A bung, stopper or cork is a truncated cylindrical or conical closure to seal a container, such as a bottle, tube or barrel. Unlike a lid, which encloses a container from the outside without displacing the inner volume, a bung is partially inserted inside the container to act as a seal.

A bung can be defined as "a plug or closure used to close an opening in a drum or barrel. Called a plug when referring to a steel drum closure."[1]

A glass stopper is often called a "ground glass joint" (or "joint taper"), a rubber stopper is sometimes called a "rubber bung", and a cork stopper is called simply a "cork". Bung stoppers used for wine bottles are referred to as "corks", even when made from another material.

A common every-day example of a bung is the cork of a wine bottle. Bungs are used to seal the bunghole of barrels. Other bungs, particularly those used in chemical barrels, may be made of metal and be screwed into place via threading.

Jug with cork stopper
A jug with a cork bung
Bung in the bunghole of a wine barrel

Ground glass joint

Ground glass stopper
Ground glass stoppers

Ground glass joint (or ground glass stoppers) are commonly used with laboratory glassware, mainly because of their nonreactivity. Some stoppers used in labs have holes in them to allow the insertion of glass or rubber tubing. This is often used when a reaction is taking place in the flask or test tube and the byproduct or result of the reaction is desired to be collected. For instance, if one were to boil water in a test tube and wanted to collect the water vapor, one could seal the test tube with a stopper with holes in it. With tubing inserted into the hole(s), when the tube is heated, water vapor will rise through the hole, make its way through the tubing, and into the collection chamber of choice. The water vapor would not be able to escape into the air, because the stopper and the tubing, if set up correctly, would be airtight.

Rubber bungs

Rolhas de Cortiça Natural - Cork stopper for a wine bottle
Cork stoppers from wine bottles.

In chemistry, bungs made of hardened rubber are frequently used in high school level demonstrations, or in small-scale experimental set-ups involving non-corrosive gases. Some chemistry bungs may also include one or more holes so a glass tube or laboratory funnel may be inserted through the bung and into the container or another piece of apparatus. The rubber bung may be used to seal a flask because the user may require the contents to be mixed via shaking the flask or may require that the contents be kept inside the flask and prevented from leaking out. In all cases, the bung keeps the experimentation environment sealed so that liquids or gases cannot escape (or enter). For applications that place higher demand on the bung in terms of temperature and mechanical stability or solvent resistance, standardized glass stoppers and connectors are preferred (see above).

Silicone bungs are the standard for wine barrels and come in a number of varieties.

Bottle stoppers made from gutta-percha, a natural rubber that is both chemically resistant and thermoplastic, were the first product of the Gutta Percha Company, better known for making submarine telegraph cable.[2]

See also


  1. ^ Soroka, W. Illustrated Glossary of Packaging Terminology (Second ed.). Institute of Packaging Professionals.
  2. ^ Haigh, Kenneth Richardson, Cableships and Submarine Cables, pp. 26-27, Adlard Coles, 1968 OCLC 497380538.
  • Yam, K.L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
  • Soroka, W, Illustrated Glossary of Packaging Terminology Institute of Packaging Professionals, [1]
Atlantic–Congo languages

The Atlantic–Congo languages are a major division constituting the core of the Niger–Congo language family of Africa, characterised by the noun class systems typical of the family. They comprise all of Niger–Congo except Mande, Dogon, Ijoid and the Katla and Rashad languages (previously classified as Kordofanian). Mukarovsky's West-Nigritic corresponded roughly to modern Atlantic–Congo.

In the infobox at the right, the languages which appear to be the most divergent are placed at the top. The erstwhile Atlantic branch has been broken up into Senegambian, Mel, and the isolates Sua, Gola and Limba, which are left next to each other merely because there is no published evidence to move them; Volta–Congo is intact apart from Senufo and Kru.

There are a few poorly attested languages, such as Bayot and Bung, which may prove to be additional branches.

Bambang Pamungkas

Bambang Pamungkas (born 10 June 1980), also known as Bepe, is an Indonesian professional footballer who plays for Persija Jakarta in the Liga 1 and previously the Indonesia national football team. His natural position is striker. Bambang made his name in South East Asian football when he scored the only goal for Indonesia at the 2002 Tiger Cup semifinal against Malaysia, and was the tournament's top scorer with eight goals.Bambang is considered to be an outstanding header of the ball, and has a reputation for sharpness in the penalty box. He is Indonesia's record holder in terms of both appearances and goalscoring, earning 86 caps and 38 goals with the Indonesia national team, and is perhaps the team's most popular player among its supporters. He was considered one of top ten Asian players of 2012 by ESPN Soccernet.

Ban Bung railway station

Ban Bung railway station is a railway station located in Si Phirom Subdistrict, Phrom Phiram District, Phitsanulok. It is located 432.750 km from Bangkok railway station and is a class 3 railway station. It is on the Northern Line of the State Railway of Thailand.


Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not offer. Bribery is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. Essentially, bribery is offering to do something for someone for the expressed purpose of receiving something in exchange.

Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery. For example, it is legal for an employee of a Public Utilities Commission involved in electric rate regulation to accept a rebate on electric service that reduces their cost for electricity, when the rebate is available to other residential electric customers. Giving the rebate to influence them to look favorably on the electric utility's rate increase applications, however, would be considered bribery.

A bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. It may be money, goods, rights in action, property, preferment, privilege, emolument, objects of value, advantage, or merely a promise to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity.

Bueng Kan Province

Bueng Kan (Thai: บึงกาฬ, pronounced [bɯ̄ŋ kāːn]), also spelled Bung Kan, is the 76th province (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Bueng Kan, BE 2554 (2011) on 23 March 2011. The province, consisting of the districts (amphoe) partitioned off Nong Khai Province, is in the northeastern region of the country, called Isan (Thai: อีสาน). It is named after its central district, Mueang Bueng Kan.

Bung Khla District

Bung Khla (Thai: บุ่งคล้า, pronounced [bùŋ kʰláː]) is a district (amphoe) of Bueng Kan Province, northeastern Thailand.

Bung Moktar Radin

Dato' Sri Bung Moktar bin Radin (Jawi: بوڠ موكتر بن رادين; born 15 September 1959) is a Malaysian politician. He is currently the Member of the Parliament of Malaysia for the Kinabatangan constituency in Sabah, representing the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party in the opposition Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition.

Bung language

The Bung language is a nearly extinct, endangered language of Cameroon spoken by 3 people (in 1995) at the village of Boung on the Adamawa Plateau. It is remembered best by one speaker who learned the language at a young age, though it is not their mother tongue. A wordlist shows its strongest resemblance to be with the Ndung dialect of Mambiloid language Kwanja, although that may simply be because this has become the dominant language of the village where Bung's last speakers reside. It also has words in common with other Mambiloid languages such as Tep, Somyev and Vute, while a number of words' origins remain unclear (possibly Adamawan). For lack of data, it is not definitively classified.

Football at the 2011 Southeast Asian Games

The association football tournament at the 2011 Southeast Asian Games (Indonesian: Sepak bola di SEA Games 2011) took place from 3 to 21 November 2011. This edition of the tournament was only for the men's competition, women's competition was not held as the host country Indonesia did not have enough stadiums to hold the matches. It was played among U-23 (under 23 years old) national teams. All matches took place in Jakarta. This was the first time that all Southeast Asian nations participated in the football tournament at the same edition of the SEA Games.

Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex

Bung Karno Sports Arena (Indonesian: Gelanggang Olahraga Gelora Bung Karno, known as Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex), formerly named Senayan Sports Arena (Indonesian: Gelanggang Olahraga Senayan) from 1969 to 2001 and Asian Games Complex (Indonesian: Kompleks Asian Games) on its early days, is a sports complex located in Gelora, Central Jakarta, Indonesia. It is usually mistakenly thought to be located at Senayan, South Jakarta, hence its former name. The sports complex hosts main stadium, secondary stadium, football fields, aquatic stadium, tennis stadiums (indoor and outdoor), hockey, baseball and archery fields, and several indoor gymnasiums. The complex was built in 1960 for the 1962 Asian Games and recently underwent a major reconstruction for the 2018 Asian Games and 2018 Asian Para Games.

The sports complex host a main stadium with a capacity of 77,193 seats, athletic stadium, football fields, aquatic stadium, tennis stadiums (indoor and outdoor), hockey, baseball and archery fields, and several indoor gymnasiums. It is named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first President. It is the largest and one of the oldest sport complex in Jakarta and Indonesia, and also one of the largest in Southeast Asia. The Gelora Bung Karno Stadium is the main building within this sports complex. The abbreviation Gelora also means "vigorous" (like the flame or ocean wave) in Indonesian language.

Other than hosting numbers of sports facilities, the sports complex is also a popular place for people of Jakarta to do physical exercises; jogging, bicycling, aerobics and calisthenics especially during weekend.

Gelora Bung Karno Stadium

Gelora Bung Karno Main Stadium (Indonesian: Stadion Utama Gelora Bung Karno; literally "Bung Karno Sports Arena Main Stadium"), formerly Gelora Senayan Main Stadium, is a multi-purpose stadium located at the center of the Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. The stadium is named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first President. It is mostly used for football matches.

When first opened prior to the 1962 Asian Games, the stadium had a seating capacity of 110,000. It has been reduced twice: first to 88,306 in 2006 for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup and second to 77,193 between 2016 and 2017 for the 2018 Asian Games and Asian Para Games. In the 2016–17 renovations, all spectator benches are replaced by single seats. The 88,306 capacity once made it the 7th largest association football stadium in the world. Today it is the 28th largest association football stadium in the world and 7th largest association football stadium in Asia. Since its opening, it holds record as the largest stadium in Indonesia.

The 2007 AFC Asian Cup Final took place in the stadium. During the 2018 Asiad, the stadium hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and also its entire athletics events in between, while it used as the opening ceremony and athletics competition venue for the 2018 Asian Paralympics.

Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium

Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Surabaya, capital of the province of East Java, Indonesia. It is a part of the Surabaya Sports Center. The rest of the sports complex consists of an indoor stadium and a mosque. This stadium is used mostly for football matches. It replaced the older Gelora 10 November Stadium.The stadium is used for football matches and is a new base for Persebaya Surabaya. Bung Tomo Stadium can accommodate 55,000 spectators. The stadium is named after Bung Tomo, who is a National Hero of Indonesia.

Ipomoea aquatica

Ipomoea aquatica is a semi-aquatic, tropical plant grown as a vegetable for its tender shoots and leaves. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, although it is not known where it originated. This plant is known in English as water spinach, river spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, or by the more ambiguous names Chinese spinach, Chinese Watercress, Chinese convolvulus, swamp cabbage or kangkong in Southeast Asia. Occasionally, it has also been mistakenly called "kale" in English, although kale is a variety of cabbage and is completely unrelated to water spinach, which is a species of morning glory.

It is known as phak bung (ผักบุ้ง) in Thai and Laotian, vung chhoi in Hakka, eng chhai in Teochew and Hokkien, ong choy (蕹菜) in Cantonese, kongxincai (空心菜) in Mandarin Chinese, rau muống in Vietnamese, kangkong in Tagalog, kangkung in Indonesian, Malay and Sinhalese, gazun (ကန်စွန်း) in Burmese, trokuon (ត្រកួន) in Khmer, kolmou xak in Assamese,"வள்ளல்" (vallal) in Tamil, kalmi saag in Hindi, kalmi shak (কলমি শাক) in Bengali, Thooti Koora in Telugu, Karmata Bhaji in Chhattisgarhi, Kalama Saga ("କଳମ ଶାଗ") in Odia, hayoyo in Ghana. In Suriname it is known as dagoeblad or dagublad.

Istora Gelora Bung Karno

Gelora Bung Karno Sports Palace (Indonesian: Istana Olahraga Gelora Bung Karno, abbreviated as Istora) is an indoor sporting arena located in Gelora Bung Karno Sports Complex, Jakarta, Indonesia. The capacity of the arena after 2018 reopening is 7,166. This arena is usually used for badminton tournaments. Its maiden event was the 1961 Thomas Cup.It was also used during the 1962 Asian Games and was renovated to host the 2018 edition. Its first post-renovation event was the 2018 Indonesia Masters. During the latter Games, it hosted the badminton and later stages of basketball events.

The arena will stage the 2023 FIBA Basketball World Cup, becoming the only Indonesian venue in the three-country joint bid.

Kinabatangan (federal constituency)

Kinabatangan is a federal constituency in Sabah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1971.

The federal constituency was created in the 1966 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Laboratory rubber stopper

A laboratory rubber stopper or a rubber bung is mainly used in chemical laboratory in combination with flasks and test tube and also for fermentation in winery.

Generally, in laboratory, the sizes of rubber stopper can be varied up to approximately 16 sizes and each of it is specific to certain type of container. As the rubber stopper is used in many experiment, some specific experiment requires a specific material. For example, the M35 Green Neoprene is for chemical resistance. For food fermentation, M18 white natural gum is preferred. For high temperature application, red or white silicone rubber stopper should be used.

Nà Bủng

Nà Bủng is a commune (xã) and village of the Mường Nhé District of Điện Biên Province, northwestern Vietnam.

Puto bumbóng

Puto bumbóng is a Filipino purple rice cake steamed in bamboo tubes. It is traditionally sold during the Christmas season. It is a type of puto (steamed rice cake).


Sutomo (3 October 1920 – 7 October 1981), also known as Bung Tomo, is best known for his role as an Indonesian military leader during the Indonesian National Revolution against the Netherlands. He played a central role in Battle of Surabaya when the Dutch attacked the city in October and November 1945.

General topics
Product packages
Materials and

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.