Bureau of Indian Affairs

The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives.

The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to approximately 48,000 Native Americans.

The BIA’s responsibilities originally included providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now known as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), and it is now known as the Indian Health Service.

Bureau of Indian Affairs
Seal of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
Seal of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Flag of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
Flag of the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agency overview
FormedMarch 11, 1824
Preceding agency
JurisdictionFederal Government of the United States
HeadquartersMain Interior Building
1849 C Street, NW Washington, D.C., U.S. 20240
Employees8,700 (FY08)
Agency executives
  • Tara Sweeney, Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs
  • Darryl LaCounte, Acting Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Education
Parent agencyUnited States Department of the Interior
Websitewww.BIA.gov

Organization

Located in Washington, D.C., the BIA is headed by a bureau director who reports to the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs. The current assistant secretary is Tara Sweeney.

The BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices:

  • Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, and Indian Reservation Roads Program.
  • Office of Justice Services (OJS): directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, and detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, and 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS. The office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, and Program Management. The OJS also provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested. It operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, and Law Enforcement.[1]
  • Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of their trust lands, assets, and resources.
  • The Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices; Alaska, Great Plains, Northwest, Southern Plains, Eastern, Navajo, Pacific, Southwest, Eastern Oklahoma, Midwest, Rocky Mountain, and Western; and 83 agencies, which carry out the mission of the Bureau at the tribal level.

History

Ely S. Parker
Ely S. Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as Commissioner of Indian affairs (1869–1871).
Cato Sells, 1913
Cato Sells, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1913.

Early US agencies and legislation: Intercourse Acts

Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin and Patrick Henry were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War.[2]

Office of Indian Trade (1806–1822)

In 1789, the U.S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade"[3] within the War Department, who was charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade. The post was held by Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822.

The government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade.

Bureau of Indian Affairs (1824–present)

The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U.S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office, which went by several names. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun.

In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs.

One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages, practices, and cultures. It emphasized being educated to European-American culture.[4]

20th century

Indians at work magazine july 1940 navajo lasso native americans cowboy
1940 Indians at Work magazine, published by the Office of Indian Affairs, predecessor agency to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947.

With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a particularly turbulent period of BIA history.[5] The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement (AIM) worried the U.S. government; the FBI responded both overtly and covertly (by creating COINTELPRO and other programs) to suppress possible uprisings among native peoples.[6]

As a branch of the U.S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as:

Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left, having caused $700,000 in damages. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treaties, deeds, and water rights records, which some Indian officials said could set the tribes back 50 to 100 years.[8][9]

The BIA was implicated in supporting controversial tribal presidents, notably Dick Wilson, who was charged with being authoritarian; using tribal funds for a private paramilitary force, the Guardians of the Oglala Nation (or "GOON squad"), which he employed against opponents; intimidation of voters in the 1974 election; misappropriation of funds, and other misdeeds.[11] Many native peoples continue to oppose policies of the BIA. In particular, problems in enforcing treaties, handling records and trust land incomes were disputed.

21st century

In 2013 the Bureau was greatly affected by sequestration funding cuts of $800 million, which particularly affected the already-underfunded Indian Health Service.[12][13]

Legal issues

Employee overtime

The Bureau of Indian Affairs has been sued four times in class action overtime lawsuits brought by the Federation of Indian Service Employees,[14] a union which represents the federal civilian employees of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Indian Education, the Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs and the Office of the Special Trustee for Indian Affairs. As of 2012 the union is represented by the Law Offices of Snider & Associates, LLC,[15] which concentrates in FLSA overtime class actions against the federal government and other large employers. The grievances allege widespread violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act and claim tens of millions of dollars in damages.

Trust assets

Cobell vs. Salazar, a major class action case related to trust lands, was settled in December 2009. The suit was filed against the U.S. Department of Interior, of which the BIA is a part. A major responsibility has been the management of the Indian trust accounts. This was a class-action lawsuit regarding the federal government's management and accounting of more than 300,000 individual American Indian and Alaska Native trust accounts. A settlement fund totaling $3.4 billion is to be distributed to class members. This is to compensate for claims that prior U.S. officials had mismanaged the administration of Indian trust assets. In addition, the settlement establishes a $2 billion fund enabling federally recognized tribes to voluntarily buy back and consolidate fractionated land interests.[16]

Mission

The Bureau is currently trying to evolve from a supervisory to an advisory role. However, this has been a difficult task as the BIA is known by many Native Americans as playing a police role in which the U.S. government historically dictated to tribes and their members what they could and could not do in accordance with treaties signed by both.[17]

Commissioners and Assistant Secretaries

Commissioners and Assistant Secretaries of Indian Affairs include:[18]

Heads of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

  • 1822-1824 William Clark
  • 1824–1830 Thomas L. McKenney
  • 1830–1831 Samuel S. Hamilton
  • 2002–2004 Terry Virden[19]
  • 2004–2005 Brian Pogue[20]
  • 2005–2007 Patrick Rasdale[21]
  • 2007–2010 Jerold L. Gidner[22]
  • 2010–2016 Michael S. Black[23]
  • 2016–2017 Weldon Loudermilk[24]
  • 2017–present Bryan C. Rice[25]

Commissioners of Indian Affairs

Assistant Secretaries of the Interior for Indian Affairs

See also

References

  1. ^ "Who We Are", BIA
  2. ^ Henson, C.L. "From War to Self-Determination: a history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs". American Resources on the Net. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  3. ^ Waldman, Carl; Braun, Molly (2009). Atlas of the North American Indian. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-8160-6858-6. in 1806, an Office of Indian Trade was created within the War Department
  4. ^ Dennis Banks, "Ojibwa Warrior," 2004: 29–28
  5. ^ Philip Worchel, Philip G. Hester and Philip S. Kopala, "Collective Protest and Legitimacy of Authority: Theory and Research," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 18 (1) 1974): 37–54
  6. ^ The COINTELPRO PAPERS – Chapter 7: COINTELPRO – AIM Archived July 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Paul Smith and Robert Warrior, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee, New York: The New Press, 1996.
  8. ^ "Stop bandwidth theft!". Maquah.net. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  9. ^ "Stop bandwidth theft!". Maquah.net. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  10. ^ "American Indian Rights Activist Vernon Bellecourt", Washington Post, 14 October 2007
  11. ^ Ward Churchill, Jim Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, South End Press, 2002.
  12. ^ Gale Courey Toensing (March 27, 2013). "Sequestration Grounds Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs". Indian Country Today. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  13. ^ Editorial Board (March 20, 2013). "The Sequester Hits the Reservation" (Editorial). The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  14. ^ "FEDERATION OF INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES - AFT - AFL/CIO, Local 4524 - Home". Ief.aft.org. Archived from the original on August 19, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  15. ^ "Overtime Lawyer Website". Overtime.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  16. ^ “Cobell vs. Salazar Lawsuit”. doi.gov/tribes/special-trustee.cfm. Office of Special Trustee, n.d. Web. April 24, 2011
  17. ^ author (May 25, 2011). "From War to Self-Determination: the Bureau of Indian Affairs". Americansc.org.uk. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  18. ^ "U.S. government departments and offices, etc". Rulers.org. Retrieved June 8, 2012.
  19. ^ Secretary, Office of the. "Martin Confirms Terry Virden As BIA Deputy Commissioner". www.doi.gov.
  20. ^ "Anderson Names Brian Pogue as New BIA Director". www.doi.gov.
  21. ^ "Assistant Secretary Announces W. Patrick Ragsdale". www.doi.gov.
  22. ^ "News report" (PDF). www.cherokeeobserver.org. April 2008.
  23. ^ "News release" (PDF). www.bia.gov.
  24. ^ "Interior Picks Two for Key BIA, BIE Leadership Jobs - Indian Country Media Network". indiancountrymedianetwork.com.
  25. ^ "Secretary Zinke Names Bryan Rice Director of Bureau of Indian Affairs". www.doi.gov.
  26. ^ "John O. Crow Named Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Member of Advisory Board on Indian Affairs" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Affairs. February 10, 1961. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  27. ^ "Nash Nominated as Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Crow Appointed Deputy Commissioner" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Affairs. August 1, 1961. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
  28. ^ "News release" (PDF). www.indianaffairs.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2018. Retrieved May 1, 2018.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 13, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ "Kiowa citizen John Tahsuda set to join Bureau of Indian Affairs leadership team".

Sources

  • Belko, William S. "'John C. Calhoun and the Creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs: An Essay on Political Rivalry, Ideology, and Policymaking in the Early Republic," South Carolina Historical Magazine 2004 105(3): 170–97. ISSN 0038-3082
  • Cahill, Cathleen D. Federal Fathers and Mothers: A Social History of the United States Indian Service, 1869–1933 (U of North Carolina Press, 2011) 368 pp. online review
  • Deloria, Jr., Vine, and David E. Wilkins, Tribes, Treaties, & Constitutional Tribulations (Austin, 1999)
  • Jackson, Helen H. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the U. S. Government's Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes (1881) online edition
  • Leupp, F. E. The Indian and His Problem (1910) online edition
  • Meriam, Lewis, et al., The Problem of Indian Administration, Studies in Administration, 17 (Baltimore, 1928)
  • Pevar, Stephen L. The Rights of Indians and Tribes (Carbondale, 2002)
  • Prucha, Francis P. Atlas of American Indian Affairs (Lincoln, 1990)
  • Prucha, Francis P. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians (Abridged Edition 1986) excerpt and text search
  • Schmeckebier, L. F. Office of Indian Affairs: History, Activities, and Organization, Service Monograh 48 (Baltimore 1927)
  • Sutton, I. "Indian Country and the Law: Land Tenure, Tribal Sovereignty, and the States," ch. 36 in Law in the Western United States, ed. G. M. Bakken (Norman, 2000)

Primary sources

External links

American Indian Scouting Association

The American Indian Scouting Association (AISA) is a joint venture of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) and the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA). The AISA began as a committee of concerned Boy Scout Scoutmasters in 1956 and was sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

AISA holds an annual seminar, which began in 1957, is run by a volunteer steering committee and is hosted by a local tribe or Indian community designed to attract both Indian and non-Indians to foster understanding of Indian culture and Scouting. Youth participation in this seminar began in 1975.

Bureau of Indian Affairs Police

The Bureau of Indian Affairs Police, usually known as the BIA Police, is the law enforcement arm of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs which polices Indian tribes and reservations that do not have their own police force, and oversees other tribal police organizations. BIA Police services are provided through the Office of Justice Services Division of Law Enforcement.In 2004 the agency employed 320 officers.The BIA Police's officers are federal police officers who enforce federal law relating to Indian Country, including Title 16, Title 18, and Title 21 of the United States Code, as well as the Code of Federal Regulations. The BIA has nationwide jurisdiction to enforce federal law relating to crimes committed within or involving Indian Country and officers are usually found near the various Indian reservations. BIA Police officers may enforce tribal law if the tribe consents by deputizing the BIA and its officers. In some cases, BIA Police officers are granted authority to enforce tribal law by tribal ordinance or statute. They may also be granted authority to enforce state laws by state statute.

The BIA has hiring preferences for Native Americans, but will hire nonmembers who have the proper qualifications or educational requirements.

Bureau of Indian Affairs building takeover

The Bureau of Indian Affairs building takeover refers to a protest by Native Americans at the Department of Interior headquarters in the national capital of Washington, DC from November 3 to November 9, 1972. On November 3, a group of around 500 American Indians with the American Indian Movement (AIM) took over the Interior building in Washington, D.C. It was the culmination of their cross-country journey in the Trail of Broken Treaties, intended to bring attention to American Indian issues such as living standards and treaty rights. The march had brought to Washington the largest gathering ever of Native Americans and supporters hoping to speak to government officials about their concerns and to gain change to help their peoples.

A group of protesters went to Bureau of Indian Affairs offices at the national headquarters building, intending to negotiate for better housing on reservations and other issues. Protesters began the siege after interpreting a government refusal of their demands as a doublecross. Protesters began to vandalize the building in protest. They were not evicted on the first night. The takeover quickly gained national media attention.

Protesters overturned tables and desks against the windows, fortifying against potential police attack. Some set fires in interior offices and the marble lobbies, destroying many historic documents. The demonstrators started to run out of provisions after several days. They would not allow police or any government representative to approach the building, so two children of BIA employees were recruited to bring in provisions. After a week, the protesters left, some taking documents with them, having caused an estimated $700,000 in damages. Their actions caused loss, destruction, and theft of many records, including important treaties, deeds, and water rights records, which some Indian officials said could set them back 50 to 100 years.While President Richard M. Nixon was preoccupied with achieving re-election in 1972, he had an interest in promoting tribal sovereignty; he had ended the termination of tribes that was part of 1950s policy. Interested in the decentralization of government, he fundamentally agreed that tribes likely could manage some of their operations better than a bureaucracy. He signed a law to restore one tribe to federally recognized status and supported legislation to allow tribes more control over managing programs for their people.

Cornfields, Arizona

Cornfields is a chapter of the Navajo Nation and a census-designated place (CDP) in Apache County, Arizona, United States. The population was 255 at the 2010 census.Cornfields is part of the Fort Defiance Agency, of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Ganado, AZ is the delegate seat for the district that encompasses the Jeddito, Cornfields, Ganado, Kinlichee, Steamboat communities at the Navajo Nation Council.

H. Rex Lee

Hyrum Rex Lee (April 8, 1910 – July 26, 2001) was an American government employee and diplomat who was the last non-elected Governor of American Samoa. Lee served as governor from 1961 to 1967, and again briefly from 1977 to 1978.

Born in Rigby, Idaho, Lee studied agricultural science before working as an economist with the Resettlement Administration. He was then employed by the War Relocation Authority and became assistant chief of the Office of Territories in 1946, until 1950. That year he was appointed as associate (later becoming deputy) commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, where he was noted for his skills as a congressional liaison. In 1961, he was appointed as Governor of American Samoa as part of the incoming Kennedy administration, serving until 1967.

Lee was seen as a successful administrator by both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Following his service in American Samoa, he was appointed to the Federal Communications Commission, where he promoted educational television. He retired in 1973, continuing to promote educational television, but served another term as Governor of American Samoa until the first-ever elected governor assumed office in January 1978.

Indian Reservation Roads Program

The Indian Reservation Roads Program (IRR) is part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and is meant to meet the transportation needs of American Indians in the United States, American Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. These roads, also known as BIA Roads are given to tribes by providing funds for planning, designing, construction, and maintenance activities.The program is jointly administered by the Federal Lands Highway Program and the BIA. These roads are public that provide access to and within Indian reservations, Indian trust land, restricted Indian land, and Alaska native villages. Approximately 29,000 miles (47,000 km) are under the jurisdiction of the BIA and tribes and another 73,000 miles (117,000 km) are under State and local ownership.The authorizing legislation is the highway authorization act (currently the Safe, Accountable, Flexible and Efficient Transportation Equity Act – A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)) and codified in Title 23 U.S.C. and 25 C.F.R. Part 170.The IRR program funds can be used for any type of Title 23 transportation project providing access to or within Federal or Indian lands and may be used for the State/local matching share for apportioned Federal-aid Highway Funds.

Indian reservation

An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located. Each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are severely fragmented, with each piece of tribal, individual, and privately held land being a separate enclave. This jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative, political, and legal difficulties.The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres (22,700,000 ha; 87,800 sq mi; 227,000 km2), approximately the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U.S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island. The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; the majority are west of the Mississippi River and occupy lands that were first reserved by treaty or "granted" from the public domain.Because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty, even though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos on reservations, for example, which attract tourists. The tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government, often has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; a limited number, mainly in the East, owe their origin to state recognition.The name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties (often signed under duress) in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U.S. also designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, and those parcels came to be called "reservations". The term remained in use even after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection.

Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations, often in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were over 2.5 million Native Americans, with about 1 million living on reservations.

Itak, Arizona

Itak is a populated place situated in Pima County, Arizona. Itak means "point of mountain" in the O'odham language. European settlers had referred to this place as Rocky Point at least through the early part of the twentieth century. On September 8, 1939 the Office of Indian Affairs (now Bureau of Indian Affairs) petitioned the USGS to officially recognize the name of the location as Itak, as that was the name preferred by the local residents, and was more historical. On April 10, 1941 the Board on Geographic Names rendered its decision, officially naming the place Itak. It has an estimated elevation of 2,297 feet (700 m) above sea level.

John Quincy Smith

John Quincy Smith (November 5, 1824 – December 30, 1901) was an American farmer, politician and legislator from Ohio.

List of school districts in South Dakota

This is a list of public school districts in South Dakota, sorted alphabetically. It includes schools run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs but otherwise does not include non-traditional schools and school systems.

Makgum Havoka, Arizona

Makgum Havoka, also known as Makumivooka, is a populated place situated on the San Xavier Indian Reservation in Pima County, Arizona. It has an estimated elevation of 1,863 feet (568 m) above sea level. Makum is an O'odham word for black-striped caterpillar, which the O'odham boiled and ate, while havoka is the O'odham word for pond, so the name translates as "caterpillar pond". In 1939 the Bureau of Indian Affairs petitioned the USGS to officially decide between Makumivooka and Makgum Havoka. On April 10, 1941, the Board on Geographic Names issued their decision, officially naming the village Makgum Havoka.

Olberg, Arizona

Olberg is a populated place situated in Pinal County, Arizona. The settlement was founded in 1903, and named after Colonel C.R. Olberg, the chief engineer of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and as such supervised the construction of the Coolidge Dam which was built by the BIA. It has an estimated elevation of 1,309 feet (399 m) above sea level.

Pueblo

In the Southwestern United States, the term Pueblo refers to communities of Native Americans, both in the present and in ancient times. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud, and other local material. These structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were accessible only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins and unwanted guests. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people. Various federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design.

Regional designations of Montana

The Regional designations of Montana vary widely within the U.S state of Montana. The state is a large geographical area (147,046 square miles (380,850 km2)) that is split by the Continental Divide, resulting in watersheds draining into the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Hudson's Bay. The state is approximately 545 miles (877 km) east to west along the Canada–United States border and 320 miles (510 km) north to south. The fourth largest state in land area, it has been divided up in official and unofficial ways into a variety of regions. Additionally, Montana is part of a number of larger federal government administrative regions.

Rosebud, South Dakota

Rosebud (Lakhota Sicanġu; "Scorched Thigh") is a census-designated place (CDP) in Todd County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 1,587 at the 2010 census.

Rosebud, located on the Rosebud Indian Reservation, is the home to the Rosebud Sioux Tribe Headquarters. Rosebud also has many tribal agencies such as the Indian Health Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Tribal Land Enterprise, Tribal BIA Police, and the Division of Forestry and Wildland Fire Management.

Stan Shuatuk, Arizona

Stan Shuatuk is a populated place situated in Pima County, Arizona, just north of the international border with Mexico. Historically, it has also been known as Cervantis Well, La Moralita, Molinitos, Molinton, Molonitos, and Serventi Well. In 1941 the name officially became Stan Shuatuk through a decision by the Board on Geographic Names. The name request came through a request by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, who stated that Stan Shuatuk was "used and understood by the residents and Papagos (Tohono O'odham) in general." In O'odham, stan shuatuk means "hot water". It has an estimated elevation of 1,772 feet (540 m) above sea level.

Title 25 of the United States Code

Title 25 of the United States Code outlines the role of Indians in the United States Code.

25 U.S.C. ch. 1 – Bureau of Indian Affairs

25 U.S.C. ch. 2 – Officers of Indian Affairs

25 U.S.C. ch. 2a – Indian Claims Commission

25 U.S.C. ch. 3 – Agreements With Indians

25 U.S.C. ch. 4 – Performance by United States of Obligations to Indians

25 U.S.C. ch. 5 – Protection of Indians

25 U.S.C. ch. 6 – Government of Indian Country and Reservations

25 U.S.C. ch. 7 – Education of Indians

25 U.S.C. ch. 7a – Promotion of Social and Economic Welfare

25 U.S.C. ch. 8 – Rights-Of-Way Through Indian Lands

25 U.S.C. ch. 9 – Allotment of Indian Lands

25 U.S.C. ch. 10 – Descent and Distribution; Heirs of Allottee

25 U.S.C. ch. 11 – Irrigation of Allotted Lands

25 U.S.C. ch. 12 – Lease, Sale, or Surrender of Allotted or Unallotted Lands

25 U.S.C. ch. 13 – Ceded Indian Lands

25 U.S.C. ch. 14 – Miscellaneous

25 U.S.C. ch. 15 – Constitutional Rights of Indians

25 U.S.C. ch. 16 – Distribution of Judgment Funds

25 U.S.C. ch. 17 – Financing Economic Development of Indians and Indian Organizations

25 U.S.C. ch. 18 – Indian Health Care

25 U.S.C. ch. 19 – Indian Land Claims Settlements

25 U.S.C. ch. 20 – Tribally Controlled College or University Assistance

25 U.S.C. ch. 21 – Indian Child Welfare

25 U.S.C. ch. 22 – Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs

25 U.S.C. ch. 23 – Development of Tribal Mineral Resources

25 U.S.C. ch. 24 – Indian Land Consolidation

25 U.S.C. ch. 25 – Old Age Assistance Claims Settlement

25 U.S.C. ch. 26 – Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment

25 U.S.C. ch. 27 – Tribally Controlled School Grants

25 U.S.C. ch. 28 – Indian Education Program

25 U.S.C. ch. 29 – Indian Gaming Regulation

25 U.S.C. ch. 30 – Indian Law Enforcement Reform

25 U.S.C. ch. 31 – Native American Languages

25 U.S.C. ch. 32 – Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation

25 U.S.C. ch. 33 – National Indian Forest Resources Management

25 U.S.C. ch. 34 – Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention

25 U.S.C. ch. 35 – Indian Higher Education Programs

25 U.S.C. ch. 36 – Indian Employment, Training and Related Services

25 U.S.C. ch. 37 – Indian Energy Resources

25 U.S.C. ch. 38 – Indian Tribal Justice Support

25 U.S.C. ch. 38a – Indian Tribal Justice Technical and Legal Assistance

25 U.S.C. ch. 39 – American Indian Agricultural Resource Management

25 U.S.C. ch. 40 – Indian Dams Safety

25 U.S.C. ch. 41 – Indian Lands Open Dump Cleanup

25 U.S.C. ch. 42 – American Indian Trust Fund Management Reform

25 U.S.C. ch. 43 – Native American Housing Assistance and Self-Determination

25 U.S.C. ch. 44 – Native American Business Development, Trade Promotion, and Tourism

William Medill

William Medill (February 1802 – September 2, 1865) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. He served as the 22nd Governor of Ohio from 1853 to 1856.

Zachariah Chandler

Zachariah T. Chandler (December 10, 1813 – November 1, 1879) was an American businessman, politician, one of the founders of the Republican Party, whose radical wing he dominated as a lifelong abolitionist. He was mayor of Detroit, a four-term senator from the state of Michigan, and Secretary of the Interior under President Ulysses S. Grant.

As a successful young businessman in Detroit, Chandler supported the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, he advocated for the Union war effort, the abolition of slavery, and civil rights for freed African Americans. As Secretary of the Interior, Chandler eradicated serious corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, fully endorsing President Grant's Peace Policy initiative to civilize American Indian tribes. In 1879, he was re-elected U.S. Senator and was a potential Presidential candidate, but he died the following morning after giving a speech in Chicago.

Department of the Interior
Department of Commerce
Department of Energy
Department of Agriculture
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Health
and Human Services
Department of Defense
International Indigenous and minority rights
Rights
Governmental
organizations
Non-governmental and
political organizations
Issues
Legal representation
Historical cases
Case law
Legislation
Federal and
State recognition
Related

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.