|Languages||Burmese, Shan, Mon, Karen, others.|
|11th century - present|
|Burmese, Mon, Sgaw Karen, Shan|
An adaptation of the Old Mon script or the Pyu script, the Burmese script was originally used to write the Mon and Pyu languages, respectively. In modern times, besides being used to write the Burmese language, it has been adapted for use in writing other languages of Burma, most notably Shan, Mon (using a version of the script more similar to that used for Burmese than the original Old Mon script) and the S'gaw Karen language. It is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.
The Burmese script was added to the Unicode Standard in September, 1999 with the release of version 3.0. Additional characters were added in subsequent releases.
Until 2005, most Burmese language websites used an image-based, dynamically-generated method to display Burmese characters, often in GIF or JPEG. At the end of 2005, the Burmese NLP Research Lab announced a Myanmar OpenType font named Myanmar1. This font contains not only Unicode code points and glyphs but also the OpenType Layout (OTL) logic and rules. Their research center is based in Myanmar ICT Park, Yangon. Padauk, which was produced by SIL International, is Unicode-compliant. Initially, it required a Graphite engine, though now OpenType tables for Windows are in the current version of this font. Since the release of the Unicode 5.1 Standard on 4 April 2008, three Unicode 5.1 compliant fonts have been available under public license, including Myanmar3, Padauk and Parabaik.
Many Burmese font makers have created Burmese fonts including Win Innwa, CE Font, Myazedi, Zawgyi, Ponnya, Mandalay. It is important to note that these Burmese fonts are not Unicode compliant, because they use unallocated code points (including those for the Latin script) in the Burmese block to manually deal with shaping that would normally be done by the Uniscribe engine and they are not yet supported by Microsoft and other major software vendors. However, there are few Burmese language websites that have switched to Unicode rendering, with many websites continuing to use a pseudo-Unicode font called Zawgyi (which uses codepoints allocated for minority languages and does not intelligently render diacritics, such as the size of ya-yit) or the GIF/JPG display method.
Windows 8 includes a Unicode-compliant Burmese font named "Myanmar Text". Windows 8 also includes a Burmese keyboard layout. Windows 8 was the first operating system to include Burmese support by default without any font installation. Due to the popularity of the font in this OS, Microsoft kept its support in Windows 10.
The Unicode block called Myanmar is U+1000–U+109F. It was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
The Unicode block called Myanmar Extended-A is U+AA60–U+AA7F. It was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
The Unicode called Myanmar Extended-B is U+A9E0–U+A9FF. It was added to the Unicode Standard in June 2014 with the release of version 7.0:
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Burmese Braille is the braille alphabet of languages of Burma written in the Burmese script, including Burmese and Karen. Letters that may not seem at first glance to correspond to international norms are more recognizable when traditional romanization is considered. For example, သ s is rendered ⠹ th, which is how it was romanized when Burmese Braille was developed (and is how it often still is romanized); similarly စ c and ဇ j as ⠎ s and ⠵ z.
The first braille alphabet for Burmese was developed by a Father Jackson ca. 1918. There was no provision for the voiced aspirate series of consonants (gh, jh, dh, bh), nor for the retroflex (tt etc.), and Jackson provided distinct letters for complex onsets such as ky, hm and for various syllable rimes (ok, ein, aung, etc.), with no regard to how they are written in the print Burmese alphabet. These aspects have all been changed, as have several of the letters for the values which were retained. However, some of the old letters, unusual by international standards, remain, such as ⠌ for င ng and ⠪ for ီ i.Burmese alphabet
The Burmese alphabet (Burmese: မြန်မာအက္ခရာ; pronounced [mjəmà ʔɛʔkʰəjà]) is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India, and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script. The Burmese alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.
In recent decades, other, related alphabets, such as Shan and modern Mon, have been restructured according to the standard of the now-dominant Burmese alphabet. (See Burmese script.)
Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability.
The earliest evidence of the Burmese alphabet is dated to 1035, while a casting made in the 18th century of an old stone inscription points to 984. Burmese calligraphy originally followed a square format but the cursive format took hold from the 17th century when popular writing led to the wider use of palm leaves and folded paper known as parabaiks. A stylus would rip these leaves when making straight lines. The alphabet has undergone considerable modification to suit the evolving phonology of the Burmese language.
There are several systems of transliteration into the Latin alphabet; for this article, the MLC Transcription System is used.Kachin people
The peoples of Kachin (Jingpo: Ga Hkyeng red soil; Burmese: ကခ်င္လူမ်ိဳး; MLCTS: ka. hkyang lu. myui:, pronounced [kətɕɪ̀ɴ lù mjó]), more precisely known as Jingpho Wunpong (Jingpho: Jinghpaw Wunpawng the Confederation of Jingpo) or simply Wunpong (the Confederation), are a confederation of ethnic groups who inhabit the Kachin Hills in northern Myanmar's Kachin State and neighbouring Yunnan Province, China, and Arunachal Pradesh, India. About one million Kachin peoples live in the region. The term Kachin people is often used interchangeably with the main subset, called the Jingpo people in China.
The Jingpho language common to many of the Kachin has a variety of dialects and is written with a latin-based script created in the late nineteenth century. A Burmese script version was subsequently developed. The Singhpo dialect is spoken in Northeast India and Jingpho in Southwest China.
Kachin is an ethnicity that comprises various linguistic groups with overlapping territories and integrated social structures. Contemporary usage of Kachin relates to a grouping of six ethnicities: Rawang, the Lisu, the Jingpo, the Zaiwa, the Lashi/Lachik and the Lawngwaw/Maru. Some definitions distinguish Kachin and Shan (Tai) peoples though some Kachin people have demonstrated the over-simplicity of the concept of lineage-based ethnic identity by culturally "becoming Shans".There are many theories of how Kachin people got their name. One of them comes from American baptist missionary Dr. Eugenio Kincaid. When he arrived to the northern part of Myanmar, firstly he met with the Gahkyeng people. When he asked them who they were, they replied that they were the villagers from Gahkyeng. Therefore, he wrote "Ga hkyeng" in his notes. European writers called the Kachins "Kakhyens" until 1899. The book "The Great Queen is Coming 1890" described Major Ecy Brong was the first person who started using "Kachin" in Roman script.List of Burmese dishes
The following is a list of dishes found in Burmese cuisine. Burmese cuisine includes dishes from various regions of Burma (now officially known as Myanmar). The diversity of Myanmar's cuisine has also been contributed to by the myriad of local ethnic minorities. The Bamars are the most dominant group, but other groups including the Chin people also have distinct cuisines. Burmese cuisine is characterized by extensive use of fish products like fish sauce and ngapi (fermented seafood). Owing to the geographic location of Myanmar, Burmese cuisine has been influenced by Chinese cuisine, Indian cuisine and Thai cuisine.Madarit
Madarit was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Min Khamaung
Min Khamaung (Burmese: မင်းခမောင်း, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ kʰa̰ máʊɴ], Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ kʰa̰ máʊɴ]; also known as Hussein Shah; was a king of Arakan from 1612 to 1622.Min Khayi
Min Khayi (Burmese: မင်းခရီ, Burmese pronunciation: [mɪ́ɴ kʰəjì]; also spelled Min Khari, Arakanese pronunciation: [máɴ kʰəɹì]; also known as Ali Khan; 1392–1459) was king of the Mrauk-U Kingdom from 1433 to 1459.
He began his reign as a vassal of the Bengal Sultinate, and successfully unified the entire Arakan coastline (present-day Rakhine State) in 1437. He then took full advantage of the political turmoil in Bengal by seizing Ramu, the southernmost territory of his erstwhile overlord, and raiding as far north as Chittagong. In 1455, his kingdom finally achieved recognition by Ava, which had long interfered in the affairs of Arakan, as the sovereign Mrauk-U Kingdom state. His 25-year reign brought much needed stability to the Arakan littoral, and prepared his nascent kingdom for future expansions by his successors.The earliest extant work of Arakanese literature in Burmese script, Rakhine Minthami Eigyin was composed during his reign in 1455.Muni Thudhammaraza
Muni Thudhammaraza was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Myanmar Girl Guides
Myanmar Girl Guides is the national Guiding organization of Myanmar. The organization was founded in 2014 and is currently an associate member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It serves 29,067 members (as of 2014).Naradipati
Naradipati was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Narapawara
Narapawara was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Nyaung-u Sawrahan
Nyaung-u Sawrahan (Burmese: ညောင်ဦး စောရဟန်း, pronounced [ɲàʊɴ ʔú sɔ́jəháɴ]; also Taungthugyi Min c. 924–1001) was king of the Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from c. 956 to 1001. Although he is remembered as the Cucumber King in the Burmese chronicles based on a legend, Sawrahan is the earliest king of Pagan whose existence has been verified by inscriptional evidence. According to scholarship, it was during Sawrahan reign that Pagan, then one of several competing city-states in Upper Burma, "grew in authority and grandeur". The creation of Burmese alphabet as well as the fortification of Pagan may have begun in his reign.Old Mon script
The Old Mon script was a script used to write Mon, and may also be the source script of the Burmese alphabet.Pau Cin Hau script
The Pau Cin Hau scripts are two scripts, a logographic script and an alphabetic script created by Pau Cin Hau, a Tedim religious leader from Chin State, Burma. The logographic script consists of 1050 characters, which is a traditionally significant number based on the number of characters appearing in a religious text. The alphabetic script is a simplified script of 57 characters, which is divided into 21 consonants, 7 vowels, 9 final consonants, and 20 tone, length, and glottal marks. The original script was produced in 1902, but it is thought to have undergone at least two revisions, of which the first revision produced the logographic script.The logographic script has not been encoded, but the alphabetic script has been encoded in Unicode 7.0.
The characters in the script seem to resemble characters in the Latin script and in the Burmese script in a way similar to the relationship between Pahawh Hmong and both Lao script and Latin script. They are glyphically similar but encode different phonological values.
The script was designed for the Tedim language (also Paite language) but is able to transcribe other Chin languages, as there are additional letters and tone marks to represent sounds present in other Chin languages but not present in Tedim.
The script is known natively as "Pau Cin Hau lai" ('Pau Cin Hau script'), or "tual lai" ('local script'), where "lai" also means 'writing' in Tedim(Paite)
The script also had limited use for Christian literature in the region, as is evidenced by some Baptist documents produced in 1931-32 in Burma.S'gaw Karen alphabet
The Karen script (S'gaw Karen: ကညီလံာ်ခီၣ်ထံး pronounced [knyɔlikhɔthi]) is an abugida used for writing Karen. It was derived from the Burmese script in the early 19th century, and ultimately from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India. The S'gaw Karen alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.Sanda Wimala I
Sanda Wimala I was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Sanda Wimala II
Sanda Wimala II was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Thirithu
Thirithu was a king of the Mrauk-U Dynasty of Arakan.Wara Dhammaraza
Wara Dhammaraza was a king in the Mrauk-U Dynasty, of the Kingdom of Arakan in Burma.