The Bundesliga (German: [ˈbʊndəsˌliːɡa] (listen); lit. English: "Federal League", sometimes referred to as the Fußball-Bundesliga [ˌfuːsbal-] or 1. Bundesliga [ˌeːɐ̯stə-]) is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition. The Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal. The winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup.
55 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 28 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them. The Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2018–19 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons. The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance; out of all sports, its average of 45,134 fans per game during the 2011–12 season was the second highest of any sports league in the world after the American National Football League. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries.
The Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes. The Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund (English: German Football Association), but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga (English: German Football League).
|Organising body||Deutsche Fußball Liga (DFL)|
|Number of teams||18|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Relegation to||2. Bundesliga|
|Current champions||Bayern Munich (28th title) |
|Most championships||Bayern Munich (28 titles)|
|Most appearances||Karl-Heinz Körbel (602)|
|Top goalscorer||Gerd Müller (365)|
|TV partners||List of broadcasters|
The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga (although it is rarely referred to with the First prefix), and, below that, the 2. Bundesliga (2nd Bundesliga), which has been the second tier of German football since 1974. The Bundesligen (plural) are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga (3rd League) in Germany has also been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association (DFB) and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League (Deutsche Fußball-Liga or DFL).
Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are generally subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are currently made up of Nord (North), Nordost (Northeast), Süd (South), Südwest (Southwest) and West divisions. Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen (upper leagues) which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas. The league structure has changed frequently and typically reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany.
Every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations.
As in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division:
The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, and the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, and reflecting an increasingly higher standard of professional play.
Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation, until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time.
In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, which had been in use from 1981 until 1991:
From 1992 until 2008, a different system was used, in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or later three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either completely or partially in promotion play-offs.
The season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of January). In recent years, games have been played on Saturdays (five games beginning at 3:30 pm and one game beginning at 6:30 pm) and Sundays (one game beginning at 3:30 pm and one game at 5:30 pm). A new television deal in 2006 reintroduced a Friday game (beginning at 8:30 pm).
Prior to the formation of the Bundesliga, German football was played at an amateur level in a large number of sub-regional leagues until, in 1949, part-time (semi-) professionalism was introduced and only five regional Oberligen (Premier Leagues) remained. Regional champions and runners-up played a series of playoff matches for the right to compete in a final game for the national championship. On 28 January 1900, a national association, the Deutscher Fußball Bund (DFB) had been founded in Leipzig with 86 member clubs. The first recognised national championship team was VfB Leipzig, who beat DFC Prague 7–2 in a game played at Altona on 31 May 1903.
Through the 1950s, there were continued calls for the formation of a central professional league, especially as professional leagues in other countries began to draw Germany's best players away from the semi-professional domestic leagues. At the international level the German game began to falter as German teams often fared poorly against professional teams from other countries. A key supporter of the central league concept was national team head coach Sepp Herberger who said, “If we want to remain competitive internationally, we have to raise our expectations at the national level.”
Meanwhile, in East Germany, a separate league was established with the formation of the DS-Oberliga (Deutscher Sportausschuss Oberliga) in 1950. The league was renamed the Football Oberliga DFV in 1958 and was generally referred to simply as the DDR-Liga or DDR-Oberliga. The league fielded 14 teams with two relegation spots.
The defeat of the national team by Yugoslavia (0–1) in a 1962 World Cup quarter-final game in Chile was one impetus (of many) towards the formation of a national league. At the annual DFB convention under new DFB president Hermann Gösmann (elected that very day) the Bundesliga was created in Dortmund at the Westfalenhallen on 28 July 1962 to begin play starting with the 1963–64 season.
At the time, there were five Oberligen (Premier Leagues) in place representing West Germany's North, South, West, Southwest, and Berlin. East Germany, behind the Iron Curtain, maintained its separate league structure. 46 clubs applied for admission to the new league. 16 teams were selected based on their success on the field, economic criteria and representation of the various Oberligen.
The first Bundesliga games were played on 24 August 1963. Early favourite 1. FC Köln was the first Bundesliga champion (with 45:15 points) over second place clubs Meidericher SV and Eintracht Frankfurt (both 39:21).
Following German reunification, the East German leagues were merged into the West German system. Dynamo Dresden and F.C. Hansa Rostock were seeded into the top-tier Bundesliga division, with other clubs being sorted into lower tiers.
The German football champion is decided strictly by play in the Bundesliga. Each club plays every other club once at home and once away. Originally, a victory was worth two points, with one point for a draw and none for a loss. Since the 1995–96 season, a victory has been worth three points, while a draw remains worth a single point, and zero points are given for a loss. The club with the most points at the end of the season becomes German champion. Currently, the top three clubs in the table qualify automatically for the group phase of the UEFA Champions League, while the fourth-place team enters the Champions League at the third qualifying round (see overview). The two teams at the bottom of the table are relegated into the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams in the 2. Bundesliga are promoted. The 16th-placed team (third-last), and the third-placed team in the 2. Bundesliga play a two-leg play-off match. The winner of this match plays the next season in the Bundesliga, and the loser in the 2. Bundesliga.
If teams are level on points, tie-breakers are applied in the following order:
If two clubs are still tied after all of these tie-breakers have been applied, a single match is held at a neutral site to determine the placement. However, this has never been necessary in the history of the Bundesliga.
In terms of team selection, matchday squads must have no more than five non-EU representatives. Seven substitutes are permitted to be selected, from which three can be used in the duration of the game.
The number of German clubs which may participate in UEFA competitions is determined by UEFA coefficients, which take into account the results of a particular nation's clubs in UEFA competitions over the preceding five years.
|Club||Position in 2018–19||First Bundesliga season||Number of seasons in Bundesliga||First season of current spell||Number of seasons of current spell||Bundesliga titles||National titles||Last title|
|TSG 1899 Hoffenheimb||9||2008–09||11||2008–09||11||0||0||–|
|1. FC Kölna||1 (2nd B)||1963–64||47||2019–20||0||0||2||1978|
|1. FSV Mainz 05||12||2004–05||13||2009–10||10||0||0||–|
|SC Paderborn 07||2 (2nd B)||2014–15||1||2019–20||0||0||0||–|
|Union Berlin||3 (2nd B)||2019–20||0||2019–20||0||0||0||–|
a Founding member of the Bundesliga
b Never been relegated from the Bundesliga
|FC Augsburg||Augsburg||WWK ARENA||30,660|
|Bayern Munich||Munich||Allianz Arena||75,000|
|Borussia Dortmund||Dortmund||Signal Iduna Park||81,359|||
|Borussia Mönchengladbach||Mönchengladbach||Stadion im Borussia-Park||59,724|
|Fortuna Düsseldorf||Düsseldorf||Merkur Spiel-Arena||54,600|
|SC Freiburg||Freiburg im Breisgau||Schwarzwald-Stadion||24,000|
|TSG Hoffenheim||Sinsheim||Wirsol Rhein-Neckar-Arena||30,164|||
|1. FC Köln||Cologne||RheinEnergieStadion||49,698|
|RB Leipzig||Leipzig||Red Bull Arena||42,558|||
|Mainz 05||Mainz||Coface Arena||34,000|
|Union Berlin||Berlin||Stadion An der Alten Försterei||22,012|
|VfL Wolfsburg||Wolfsburg||Volkswagen Arena||30,000|
In the 2009–10 season, the Bundesliga's turnover was €1.7bn, broken down into match-day revenue (€424m), sponsorship receipts (€573m) and broadcast income (€594m). That year it was the only European football league where clubs collectively made a profit. Bundesliga clubs paid less than 50% of revenue in players wages, the lowest percentage out of the European leagues. The Bundesliga has the lowest ticket prices and the highest average attendance out of Europe's five major leagues.
Bundesliga clubs tend to form close associations with local firms, several of which have since grown to big global companies; in a comparison of the leading Bundesliga and Premiership clubs, Bayern Munich received 55% of its revenue from company sponsorship deals, while Manchester United got 37%.
Bundesliga clubs are required to be majority-owned by German club members (known as the 50+1 rule to discourage control by a single entity) and operate under tight restrictions on the use of debt for acquisitions (a team only receives an operating license if it has solid financials), as a result 11 of the 18 clubs were profitable after the 2008–09 season. By contrast, in the other major European leagues, numerous high-profile teams have come under ownership of foreign billionaires, and a significant number of clubs have high levels of debt.
Exceptions to the 50+1 rule allow Bayer Leverkusen, 1899 Hoffenheim, and VfL Wolfsburg to be owned by corporations or individual investors. In the cases of Bayer Leverkusen and Wolfsburg, the clubs were founded by major corporations (respectively Bayer AG and Volkswagen) as sports clubs for their employees, while Hoffenheim has long received its primary support from SAP co-founder Dietmar Hopp, who played in the club's youth system.
After 2000 the German Football Association and the Bundesliga mandated that all clubs run a youth academy, with the aim of bolstering the stream of local talent for the club and national team. As of 2010 the Bundesliga and second Bundesliga spend €75m a year on these youth academies, that train five thousand players aged 12–18, increasing the under-23-year-olds in the Bundesliga from 6% in 2000 to 15% in 2010. This allows more money to be spent on the players that are bought, and there is a greater chance to buy better instead of average players.
In the first decade of the third millennium (2000s), the Bundesliga was regarded as competitive, as five teams have won the league title. This contrasted with Spain's La Liga, dominated by the "Big Two" of Barcelona and Real Madrid, the English Premier League dominated by a "Big Four" (Manchester United, Chelsea, Liverpool, and Arsenal), as well as France's Ligue 1, won seven consecutive years by Lyon. In the second decade, however, a resurgent Bayern Munich has won each year from 2012–13 onward as the Bavarian side is able to outspend its rivals to purchase the league's best players.
For a number of years, the clubs in the Bundesliga have been subject to regulations not unlike the UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations agreed upon in September 2009.
At the end of each season, clubs in the Bundesliga must apply to the German Football Federation (DFB) for a licence to participate again the following year; only when the DFB, who have access to all transfer documents and accounts, are satisfied that there is no threat of insolvency do they give approval. The DFB have a system of fines and points deductions for clubs who flout rules and those who go into the red can only buy a player after selling one for at least the same amount. In addition, no individual is allowed to own more than 49 per cent of any Bundesliga club, the only exceptions being VfL Wolfsburg, Bayer Leverkusen and current 3. Liga member FC Carl Zeiss Jena should they ever be promoted to the Bundesliga as they were each founded as factory teams.
Despite the good economic governance, there have still been some instances of clubs getting into difficulties. In 2004, Borussia Dortmund reported a debt of €118.8 million (£83 million). Having won the Champions League in 1997 and a number of Bundesliga titles, Dortmund had gambled to maintain their success with an expensive group of largely foreign players but failed, narrowly escaping liquidation in 2006. In subsequent years, the club went through extensive restructuring to return to financial health, largely with young home-grown players. In 2004 Hertha BSC reported debts of £24.7 million and were able to continue in the Bundesliga only after proving they had long term credit with their bank.
The leading German club Bayern Munich made a net profit of just €2.5 million in 2008–09 season (group accounts, while Schalke 04 made a net loss of €30.4 million in 2009 financial year. Borussia Dortmund GmbH & Co. KGaA, made a net loss of just €2.9 million in 2008–09 season.
Based on its per-game average, the Bundesliga is the best-attended association football league in the world; out of all sports, its average of 45,116 fans per game during the 2011–12 season was the second highest of any professional sports league worldwide, behind only the National Football League of the United States. Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund has the highest average attendance of any football club in the world.
Out of Europe's five major football leagues (Premier League, La Liga, Ligue 1, and Serie A ), the Bundesliga has the lowest ticket prices and the highest average attendance. Many club stadia have large terraced areas for standing fans (by comparison, stadia in the English Premier League are all-seaters due to the Taylor Report). Teams limit the number of season tickets to ensure everyone has a chance to see the games live, and the away club has the right to 10% of the available capacity. Match tickets often double as free rail passes which encourages supporters to travel and celebrate in a relaxed atmosphere. According to Bundesliga chief executive Christian Seifert, tickets are inexpensive (especially for standing room) as "It is not in the clubs' culture so much [to raise prices]. They are very fan orientated". Uli Hoeneß, president of Bayern Munich, was quoted as saying "We do not think the fans are like cows to be milked. Football has got to be for everybody."
The spectator figures for league for the last ten seasons:
|Season||Overall||Average||Best supported club||Average|
The Bundesliga TV, radio, internet, and mobile broadcast rights are distributed by DFL Sports Enterprises, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga broadcast rights are sold along with the broadcast rights to the Bundesliga Relegation Playoffs, 2. Bundesliga and DFL-Supercup.
From 2017–18 to 2020–21, Bundesliga matches are broadcast on TV in Germany on Sky Germany and Eurosport. Three Friday night matches – the openers of the first and second halves of the season, and on the final matchday before the winter break – are broadcast to all Germans on ZDF.
|Friday||20:30||Eurosport 2 Xtra|
ZDF (1st, 17th, and 18th matchdays)
|Saturday||15:30||Sky Sport Bundesliga (5 matches)|
|Saturday||18:30||Sky Sport Bundesliga (1 match)|
|Sunday||13:30||Eurosport 2 Xtra (1 match on 5 matchdays)|
|Sunday||15:30||Sky Sport Bundesliga(1 match)|
|Sunday||18:00||Sky Sport Bundesliga (1 match)|
|Monday||20:30||Eurosport 2 Xtra (1 match on 5 matchdays)|
Radio coverage includes the national Konferenz (whip-around coverage) on the stations of ARD and full match coverage on local radio stations.
The Bundesliga is broadcast on TV in over 200 countries. In October 2013, 21st Century Fox, via the Fox Sports, Fox International Channels, and Sky plc divisions, acquired television and digital rights to the Bundesliga in 80 territories, including North America and Asia (outside of India and Oceania) for five years, and selected European territories for two years, beginning in the 2015–16 season. CEO James Murdoch explained that the deal was designed to "leverage our unrivaled global portfolio of sports channels to bolster the Bundesliga brand in every corner of the globe."
As a result of this partnership, Fox Sports replaced GOL TV as United States rightsholder beginning in the 2015–16 season. Matches are broadcast by Fox, Fox Sports 1, Fox Sports 2, and Fox Soccer Plus in English, Spanish-language telecasts air on Fox Deportes and Univision Deportes (from 2018/19 season). Matches stream online for subscribers to these channels on participating providers via Fox Sports Go, and are also available through the subscription service Fox Soccer Match Pass. In Canada, broadcast rights were sub-licensed to Sportsnet and Sportsnet World.
In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, the Bundesliga is broadcast live on BT Sport. ITV4 broadcasts delayed highlights the following Monday. This arrangement lasts through the 2017 season. In Spain, the Bundesliga is broadcast live on Movistar+.
In total, 43 clubs have won the German championship, including titles won before the Bundesliga's inception and those in the East German Oberliga. The record champions are Bayern Munich with 28 titles, ahead of BFC Dynamo Berlin with 10 (all in East Germany) and 1. FC Nürnberg with 9.
The following 12 clubs have won the Bundesliga: Bayern Munich (28 titles), Borussia Mönchengladbach and Borussia Dortmund (5), Werder Bremen (4), Hamburger SV and VfB Stuttgart (3), 1. FC Köln and FC Kaiserslautern (2), TSV 1860 Munich, Eintracht Braunschweig, 1. FC Nürnberg and VfL Wolfsburg (1). No club from former East Germany or Berlin has won the Bundesliga.
In 2004, the honour of "Verdiente Meistervereine" (roughly “distinguished champion clubs”) was introduced, following a custom first practised in Italy to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. Each country's usage is unique and in Germany the practice is to award one star for three titles, two stars for five titles, three stars for 10 titles, and four stars for 20 titles.
The former East German side Dynamo Berlin laid claim to the three stars of a 10-time champion. They petitioned the league to have their DDR-Oberliga titles recognized, but received no reply. Dynamo eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars. This caused some debate given what may be the tainted nature of their championships under the patronage of East Germany's secret police, the Stasi. The issue also affects other former East German and pre-Bundesliga champions. In November 2005, the DFB allowed all former champions to display a single star inscribed with the number of titles, including all German men's titles since 1903, women's titles since 1974 and East German titles.
The DFB format only applies to teams playing below the Bundesliga (below the top two divisions), since the DFL conventions apply in the Bundesliga. BFC Dynamo Berlin have not followed this guideline and continue to wear three stars, rather than a single star inscribed with the number 10. Greuther Fürth unofficially display three (silver) stars for pre-war titles in spite of being in the Bundesliga second division. These stars are a permanent part of their crest. However, Fürth has to leave the stars out on their jersey.
Since June 2010, the following clubs have been officially allowed to wear stars while playing in the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for Bundesliga titles won.
In addition, a system of one star designation was adopted for use. This system is intended to take into account not only Bundesliga titles but also other (now defunct) national championships. As of July 2014, the following clubs are allowed to wear one star while playing outside the Bundesliga. The number in parentheses is for total league championships won over the course of German football history, and would be displayed within the star. Some teams listed here had different names while winning their respective championships, these names are also noted in parentheses.
* currently member of 1. Bundesliga
** currently member of 2. Bundesliga
*** currently member of 3. Liga
For the first time in 1996, the Bundesliga was given its own logo to distinguish itself. Six years later, the logo was revamped into a portrait orientation, which was used until 2010. A new logo was announced for the 2010–11 season in order to modernise the brand logo for all media platforms. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Bundesliga, a special logo was developed for the 2012–13 season, featuring a "50" and "1963–2013". Following the season, the 2010 logo was restored. In December 2016, it was announced that a new logo would be used for the 2017–18 season, modified slightly for digitisation requirements, featuring a matte look.
|1||Karl-Heinz Körbel||1972–1991||Eintracht Frankfurt 602||602|
|2||Manfred Kaltz||1971–1991||Hamburger SV 581||581|
|3||Oliver Kahn||1987–2008||Karlsruher SC 128, Bayern Munich 429||557|
|4||Klaus Fichtel||1965–1988||Schalke 04 477, Werder Bremen 75||552|
|5||Miroslav Votava||1976–1996||Borussia Dortmund 189, Werder Bremen 357||546|
|6||Klaus Fischer||1968–1988||1860 Munich 60, Schalke 04 295, 1. FC Köln 96, VfL Bochum 84||535|
|7||Eike Immel||1978–1995||Borussia Dortmund 247, VfB Stuttgart 287||534|
|8||Willi Neuberger||1966–1983||Borussia Dortmund 148, Werder Bremen 63, Wuppertaler SV 42, Eintracht Frankfurt 267||520|
|9||Michael Lameck||1972–1988||VfL Bochum 518||518|
|10||Uli Stein||1978–1997||Arminia Bielefeld 60, Hamburger SV 228, Eintracht Frankfurt 224||512|
|1||Gerd Müller||1965–1979||Bayern Munich 365||365 (Ø 0.85)|
|2||Klaus Fischer||1968–1988||1860 Munich 28, Schalke 04 182, 1. FC Köln 31, VfL Bochum 27||268 (Ø 0.50)|
|3||Jupp Heynckes||1965–1978||Borussia Mönchengladbach 195, Hannover 96 25||220 (Ø 0.60)|
|4||Manfred Burgsmüller||1969–1990||Rot-Weiss Essen 32, Borussia Dortmund 135, 1. FC Nürnberg 12, Werder Bremen 34||213 (Ø 0.48)|
|5||Robert Lewandowski||2010–||Borussia Dortmund 74, Bayern Munich 128||202 (Ø 0.70)|
|6||Claudio Pizarro||1999–||Werder Bremen 109, Bayern Munich 87, 1. FC Köln 1||197 (Ø 0.42)|
|7||Ulf Kirsten||1990–2003||Bayer Leverkusen 181||181 (Ø 0.52)|
|8||Stefan Kuntz||1983–1999||VfL Bochum 47, Bayer Uerdingen 32, 1. FC Kaiserslautern 75, Arminia Bielefeld 25||179 (Ø 0.40)|
|9||Dieter Müller||1973–1986||1. FC Köln 159, VfB Stuttgart 14, 1.FC Saarbrücken 4||177 (Ø 0.58)|
|Klaus Allofs||1975–1993||Fortuna Düsseldorf 71, 1. FC Köln 88, Werder Bremen 18||177 (Ø 0.42)|
Boldface indicates a player still active in the Bundesliga.
Media related to Fußball-Bundesliga (Germany) at Wikimedia Commons2. Bundesliga
The 2. Bundesliga (Zweite Bundesliga, [ˈt͡svaɪ̯tə ˈbʊndəsliːɡa]) is the second division of professional football in Germany. The 2. Bundesliga is ranked below the Bundesliga and above the 3. Liga in the German football league system. All of the 2. Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal, the annual German Cup competition. A total of 127 clubs have competed in the 2. Bundesliga since its foundation.
The decision to establish the league as the second level of football in West Germany was made in May 1973. The league started operating in August 1974, then with two divisions of 20 clubs. It was reduced to a single division in 1981. From the 1991–92 season onwards clubs from former East Germany started participating in the league, briefly expanding it to two divisions again. It returned to a single division format again at the end of that season and has had 18 clubs as its strength since 1994. Two clubs from the 2. Bundesliga are directly promoted to the Bundesliga, while a third promoted club has been determined through play-offs from 1974 to 1991 and again since 2008. Between 1991 and 2008 the third-placed club in the league was directly promoted. The bottom clubs in the league are relegated to the third division which has been, from 1974 to 1994 the Oberliga, from 1994 to 2008 the Regionalliga and since 2008 the 3. Liga. The number of relegated clubs has fluctuated over the years. Since 2008 two clubs are directly relegated while the third-last team has the opportunity to defend its league place in play-offs against the third placed team of the 3. Liga.
1. FC Nürnberg holds the record number of championships in the league with four. The club also holds the record for number of promotions from the 2. Bundesliga to the Bundesliga, seven.
For the 2016–17 season, an average of 21,717 spectators watched 2. Bundesliga matches, making the 2. Bundesliga the world's most-watched secondary football league.2018–19 Bundesliga
The 2018–19 Bundesliga was the 56th season of the Bundesliga, Germany's premier football competition. It began on 24 August 2018 and concluded on 18 May 2019. It also marked the first season without Hamburger SV, previously the only team to have played in the top tier of German football in every season since the end of World War I.Following a trial phase in the previous season, the video assistant referee system was officially approved for use in the Bundesliga after being added to the Laws of the Game by IFAB.Bayern Munich were the defending champions, and won their 28th Bundesliga title (and 29th German title) and seventh consecutive Bundesliga on the final matchday.3. Liga
The 3. Liga (German: Dritte Liga when written in full; more explicit: 3. Fußball-Liga), is the third division of football in Germany. The league started with the beginning of the 2008–09 season, when it replaced the Regionalliga as the third tier football league in Germany. In the German football league system, it is positioned between the 2. Bundesliga and the semi-professional Regionalliga, which became the fourth division and initially consisted of three groups of 18 clubs playing separately. In Germany, the 3. Liga is the highest division that a football club's reserve team can play in.Austrian Football Bundesliga
The Austrian Football Bundesliga (German: Österreichische Fußball-Bundesliga [ˈøːstɐʁaɪ̯çɪʃə ˈfuːsbal ˈbʊndəsliːɡa], Austrian Football Federal League) is the highest-ranking national league club competition in Austrian football. It is the competition which decides the Austrian national football champions, as well the country's entrants for the various European cups run by UEFA. Since Austria stayed in sixteenth place in the UEFA association coefficient rankings at the end of the 2015–16 season, the league gained its first spot for the UEFA Champions League.
The Austrian Bundesliga, which began in the 1974–75 season, has been a separate registered association since 1 December 1991. It has been most won by the two Viennese giants Austria Wien, who were national champions 21 times, and Rapid Wien, who won the national title 32 times. Rapid’s Last title was in the 2007-08 Season. The current champions are Red Bull Salzburg. Hans Rinner is president of the Austrian Bundesliga.
The Austrian Football Bundesliga is currently known as tipico Bundesliga for sponsorship reasons.Bayer 04 Leverkusen
Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, also known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen [ˌbaɪ̯ɐ ˈleːvɐˌkuːzn̩], Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of German football, and hosts matches at the BayArena.The club was founded in 1904 by employees of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, whose headquarters are in Leverkusen and from which the club draws its name. It was formerly the best-known department of TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen, a sports club whose members also participate in athletics, gymnastics, basketball and other sports including the RTHC Bayer Leverkusen (rowing, tennis and hockey). In 1999 the football department was separated from the sports club and is now a separate entity formally called Bayer 04 Leverkusen GmbH.Bayer Leverkusen have won one DFB-Pokal and one UEFA Cup. Their local rivals are 1. FC Köln.Borussia Dortmund
Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, commonly known as Borussia Dortmund [boˈʁʊsi̯aː ˈdɔɐ̯tmʊnt], BVB, or simply Dortmund, is a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. Founded in 1909 by eighteen football players from Dortmund, the football team is part of a large membership-based sports club with more than 145,000 members, making BVB the second largest sports club by membership in Germany. Dortmund plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system.
Borussia Dortmund have won eight German championships, four DFB-Pokals, five DFL-Supercups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, and one Intercontinental Cup. Their Cup Winners' Cup win in 1966 made them the first German club to win a European title.
Since 1974, Dortmund have played their home games at Westfalenstadion, named after its home region of Westphalia. The stadium is the largest in Germany and Dortmund has the highest average attendance of any association football club in the world. Borussia Dortmund's colours are black and yellow, giving the club its nickname die Schwarzgelben. Dortmund holds a long-standing rivalry with Ruhr neighbours Schalke 04, known as the Revierderby. In terms of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Dortmund is the second richest sports club in Germany and the 11th richest football team in the world.Borussia Mönchengladbach
Borussia VfL 1900 Mönchengladbach e.V., commonly known as Borussia Mönchengladbach (pronounced [boˈʁʊsi̯aː mœnçn̩ˈɡlatbax]), Mönchengladbach or Gladbach, is a professional football club based in Mönchengladbach, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, that plays in the Bundesliga, the top flight of German football. The club has won five League titles, three DFB-Pokals, and two UEFA Europa League titles.Borussia Mönchengladbach were founded in 1900, with its name derived from a Latinized form of Prussia, which was a popular name for German clubs in the former Kingdom of Prussia. The team joined the Bundesliga in 1965, and saw the majority of its success in the 1970s, where, under the guidance of Hennes Weisweiler, they captured five league championships with Die Fohlen [diː ˈfoːlən] team; a term coined as the squad were young with a fast, aggressive playing style. Mönchengladbach also won two UEFA Cup titles during this period.
Since 2004, Borussia Mönchengladbach have played at Borussia-Park, having previously played at the Bökelbergstadion since 1919. Based on membership, Borussia Mönchengladbach is the fifth largest club in Germany, with over 75,000 members. The club's main rivals are FC Köln and Bayer LeverkusenFC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München (German pronunciation: [ʔɛf tseː ˈbaɪɐn ˈmʏnçn̩]), FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, and is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 29 national titles and 19 national cups.FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963. The club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row (1974–1976). Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most recently winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has also won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally and the only German club to have won both international titles. Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football, winning 28 titles, including seven consecutively since 2013. They have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s.
Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena. Previously the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, and the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth highest-earning football club in the world, generating €629.2 million in 2019. For the 2017–18 season, Bayern reported a revenue of €657.4 million and an operating profit of €136.5 million. This was Bayern's 26th year in a row with a profit. In November 2018, Bayern had 291,000 official members and there are 4,433 officially registered fan clubs with over 390,000 members. The club has other departments for chess, handball, basketball, gymnastics, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members. At the end of the 2018–19 season, Bayern was ranked third in the UEFA club coefficient rankings.Hertha BSC
Hertha, Berliner Sport-Club e.V., commonly known as Hertha BSC (German pronunciation: [ˈhɛʁtaː beː ʔɛs t͡seː]), and sometimes referred to as Hertha Berlin, Hertha BSC Berlin, or simply Hertha, is a German football club based in the Charlottenburg locality of Berlin. Hertha BSC plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of German football.
Hertha BSC was founded in 1892, and was a founding member of the German Football Association in Leipzig in 1900. The team won the German championship in 1930 and 1931. Since 1963, Hertha's stadium has been the Olympiastadion. The club is known as Die Alte Dame in German, which translates to "The Old Lady". In 2002, the sports activities of the professional, amateur, and under-19 teams were separated into Hertha BSC GmbH & Co. KGaA.Jürgen Klopp
Jürgen Norbert Klopp (German pronunciation: [ˈjʏɐ̯ɡn̩ ˈklɔp] (listen); born 16 June 1967) is a German professional football manager and former player who is the manager of Premier League club Liverpool. Often credited with popularising the football philosophy known as Gegenpressing, Klopp is regarded by many as one of the best managers in the world.As a player, Klopp spent the majority of his career at Mainz 05 in the second tier of German football after signing for the club in 1990. A hard-working and physical player, he was initially deployed as a striker, before converting to play as a defender for the rest of his career. Upon his retirement in 2001, Klopp became the club's manager, leading them to promotion to the Bundesliga in 2004. After suffering relegation in the 2006–07 season and being unable to achieve promotion the following campaign, Klopp resigned at Mainz in 2008, departing as the club's longest-serving manager.
Klopp then became manager of Borussia Dortmund, guiding them to the Bundesliga title in 2010–11. The next season Klopp guided Dortmund to their first ever domestic double as they scored a then-record number of points in a season and registered a then record-equalling number of wins to win the 2011–12 Bundesliga, and won the DFB-Pokal. In 2013, he guided Dortmund to the UEFA Champions League Final, where they lost 2–1 to Bayern Munich. He left Dortmund in 2015 as their longest-serving manager.
Following Brendan Rodgers' dismissal in 2015, Klopp was appointed manager of Liverpool and led them to the finals of that season's EFL Cup and UEFA Europa League, both of which they lost. Klopp has since led the club to successive UEFA Champions League finals; losing 3–1 to Real Madrid in 2018, then winning 2–0 against Tottenham Hotspur in 2019 to secure his first European title. He led Liverpool to second in the 2018–19 Premier League as they scored 97 points, the third-highest total in the history of the English top division and the most points scored by a team without winning the title.Karlsruher SC
Karlsruher SC is a German association football club, based in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. KSC rose out of the consolidation of a number of predecessor clubs. They have played in the Bundesliga, but were relegated to the 2. Bundesliga in 1998 and in 2009. In 2012, they were relegated to the 3. Liga through play-offs, and in 2013, they were promoted back to the 2. Bundesliga and went back down again in 2017. In May 2019, they were promoted back to the 2. Bundesliga.MSV Duisburg
Meidericher Spielverein 02 e. V. Duisburg, commonly known as simply MSV Duisburg (German pronunciation: [ʔɛm ʔɛs faʊ ˈdyːsbʊɐ̯k]), is a German association football club based in Duisburg, North Rhine-Westphalia. Nicknamed Die Zebras for their traditional striped jerseys, the club was one of the original members of the Bundesliga when it was formed in 1963.Marco Reus
Marco Reus (German pronunciation: [ˈmaʁkoː ˈʁɔʏs]; born 31 May 1989) is a German professional footballer who plays as a forward for the Germany national team and Borussia Dortmund, where he is the captain.
Reus spent his youth career at Borussia Dortmund, prior to leaving for Rot Weiss Ahlen. He joined Borussia Mönchengladbach in 2009, where he had his most successful season in 2012 when, scoring 18 goals and having 8 assists in the Bundesliga, he helped Borussia Mönchengladbach secure a place in the following season's UEFA Champions League. Reus joined his home club Borussia Dortmund at the end of that season, helping the club reaching the 2013 UEFA Champions League Final in his first season. With Dortmund, Reus won the DFL-Supercup twice in 2013, 2014 and the DFB-Pokal in 2017, and has scored over 100 goals for the club.
With the Germany national team, Reus has only 41 caps, due to his recurring injuries in recent years. He missed the 2014 FIFA World Cup, which Germany won, but played in UEFA Euro 2012 and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.Mats Hummels
Mats Julian Hummels (German pronunciation: [ˈmats ˈhʊml̩s]; born 16 December 1988) is a German professional footballer who plays as a central defender for Bayern Munich and the Germany national team.
He came through the Bayern Munich youth academy before joining Borussia Dortmund on loan in January 2008 and officially signing for Dortmund in February 2009 for €4 million. His honours at the club include two league titles and finishing as runner up in the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League. In May 2016, Hummels signed a contract with former side Bayern, which took effect on 1 July 2016.Hummels has been a full international since 2010, earning over 70 caps until date and representing Germany at UEFA Euro 2012, 2014 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 2016 and 2018 FIFA World Cup.Robert Lewandowski
Robert Lewandowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈrɔbɛrt lɛvanˈdɔfskʲi] (listen); born 21 August 1988) is a Polish professional footballer who plays as a striker for Bayern Munich and is the captain of the Poland national team.
After being the top scorer in the third and second tiers of Polish football with Znicz Pruszków, he moved to top-flight Lech Poznań, and was the top scorer in the league as they won the 2009–10 Ekstraklasa. In 2010, he transferred to Borussia Dortmund for a reported €4.5 million, where he won honours including two consecutive Bundesliga titles and a season as the league's top goalscorer. In 2013, he earned with Borussia a spot in the 2013 UEFA Champions League Final, a tournament in which he was the second top goalscorer, behind only Cristiano Ronaldo.Prior to the start of the 2014–15 season, Lewandowski agreed to join Dortmund's domestic rivals, Bayern Munich, on a free transfer. In Munich, he won the Bundesliga title in each of his first five seasons, earning a spot in the Bundesliga Team of the Year in every season. In 2015–16, 2017–18 and 2018–19, he led the league in goalscoring, and in 2016–17 he was named the Bundesliga Player of The Year. He was named to the UEFA Champions League Squad of the Season two times. He has scored over 200 goals in the Bundesliga, having reached the century mark quicker than any other foreign player, and is the league's all-time leading foreign goalscorer. He also holds the record for the fastest five goal haul in any major European football league since records have been kept after scoring five times in nine minutes against Wolfsburg in 2015.A full international for Poland since 2008, Lewandowski has earned over 100 caps and was a member of their team at Euro 2012, Euro 2016 and 2018 FIFA World Cup. With 56 international goals, Lewandowski is the all-time top scorer for Poland. In 2015, he was voted Polish Sportspersonality of the Year and in 2016 he claimed fourth place at the 2015 FIFA Ballon d'Or Awards. He has been named the Polish Player of the Year a record seven times. The Guardian has ranked him as the fifth-best footballer on the planet in 2015.SV Werder Bremen
Sportverein Werder Bremen von 1899 e. V. (German pronunciation: [ˈvɛɐ̯dɐ ˈbʁeːmən]), commonly known as Werder Bremen, is a German sports club located in Bremen in the northwest German federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. The club was founded in 1899 and has grown to 40,400 members. It is best known for its association football team.
Bremen's football club has been a mainstay in the Bundesliga, the top league of the German football league system. Bremen has won the Bundesliga championship four times and the DFB-Pokal six times. Their latest Bundesliga championship came in 2004, when they won a double, and their last win of the German cup came in 2009. Bremen has also had European success, winning the 1992 European Cup Winners' Cup. Bremen also reached the final match of the last edition of the UEFA Cup in 2009 (it was rebranded the UEFA Europa League the following season). During the mid-2000s, Bremen was one of the most successful teams in the Bundesliga, but the club has not played in a European competition since the 2010–11 campaign.
Since 1924, Werder Bremen's stadium is the Weserstadion. The club has a rivalry with Hamburger SV, another club in northern Germany, known as the Nordderby (English: North derby).TSG 1899 Hoffenheim
Turn- und Sportgemeinschaft 1899 Hoffenheim e.V., or simply TSG 1899 Hoffenheim (pronounced [teː ʔɛs ɡeː ˈʔaxt͡seːnˈhʊndɐt ˈnɔʏ̯nʔʊntˈnɔʏ̯nt͡sɪç ˈhɔfn̩haɪ̯m]) is a professional German association football club based in Hoffenheim, a village of Sinsheim municipality, Baden-Württemberg, inside the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. A fifth division side in 2000, the club made a remarkable advance to the German football league system top tier Bundesliga in 2008 with the financial backing of alumnus and software mogul Dietmar Hopp.TSV 1860 Munich
Turn- und Sportverein München von 1860, commonly known as TSV 1860 München (German pronunciation: [teː ʔɛs faʊ ˈʔaxtseːnˈhʊndɐt ˈzɛçtsɪç ˈmʏnçn̩]) or 1860 Munich, is a Turnverein based in Munich. After the 2016–17 season the club's football team was relegated from the 2. Bundesliga. 1860 Munich was one of the founding members of the Bundesliga in 1963, becoming West German champions in 1966, and has played a total of 20 seasons in the top flight. From 2005 to 2017, 1860 Munich's stadium had been the Allianz Arena. Since their relegation from 2. Bundesliga, the Stadion an der Grünwalder Straße is once again home to 1860 Munich.VfL Wolfsburg
Verein für Leibesübungen Wolfsburg e. V., commonly known as VfL Wolfsburg (pronounced [faʊ̯ ʔɛf ʔɛl ˈvɔlfsbʊʁk]) or Wolfsburg, is a German sports club based in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony. The club grew out of a multi-sports club for Volkswagen workers in the city of Wolfsburg. It is best known for its football department, but other departments include badminton, handball and athletics.
The men's professional football team play in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system. Wolfsburg have won the Bundesliga once in their history, in the 2008–09 season, the DFB-Pokal in 2015 and the DFL-Supercup in 2015.
Professional football is run by the spin-off organization VfL Wolfsburg-Fußball GmbH, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. Since 2002, Wolfsburg's stadium is the Volkswagen Arena.
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