Burmese folk religion refers to the animistic and polytheistic religious worship of nats (deities of local and Hindu origin) in Burma (Myanmar). Although the beliefs of nats differ across different regions and villages in Burma, there are a handful of beliefs that are universal in Burmese folk religion.
A nat is a spirit or god who resembles a human in shape that often maintains or guards objects. When people die, they can become nats. Those who become nats often have a gruesome violent death which explains their vengeful nature. Nats also are believed to have the ability to possess animals, such as tigers or alligators. These spirits can also be found in nature in things such as trees and rocks. The majority of these nats are viewed as troublesome and irritable. They require calming, food and offerings.
There is a specific nat called an ouktazaung that is said to guard treasure. Rumor has it that this ouktazaung lures men to them, similar to a siren, in Greek mythology. If the victim is caught by the ouktazaung it takes her place and the ouktazaung can roam free, but only for twenty years, after which she must return to her treasure. A village will traditionally also have a spirit which is the patron of their village; this is called a Bo Bo Gyi.
The precise origins of Burmese folk faith and nat worship are not definitively known. However at the time King Anawrahta (1044-1077) was ruling, nat worship was rampant. He became frustrated with this widespread worship of nats, and tried to eliminate them. The people continued to worship the nats, and so the king ordered the destruction of all statues and images of nats. Despite this people still worshiped them, by using a coconut as a symbol for them. Now in place of a typical nat statue, there sat a coconut, which served as an offering to the nat, as well as a symbol for the nat itself.
The king came to the realisation that he couldn’t possibly stop these nats from being worshiped, so he created a formal list of 37, strategically renaming the head one, Thagyamin, which was a name of Buddhist origin. He also placed statues of deva in front of the nats. This symbolised the preference for practising Buddhism over folk faith. Despite continued opposition, this nat worship survived. A testament to the continued survival of Burmese folk religion can be seen by the fact that the prime minister of Burma in the mid 20th century, U Nu, erected a nat-sin (nat shrine) as well as a traditional Buddhist shrine. This toleration of the nats continued through the socialist regime (1962-1968).
Every village has someone that is a nat-kadaw. This person is seen as the master of ceremonies regarding nats, a type of shaman. They often lead festivals, called nat-pwes, which are devoted to interacting with the nats. The nat-kadaw has the special power to be able to be possessed by nats. Once possessed, their voice changes and they perform elaborate dances. This profession is somewhat frowned upon because it is centred on frivolity and letting go of restraints. Although it doesn’t have the best reputation as a profession, it is an extremely profitable one. Oftentimes when offerings are given to the nats, they are given directly to the nat-kadaw, who is said to be possessed by a nat. Throughout a festival the nat-kadaw will often ask for money. Although some of this money is given to the accompanying orchestra at a festival, the nat-kadaw also keeps some of this money.
Although this profession is seen as a frivolous one, nat-kadaws are in fact very religious. They still follow and uphold the precepts of Buddhism (Five Precepts), while simultaneously interacting closely with these nats. Oftentimes a nat-kadaw can become tormented by a specific nat. Even if they already have a human husband or wife, they decide that they must marry this nat, for only then will they be at peace, and the torment that this nat is causing them will finally cease. The marriage of a nat and a nat-kadaw is done through an extremely elaborate ceremony titled Ley-Bya-Taik. In this ceremony, the nat-kadaw identifies the particular nat that they would like to marry, and then surrenders to it. In this process mirrors are used to trap the soul (mentioned earlier) that leaves the host. Once this soul has left, the nat takes the place of it. After this transformation is complete, the nat-kadaw dances, embracing their recent marriage with a nat.
As mentioned earlier, these nat-kadaws are central in every nat-festival or nat-pwe. These nat-pwes are held at specific times of the year, or if there is a special occasion. They follow a similar structure and sequence of events. They always include an orchestra, and lots of dancing. The first step in these festivals is the donation of many offerings, usually consisting of a coconut, bananas, fruits, leaves and rice. These offerings are prepared, to eventually summon the nats to the ceremony. This practice of summoning is done by the nat-kadaw. Once the nats are summoned, a feast is had with them. After this, there is a farewell ceremony and everyone bids the nats goodbye.
Burmese folk religion and Buddhism are very closely tied to each other. Oftentimes it is common to see a Buddhist offering, and a nat-sin (or nat shrine) besides it. In Burma there are varying degrees of reliance on nats versus Buddhist doctrine. The beliefs and practices of folk faith vary widely across Burma, so it is difficult to define this religion exactly. Several scholars in the 19th and 20th century have done field research in villages in Burma, their findings have then been reported by themselves, as well as recently by others in various books and articles. Although it is difficult to determine what the precise beliefs and practices are, these anthropologists found several common trends that help give us a better picture of Burmese folk religion. In many instances folk faith was practised directly alongside Buddhism. It wasn’t uncommon to see families who had both Buddhist shrines and nat shrines in their own homes. There were also plenty of Buddhist monks, who simultaneously believed in the nats. Several quotes from various scholars in Burma exemplify the relationship between Buddhism and nat worship.
The veneration of nats also shares similar practices with Buddhism. In Buddhism, offerings are extremely common and expected. Shrines and temples, in which these offerings are to be made, are seen in both Burmese folk religion and Buddhism. In both the faiths, many different statues of various deities can also be seen around the house. Burmese folk religion differs dramatically in the concept of a soul. Buddhism does not believe in a soul that leaves after one dies, but rather a consciousness that is transferred to a new person (consciousness is reborn in another). In contrast, Burmese folk religion holds that the soul can leave the body it inhabits. This soul is often depicted in the form of a butterfly called a leppya. The act of the soul leaving the host often happens in dreams, or when someone is sick or dying. If one is awoken in the middle of their dream, it is said that their soul might not be back to them yet. If a host tries to live without its soul it will die. When someone is dying, butterfly hunts are often held to try to recapture the soul that has wandered off.
Melford Spiro remarks on an interesting difference with the concept of suffering in Burmese folk religion as opposed to Buddhism. Buddhism teaches that suffering comes from bad karma (which one has rightfully accumulated from a past life) and this karma can’t be improved upon until the next life. In contrast, folk faith places the cause of suffering on mischievous evil spirits. In this way those that suffer are free from blame involving misdeeds they did in their past life. They didn’t do anything wrong, but they must deal with the nuisance of nats. Burmese folk religion also allows for a cure to suffering, in the form of supernatural help from magical people, or offerings to the spirits.
The folk religious practices offer a very different aspect of life from the Buddhist practices. Burmese folk faith consists of many different kinds of festivals that all involve singing and dancing, drinking and merriment, or nat-pwes. These festivals are a way for people to let go, and enjoy themselves. This idea of relieving stress and indulging in various pleasures is very different from the traditional doctrine of Buddhism, which emphasises losing all desires. This can often be done by fasting or through deep meditation in a quiet temple. These traditional Buddhist practices offer a starkly different way of achieving religious consciousness.
Amongst the individual villages, religious beliefs also vary greatly. Although there are the thirty-seven main nats that are commonly and communally worshiped, there are also many local nats, differing in every village. To add on to this, the idea that after death one may become a nat also implies that there are many nats that can be worshiped. For some villages nats are in nearly everything. They can be any ancestors, in nature, found guarding objects etc. For others nats are less prominent, but still play some role in the village society.
A particularly strong sense of folk faith is found in the tribal parts of Burma. In this instance, there is not some type of divine being, and folk religion is practised entirely separately from Buddhism. In these tribal societies all nats are traditionally viewed as harmful, unlike in other villages where nats are invited to partake in festivals. Instead of adorning these nats with offerings and food, the most effort is put into fending evil spirits off. These tribes just merely want to be left alone, undisturbed by the malicious spirits.
Various forms of folk practices are held in Burma today, often with folk religious roots. As mentioned earlier though, it is difficult to determine to what extent these beliefs and traditions are practised, because every village has slightly different beliefs and practices. Their astrology, thought to be descended from Indian religious beliefs, is present in Burma. With this astrology, comes the practice of divination and horoscopes.
There are also several different folk methods that are thought to keep away troublesome nats or evil spirits. These include wearing amulets or tattoos, which were said to keep the spirits away. This was also seen in the form of various people, who are believed to have magical powers or the ability to interact with spirits. These include alchemists, healers, sorcerers and exorcists.
These exorcists, or ahletan hsaya, are said to possess powers that can fend away or challenge these evil demons. These exorcists were often seen as very holy, because they had to be to combat troublesome spirits. They attempt exorcisms by giving the nat offerings. As an interesting overlap with Buddhism, exorcisms can be performed by holding the Buddha up to the possessed person, in an effort to have the Nat flee. If the exorcist cannot banish this spirit alone, they often ask for the assistance of the nat-kadaw. Sorcerers, or weikzas also harnessed the power of these nats through many complex rituals, to gain their own supernatural powers.
Bo Bo Aung (Burmese: ဘိုးဘိုးအောင်) was a prominent phothudaw and weizza (Burmese: ဝိဇ္ဇာ, Pali: vijjādhara), or wizard, from Sagaing who lived in Myanmar during the Konbaung Dynasty, or the 18th century. He was also called Maung Aung, or "Master Victory". He supposedly lived to be around 200 years of age. He is credited with creating the modern wiezza movement when he discovered manuscripts revealing the secrets of weizzas and mastered the art of qin."Bo Bo" is a common Burmese honorific which translates to "uncle".Burmese clothing
Clothing in Myanmar varies depending on the ethnicity, geography, climate and cultural traditions of the people of each region of Myanmar (Burma). The most widely recognized Burmese national costume is the longyi, which is worn by both males and females nationwide. Burmese clothing also features great diversity in terms of textiles, weaves, fibers, colours and materials, including velvet, silk, lace, muslin, and cotton.Burmese names
Burmese names lack the serial structure of most modern names. The Bamars have no customary patronymic or matronymic system and thus there is no surname at all. In the culture of Myanmar, people can change their name at will, often with no government oversight, to reflect a change in the course of their lives. Also, many Burmese names use an honorific, given at some point in life, as an integral part of the name.Cinema of Myanmar
The cinema of Burma has a long history dating back to the 1910s. The person who created the first silent film was Ohn Maung (Burma's first producer and director). He is known today as the father of Burmese cinema.Glass mosaic
Glass mosaic (Burmese: မှန်စီရွှေချ) is a traditional Burmese mosaic made with pieces of glass, used to embellish decorative art, structures, and furniture. Glass mosaic is typically divided into two subcategories, hman gyan si (မှန်ကြမ်းစီ) and hman nu si (မှန်နုစီ). The former is typically used to decorate the walls and ceilings of pagodas, while the latter is used to embellish furniture and accessories. The art form originated in the 1500s during the Nyaungyan era. Glass mosaic is often studded with gems and semi-precious stones.Indonesia–Myanmar relations
Indonesia–Myanmar relations are foreign bilateral relations between Indonesia and Myanmar Diplomatic relations were established on 27 December 1949. Indonesia has an embassy in Yangon, while Myanmar has an embassy in Jakarta.Kalaga
Kalaga (Burmese: ကန့်လန့်ကာ) is a heavily embroidered appliqué tapestry made of silk, flannel, felt, wool and lace against a background made of cotton or velvet indigenous to Burma (Myanmar). The word kalaga, which means "curtain," comes from the Burmese language, although Burmese refer to such tapestries as shwe gyi do (ရွှေချည်ထိုး; lit. "gold thread embroidery"). These tapestries use a sewing technique called shwe gyi (ရွှေချည်)This artform emerged during the Konbaung dynasty in the mid-19th century and reached its zenith during the reign of Mindon Min, when velvet became fashionable at the royal court.In a typical tapestry, padded figures are cut from various types of cloth and sewn onto a background, usually red or black cloth to form an elaborate scene, traditionally from Burmese classical plays (e.g. Ramayana, Jataka). The figures are sewn using a combination of metallic and plain threads and adorned with sequins, beads and glass stones.Kyiso
Kyiso (Burmese: ကျဉ်စိုး, pronounced [tɕɪ̀ɴsó]; c. 1000–1038) was king of Pagan dynasty from 1021 to 1038. According to the Burmese chronicles, Kyiso was a son of King Nyaung-u Sawrahan but raised by King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu. Kunhsaw married Nyuang-u's three chief queens, two of whom were pregnant and subsequently gave birth to Kyiso and Sokkate. Sokkate and Kyiso were raised by Kunhsaw as his own sons. When the two sons reached manhood, they forced Kunhsaw to abdicate the throne and become a monk.
Kyiso was an avid hunter, and was killed in a hunting accident near Monywa. He became Yoma Shin Mingaung Nat or a spirit in Burmese folk religion.List of Burmese traditional festivals
Burmese traditional festivals are based on the traditional Burmese calendar and dates are largely determined by the moon's phase. Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival.Mahāgīta
Mahāgīta (Burmese: မဟာဂီတ; from Pali: Mahāgīta; lit. "great songs"); also rendered into Burmese as Thachingyi (Burmese: သချင်းကြီး) is the complete body or corpus of Burmese classical songs. The songs belong to the royal court tradition, and form the basis of Burmese classical music today. These songs, sung by a vocalist who controls the metric cycle by playing clappers and cymbals, are accompanied by the Burmese harp (saung) and other instruments from the chamber music ensemble, such as the pattala.Malaysian folk religion
Malaysian folk religion refers to the animistic and polytheistic beliefs and practices that are still held by many in the Islamic-majority country of Malaysia. Malaysian folk faith is practiced either openly or covertly depending on the type of rituals performed.
Some forms of belief are not recognised by the government as a religion for statistical purposes although such practices are not outlawed. There is a deep interaction between the Chinese folk religion of the large Malaysian Chinese population, and the indigenous Malaysian folk religion.Mythical creatures in Burmese folklore
A wide variety of mythical creatures are found in Burmese folklore and in mythology. Many Burmese creatures are part human or creatures capable of assuming human form. Most mythical creatures are endowed with humanistic mentalities, ability to converse with humans and also supernatural powers.
During the 20th century, the role and diversity of Burmese mythical creatures were diversified by Shwe Thway comics which depicted the life of the Buddha, the Jataka tales and Burmese history.The most common mythological being is the Belu, an ogre. The popularity of the Belu is due to the Yama Zatdaw, the Burmese version of the Ramayana, a very popular play in Myanmar, and also their roles in the Jatakas.National symbols of Myanmar
The national symbols of Myanmar (also known as Burma) are icons, symbols and other cultural expressions which are seen as representative of the Burmese people. These have been accumulated over centuries and are mainly from the Bamar majority, while other ethnic groups also maintain their own symbols.
No official codification or de jure recognition exists, but most of these symbols are seen as de facto representative of the Burmese people. The use of much of these symbols were cultivated during the Konbaung dynasty which ruled the country from 1761 to 1885.Public holidays in Myanmar
Several public holidays are observed in Myanmar.Religion in Myanmar
Myanmar (Burma) is a multi-religious country. There is no official state religion, but the government shows preference for Theravada Buddhism, the majority religion of the nation.
According to both the 2014 census of the Burmese government Buddhism is the dominant religion, of 88% of the population, practiced especially by the Bamar, Rakhine, Shan, Mon, Karen people and Chinese ethnic groups. Bamar people also practice the Burmese folk religion under the name of Buddhism. The new constitution provides for the freedom of religion; however, it also grants broad exceptions that allow the regime to restrict these rights at will. Ethnic minorities practice Christianity (6.2%, particularly the Chin, Kachin and Karen people), Islam (4.3%, particularly the Indians, Malays, and other minorities), and Hinduism (0.5%, particularly by Burmese Indians).Nat worship is common in Myanmar. Nats are named spirits and shrines can be seen around the country, either standing alone, or as part of Buddhist temples. Nat worship has a relationship with Myanmar Buddhism and there is a recognised pantheon of 37 nats.Tattooing in Myanmar
Tattooing in Burma was a widespread custom practiced by various ethnic groups, including the Bamar, Shan, and Karen, until the 20th century.
Tattooing was a distinguishing cultural marker. For instance, the Arakanese people who are related to the Bamar did not practice tattooing. Similarly, the Mon people did practice tattooing, but did not tattoo their thighs unlike the Bamar.Weddings in Myanmar
Weddings in Myanmar, considered auspicious occasions in Burmese culture, reflect various ethnic, religious, and regional traditions. Depending on personal preferences and economic status, Burmese weddings can be religious or secular, and extravagant or simple.Yoke thé
Yoke thé (Burmese: ရုပ်သေး; MLCTS: rupse:, IPA: [joʊʔ θé], literally "miniatures") is the Burmese name for marionette puppetry. Although the term can be used for marionettery in general, its usage usually refers to the local form of string puppetry. Like most of Burmese refined art, yoke thé performances originated from royal patronage and were gradually adapted for the wider populace. Yoke thé are almost always performed in operas.
Burmese marionettes are very intricate and dexterous as they employ 18 or 19 wires for male and female characters respectively, and each puppet is controlled by only one puppeteer.
Nats and spirits of Burmese folk religion