae as the subfamily Xyloryctinae. Recent research suggests the Xyloryctidae are an independent family, sharing common ancestry with the Oecophoridae, but not descended from them.

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