|Burg Wiener Neustadt|
|Lower Austria, Austria|
|Owner||Republic of Austria|
|Condition||major parts conserved|
|Built by||Leopold VI, Duke of Austria|
The first castle in Wiener Neustadt was built in 1193–94, when at the same time, the city walls of Wiener Neustadt were built. The costs were paid from the ransom of Richard the Lionheart. This castle is said to have stood on the north-eastern corner of the city, but there is no archaeological evidence of this.
When that castle became too small, however, the newer castle was built on the present site by Leopold VI the Glorious at the beginning of the 13th century. Since the area is quite marshy, it was built on wooden piles. Under Frederick II the Warlike it was finally surrounded by a moat, outer walls and towers.
In 1246 east of the castle the Battle of the Leitha was fought, when Frederick II was killed. A monument at Burgenland road still reminds of it. In 1260 the castle was first mentioned in documents. The wall was removed, however, under Otakar II of Bohemia already in 1253 and built up again in the late 13th Century.
During an earthquake in 1348 the castle collapsed. This led to a larger new building under Leopold III starting in 1378. On the terrace that was built over the tomb chapel of Leopold IV Peter Pusika on behalf of Duke Ernest the Iron built the Gottsleichnamkapelle (God's Body Chapel) and later, on behalf of Emperor Frederick III the St George's Chapel in the newly created West Wing. In many places of the castle the inscription “A.E.I.O.U.” can still be found, which dates back to Frederick III.
When Frederick III refused to dismiss Ladislaus the Posthumous from his guardianship, this led to creation of the Mailberg Confederation (Mailberger Bund) and a siege of the castle in 1452 by an Estates' army of 16,000. Only after negotiations Frederick dismissed his ward. Subsequently, he founded the St. George's Order and made the castle available as the Order's seat. The seat, however, was repealed in 1598.
1486 saw a renewed siege by Matthias Corvinus, which ended after two years with the defenders' surrender. Only after Matthias' death in 1490 the occupation troops were expelled again from castle and city.
Under Emperor Maximilian I, the castle lost the status of permanent residence and it became only a retreat of the emperor. Maximilian was buried in St. George's Chapel, although previously a tomb had been built in the Innsbruck Court Church.
In 1521 Ferdinand I retreated to the castle because of the resistance of the Protestant Estates. Subsequently, though, the Vienna city government was arrested, and they were brought to trial (Wiener Neustädter Blutgericht, i.e. Wiener Neustadt Bloody Trial) and executed here.
During the first Turkish Siege of Vienna in 1529, the castle was attacked but not conquered. During the second siege in 1683 it was not attacked. In the meantime, however, in the years 1608 and 1616 fires caused major damage.
In 1743 1,400 French prisoners of war were detained in the castle. A little later, a pestilential epidemic broke out, which claimed many victims. The castle therefore remained closed because of the risk of infection for two years after withdrawal of the survivors. Thereafter, it was hardly used and neglected.
In 1768, an earthquake again caused severe damages, which made the building uninhabitable. Three of the four towers had to be removed. In the east wing new rooms were furnished for the emperor. In the place of God's Body Chapel, the main staircase was erected.
After World War I, the military academy was closed, but reopened in 1934. During the bombings at the end of World War II in 1944–45, the castle – just like the city as a whole – was so badly damaged that only the outer walls remained standing. It was rebuilt after the war so that the military academy was able to resume operations in 1958.
The castle, which had always been the sovereign's property, is now owned by the Republic of Austria.
The St. George's Cathedral is a late Gothic hall church with three naves. It was created by Peter von Pusica and was built in the years 1440 to 1460.
The original chapel was called St. Mary's or Our Lady's Chapel. Under Frederick III. it was renamed to St. George's Chapel as the seat of the Knights of St. George's Order.
The Chapel was destroyed in World War II. Only one pillar remained original. It was rebuilt after 1945 using the white sandstone from Kaisersteinbruch quarry.
In 1784, the former bishop's see was moved to St. Pölten. Only in 1963 Wiener Neustadt became the see of the military bishop and the chapel was promoted to cathedral status in 1987 under military bishop Alfred Kostelecky.
The originally swampy area between the town and Leitha river was drained under Frederick III. Also a zoological garden was created, which existed until 1751. The 106-hectare (262-acre) area was later converted into a park and has been open to the public since Maria Theresa.
This article was initially translated from the German Wikipedia.
"A.E.I.O.U." was a symbolic device personally used by Habsburg emperor Frederick III (1415–1493). He habitually signed buildings such as Burg Wiener Neustadt or Graz Cathedral as well as his tableware and other objects with the vowel graphemes. As of 2017, A.E.I.O.U. is the motto of the Theresian Military Academy, established in 1751.Alexander Löhr
Alexander Löhr (20 May 1885 – 26 February 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s and, after the annexation of Austria, he was a Luftwaffe commander. Löhr served in the Luftwaffe during World War II and became commander-in-chief in Southeast Europe. Löhr was one of three former Austrians who rose to the rank of Generaloberst within the German Wehrmacht. The other two were Erhard Raus and Lothar Rendulic.
Löhr surrendered to Yugoslav Army forces in May 1945. Tried and convicted of war crimes for anti-partisan reprisals committed under his command, he was executed on 26 February 1947.List of castles in Austria
This page is a list of castles and castle ruins in Austria, arranged by state. A Burgruine is a ruined castle, a “castle ruin”.List of cathedrals in Austria
This is a list of cathedrals in Austria, including both actual and former diocesan cathedrals (seats of bishops). Almost all cathedrals in Austria are Roman Catholic, but any non-Roman Catholic cathedrals are also listed here.
The list is intended to be complete.
Although the word "Kathedrale" is used formally in German, the more usual word is "Dom". This not only refers to cathedrals in the proper sense as the seats of bishops, but also to a small number of large churches in Austria, which are known as "Dom" as a mark of distinction or historical importance (sometimes known by the description "Prachtdom", i.e., churches called "Dom" because of their magnificence or splendour). These are included in a separate section, without implying that they have the status of cathedrals.Military Ordinariate of Austria
The Military Ordinariate of Austria (German: Militärordinariat der Republik Österreich, Latin: Ordinariatus Militaris Austriae) is a military ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Immediately subject to the Holy See, it provides pastoral care to Roman Catholics serving in the Austrian Armed Forces and their families.Order of Saint George (House of Habsburg)
The Order of Saint George (Latin: Ordo militaris Sancti Georgii; German: St. Georgs-Orden) is an Austrian chivalric order founded by the Habsburg emperor Frederick III and Pope Paul II in 1469. Established as a military order to advocate the Christian faith, its original implicite goal was to combat the Ottoman incursions into the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola. The order resided at Millstatt Abbey and in Wiener Neustadt, until in 1598 its properties were handed over to the Jesuit college in Graz.St. George's Cathedral, Wiener Neustadt
St. George's Cathedral in Wiener Neustadt (German: Kathedrale St. Georg) is the cathedral of the Military Ordinariate of Austria and a minor basilica. It is located inside the castle, Burg Wiener Neustadt.The church, begun in 1440 on the west side of the castle, was commissioned from the architect Peter von Pusica by Frederick IV, Duke of Austria. At the end of the work the church was dedicated to St. Mary and consecrated in 1460. In 1479 the Order of the Knights of St. George established their headquarters in Wiener Neustadt, and the patron of the church became Saint George. After the abolition of this chivalric order in 1600, the church was entrusted first to the Cistercians and later the Piarists. In 1608 and 1616 two fires damaged the castle and the church, which were repaired by initiative of Maximilian III.With the foundation of the Theresian Military Academy on December 14, 1751, the church was closely tied to the fate of the castle as the headquarters of the military school. The castle and church were completely destroyed in bombing during the Second World War on March 12, 1945, but reconstruction began the following year, to be completed only in 1958.Since 1963 the church has been home to the Military Ordinariate of Austria, as a result of which it was elevated to the status of cathedral. On 13 December 1967 it also became a minor basilica.Wiener Neustadt (disambiguation)
Wiener Neustadt is a city located south of Vienna.