Bundelkhand

Bundelkhand is a geographical and cultural region and also a mountain range in central India. The hilly region is now divided between the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, with the larger portion lying in the latter state.

The Khangar ruled areas of present-day Bundelkhand after the fall of the Chandelas. Maharaja khet Singh khangar founder of khangar Kingdom. The capital of khangar kingdom is Garh kundar. Their seat of power was at Garh Kundar, a fort built by Khub Singh Khangar who was grand son of maharaja khet Singh khangar. During the Khangar dynasty rule, Bundelkhand was known as Jujhauti, implying the land of warriors. The name of the region derives from the Bundela who succeeded the khangar Rajputs as rulers of the region in the mid 14th century capture khangar Kingdom capital Garh kundar then move Orchha.

Jhansi is the largest city in Bundelkhand and is a major cultural, educational, transport and economic hub. Other major towns of Bundelkhand are Konch, Kalpi, Chirgaon, Datia, Dabra, Mauranipur, Panna, Banda, Chitrakoot, Datia, Tikamgarh, Rath, Lalitpur, Sagar, Damoh, Jalaun, Orai, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Banda, Ashoknagar, and Chhatarpur.

Among the well-known places of Bundelkhand is Khajuraho, which has numerous 10th-century sculptures devoted to fine living and eroticism. The mines of Panna have been the source of magnificent diamonds; a very large one dug from the last active mine was kept for a time in the fort of Kalinjar.

Bundelkhand
Jahangir Mahal, Orchha
Location of Bundelkhand in India
Location of Bundelkhand in India
Country India
Demonym(s)Bundelkhandi/Bundeli
Languages
 • Major languagesBundeli, Hindi
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
 • Summer (DST)+05:30
Historical capitalsKhajuraho, Mahoba, Orchha, Garh Kundar
Separated statesOrchha (1501), Datia, Panna (1732), Ajaigarh (1765), Bijawar (1765), Charkhari, Samthar, Thakurra, Sarila,

Etymology

Bundelkhand means "Bundela domain".[1] The region was earlier known as Jejabhukti or Jejakabhukti ("Jeja's province"). According to the inscriptions of the Chandela dynasty, this name derived from Jeja, the nickname of their ruler Jayashakti. However, it is possible that this name derives from an even earlier name of the region: "Jajhauti" or "Jijhoti" (khangar's capital). After the Bundelas replaced the Chandelas around 14th century, the region came to be known as Bundelkhand after them.[2]

Geography

Bundelkhand lies between the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the north and the Vindhya Range to the south. It is a gently sloping upland, distinguished by barren hilly terrain with sparse vegetation, although it was historically forested. The plains of Bundelkhand are intersected by three mountain ranges, the Vindhya, Fauna and Bander chains, the highest elevation not exceeding 600 meters above sea-level. Beyond these ranges the country is further diversified by isolated hills rising abruptly from a common level, and presenting from their steep and nearly inaccessible scarps eligible sites for forts and strongholds of local kings. The general slope of the country is towards the northeast, as indicated by the course of the rivers which traverse or bound the territory, and finally discharge themselves into the Yamuna River.

The principal rivers are the Sindh, Betwa, Shahzad River, Ken, Bagahin, Tons, Pahuj, Dhasan and Chambal. The Kali Sindh, rising in Malwa, marks the western frontier of Bundelkhand. Parallel to this river, but further east, is the course of the Betwa. Still farther to the east flows the Ken, followed in succession by the Bagahin and Tons. The Yamuna and the Ken are the only two navigable rivers. Notwithstanding the large number of streams, the depression of their channels and height of their banks render them for the most part unsuitable for the purposes of irrigation, which is conducted by means of ponds and tanks. These artificial lakes are usually formed by throwing embankments across the lower extremities of valleys, and thus arresting and impounding the waters flowing through them.

Ecology

Drought: - since 2007 Bundelkhand region has been facing severe drought problems. Normal rainy days in Bundelkhand is 52 days (metrological department of India) but last six years its restricted 24 days. Timing of Monsoon usually in this area is second week of June but, Year 2008 this season saw rains, but in the second week of June alone the region received around 32 percent of its total rainfall. Farmers were not prepared for sowing. Then till July 2008, most of the Bundelkhand region received around 55 percent of its total average rainfall. This change caused floods and widespread losses in livestock and top soil.[3] In Bundelkhand region, average level of rainfall is 800–900 mm. (Ramesh et al. 2002), But, during the last six years Bundelkhand received only 400–450 mm annual rainfall. Agriculture production also decreased in this areas. In 2000, this region used to contribute 15 percent of the state’s total food grain production, which has now come down to 7 percent. A once food secure zone has now become a symbol of insecurity and migration due to climate change. In this area various livelihoods such as fishing, vegetable production and traditional betel leaf farming are facing one of the worst crises ever.

History

Medieval Period & Maratha Rule

After khangar dynasty the Chandela clan ruled Bundelkhand from the 14th to the 16th centuries. In the early 14th century they were feudatories of the Pratiharas of Kannauj, and ruled from the fortress-city of Kalinjar. A dynastic struggle among the Pratiharas allowed the Chandelas and other feudatories to assert their independence. The Chandelas captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior Dhanga left many inscriptions, and endowed a large number of Jain and Hindu temples. Dhanga's grandson Vidyadhara expanded the Chandela kingdom to its greatest extent, extending the Chandela dominions to the Chambal river in the northwest and south to the Narmada River. The Afghan king Mahmud of Ghazni attacked the Chandela dominions during Vidydhara's reign, but were repelled by the powerful Chandela Rajputs. The Chandelas built the famous temple-city of Khajuraho between the mid-10th and mid-11th centuries. During the Chandela period, Bundelkhand was home to a flourishing Jain community and numerous Jain temples were built in that period.

In the 12th century, the Rajput Chauhan rulers of Ajmer challenged the Chandelas. The Muslim conquests of the early 13th century reduced the Chandela domains, although they survived until the 16th century as minor chieftains. Bundela Rajputs grew to prominence starting in the 16th century. Orchha was founded in the 16th century by the Bundela chief Rudra Pratap Singh, who became the first raja of Orchha. In 1545 Sher Shah Suri, was killed while attempting to capture Kalinjar from the local Chandela king.

The region came under nominal Mughal rule from the 16th to 18th centuries, although the hilly, forested terrain of the sparsely populated region made it difficult to control. Akbar's governors at Kalpi maintained a nominal authority over the surrounding district, and the Bundela chiefs were in a state of chronic revolt, which culminated in the war of independence under Chhatrasal. On the outbreak of his rebellion in 1671 he occupied a large province to the south of the Yamuna. Setting out from this base, and assisted by the Marathas, he conquered the whole of Bundelkhand. On his death in 1732 he bequathed one-third of his dominions, including Jalaun and Jhansi, to his Maratha allies, who before long succeeded in controlling the whole of Bundelkhand, with the local rulers as tributaries to the Marathas. Under Maratha rule the country was a prey to constant anarchy and strife. By the end of the 18th century, the Bundelas had freed themselves to some extent from Maratha power. A grandson of the Maratha Peshwa, sought to restore Maratha control of Bundelkhand from his base at Banda. Ali Bahadur warred with the Bundelas from 1790 until 1802, when he died while attempting to capture Kalinjar.

British rule, 1802–1947

The Marathas ceded parts of Bundelkhand, which were later called later British Bundelkhand, to the British in the 1802 Treaty of Bassein. After 1802, many of the local rulers were granted sanads (leases) by the British, which entitled them to the lands they controlled at the death of Ali Bahadur, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance (ikrarnama) to the British. A political officer attached to the British forces in Bundelkhand supervised British relations with the sanad states. In 1806 British protection was promised to the Maratha ruler of Jhansi, and in 1817 the British recognised his hereditary rights to Jhansi state. In 1818 the Peshwa in Pune ceded all his rights over Bundelkhand to the British at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War.

The sanad states were organised into the Bundelkhand Agency in 1811, when a political agent to the Governor-General of India was appointed and headquartered at Banda . In 1818 the headquarters were moved to Kalpi, in 1824 to Hamirpur, and in 1832 back to Banda. The political agent was placed under the authority of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces, headquartered in Agra, in 1835. In 1849 authority over the Bundelkhand Agency was placed briefly under the Commissioner for the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, who appointed a political assistant based at Jhansi. Shortly thereafter, authority over Bundelkhand was placed under the Resident at Gwalior, and the headquarters of the political assistant was moved to Nowgong, which remained until 1947. In 1853 the Raja of Jhansi died childless, and his territory was annexed to British Bundelkhand. The Jhansi state and the Jalaun and Chanderi districts were then formed into a superintendency. In 1854 Bundelkhand Agency was placed under the authority of the newly created Central India Agency, headquartered at Indore.

The widow of the Raja of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, protested against the annexation because her adopted son was not recognised as the heir to his adoptive father, and because the slaughter of cattle was permitted in the Jhansi territory. The Revolt of 1857 found Jhansi ripe for rebellion. In June a few men of the 12th native infantry seized the fort containing the treasure and magazine, and massacred the European officers of the garrison. The Rani put herself at the head of the rebels, and they captured several of the neighbouring British districts and princely states allied to the British. She died bravely in battle in Gwalior in 1858. It was not till November 1858 that Jhansi was brought under British control.

After the revolt, Jhansi was given to the Maharaja of Gwalior, but came under British rule in 1886 when it was swapped for Gwalior fort. In 1865 the political assistant was replaced with a political agent. The eastern portion of the Agency was detached to form Bagelkhand Agency in 1871. The state of Khaniadhana was transferred to the authority of the Gwalior Resident in 1888, and in 1896 Baraundha, Jaso, and the Chaube Jagirs were transferred to Bagelkhand. In 1901 there were 9 states, 13 estates, and the pargana of Alampur belonging to Indore State, with a total area of 9,851 sq mi (25,510 km2) and a total population of 1,308,326 in 1901. The most important of the states were Orchha, Panna, Samthar, Charkhari, Chhatarpur, Datia, Bijawar and Ajaigarh State. Deforestation accelerated during British rule. The population of the agency decreased 13% between 1891 and 1901 due to the effects of famine. In 1931 Bagelkhand Agency, with the exception of the state of Rewa State, was merged into Bundelkhand Agency.

Independent India, 1947–present

After Indian independence in 1947, the princely states of Bundelkhand Agency were combined with those of the former Bagelkhand Agency to form the province of Vindhya Pradesh, which became an Indian state in 1950. On 1 November 1956, Vindhya Pradesh was merged into Madhya Pradesh.

Notorious dacoits like Phulan Devi, Nirbhay Gujar, and Moorath Singh besides other robber gangs once ruled the area. Currently the area is economically and industrially one of the most backward areas in India. Lack of resources, poor communications, and infertile land are some of the reasons for underdevelopment in the region.

Proposed Bundelkhand state 2010

Bundelkhand comprises parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. While Bahujan Samaj Party government under Mayawati had proposed in 2011 creation of Bundelkhand from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, organizations such as Bundelkhand Akikrit Party (BAP) and Bundelkhand Mukti Morcha (BMM) want it to include six districts from Madhya Pradesh as well.[4] Uma Bharati of Bharatiya Janata Party has promised separate state of Bundelkhand within three years if her party voted to power, during campaign for Loksabha Election, 2014 at Jhansi.[5] Similar promise was made by Congress leader Pradeep Jain Aditya during Loksabha Election, 2014.[6]

Since the early 1960s there has been a movement for establishing a Bundelkhand state or promoting development of the region. Bundelkhand is geographically the central part of India covering some part of Madhya Pradesh and some part of Uttar Pradesh. (At Sagar is the exact centre of the original undivided India: the granite bench mark by British surveyors indicating this is placed in the compound of a church in Sagar Cantonment.) In spite of being rich in minerals, the people of Bundelkhand are very poor and the region is underdeveloped and underrepresented in state and central politics. There are several local parties and organisations, some promoting further development of the region and some seeking statehood.[7][8] The agrarian crisis and farmers' suicides are also cited as reasons for separate statehood.[9]

Uttar Pradesh

In November 2011 Uttar Pradesh Council of Ministers proposed to split the state into four parts, with one part being Bundelkhand.[10] The proposed state includes the following districts:

UP region map
Regions of Uttar Pradesh; Bundelkhand is in light blue.
Madhya Pradesh

In addition to the above districts, sometimes the following districts of Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan are considered as being part of Bundelkhand:

Culture

The Bundeli language is the most common of the Hindi dialects spoken in the area. It in turn consists of several sub-dialects. The accent varies in various regions even though unmistakably of a single origin.

The region is predominantly Hindu. However, Jainism is historically significant in Bundelkhand, and several Tirthas are located in this region. Many prominent Jain scholars of the 20th century have been from this region and also in historically significant tradition of buddhism. Nag people's ancestor were preached buddha-dhamma.

Folk dances

Bundelkhand has following folk dances. Badhai, Rai, Saira, Jawara, Akhada, Shaitan, Dhimrai.

Radio

A community radio station, Radio Bundelkhand, was launched in Orchha on 23 October 2008. It is an initiative of the Development Alternatives Group. The radio station broadcasts daily programs in the Bundeli dialect and devotes significant amount of its broadcast time to local issues, culture, education and the rich tradition of Bundeli folk music. The station is available on 90.4 MHz.

Prominent Bundelkhandis

  • Keshavdas (1555 – 1617), usually known by the mononym Keshavdas or Keshavadasa, was a Sanskrit scholar and Hindi poet.
  • Major Dhyanchand
  • Jhalkari Bai (22 November 1830 – 1858) was an Indian Koli[11][12] woman soldier who played an important role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 during the battle of Jhansi.
Dhyanchand statue
Statue of Dhyan Chand on Sipri Hill
Rani Durgavati
Rani Durgavati maravi
Phoolan Devi, (1963–2001) popularly known as "Bandit Queen", was an Indian dacoit and later a politician.
  • Uma Bharti, Prominent BJP politician and the former MLA from Charkhari in UP's Bundelkhand region.
  • Dr. Hari Singh Gaur, Member of Constitution draft committee and founder of University of Sagar. The University of Sagar was later named the Dr. Hari Singh Gour University by the state government in 1983.[14]
  • Vrindavan Lal Verma, Hindi novelist (Mrig Nayani, Jhansi Ki Rani)
  • Indeevar, one of the leading Hindi film lyricists in 1960s and 70s
  • Rani Durgavati, Queen of Gondwana (born to Chandelas of Mahoba / Kalinjar) immortalised owing to her bravery in defending her kingdom against invasion by Mughal emperor Akbar
  • Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, of Transcendental Meditation
  • Harishankar Parsai - He was a noted satirist and humorist of modern Hindi literature and is known for his simple and direct style.
  • Rajneesh - He was mystic, philosopher, acknowledged to be enlightened being by many
  • Raja Bundela - Raja Bundela (Raja Rajeshwar Pratap Singh Judev) is an Indian actor, producer, politician and civil activist.
  • Phillip Satyamitra - Phillip Satyamitra ( Phillip Silas Masih) is a writer, Motivational Speaker and a Bishop of the Methodist Church in India and President of National Missionary Society (Bharat Sewak Samaj)

See also

References

  1. ^ Jain, Ravindra K. (2002). Between History and Legend: Status and Power in Bundelkhand. Orient Blackswan. p. 1. ISBN 978-81-250-2194-0.
  2. ^ Mitra, Sisirkumar (1977). The Early Rulers of Khajurāho. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–4. ISBN 9788120819979.
  3. ^ User, Super. "Environment". www.mediaforrights.org.
  4. ^ "Mayawati-kind-of-Bundelkhand not acceptable: Bundela". Highbeam.com. Archived from the original on 2015-03-29. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  5. ^ "Uma Bharti promises separate Bundelkhand to voters in Jhansi". Indianexpress.com. 2014-04-10. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  6. ^ "LS polls: Pradeep Jain Aditya, Uma Bharti promise separate Bundelkhand state". News18.com. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  7. ^ "Demand for seperate [sic] Bundelkhand reignited ahead of assembly polls separate". Daily.bhaskar.com. 2013-04-05. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  8. ^ Atiq Khan (2009-12-10). "Nod for Telangana fuels the demand for Bundelkhand". Thehindu.com. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  9. ^ "Farmers' Suicides and Statehood Demand in Bundelkhand | Economic and Political Weekly". Epw.in. 2011-07-09. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  10. ^ "Mayawati wants to divide UP into 4 states, other parties cornered; NDTV". ndtv.com. 2011-11-16. Retrieved 2015-08-04.
  11. ^ Narayan, Badri (2006-11-07). Women Heroes and Dalit Assertion in North India: Culture, Identity and Politics. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9788132102809.
  12. ^ Sharma, Ashok Kumar (2017-08-21). Our President: Ram Nath Kovind. Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789352783953.
  13. ^ "Bajirao Mastani and the history of Bundelkhand". Times of India Blog. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
  14. ^ "University of Saugar alumniin celebration mode". The Hindu. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2015-08-04.

External links

Banda district (India)

Banda District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and Banda is the district headquarters. It is a part of Chitrakoot Division.

Located in historical Bundelkhand region, Banda is famous for its Shajar stone which is used for making jewellery, and the historically and architecturally significant sites Khajuraho and Kalinjar. Khajuraho is a World Heritage Site famous for its elaborately carved temples. The fortress of Kalinjar is famed for its war history and its glorious rock sculptures.

Beri State

Beri State was a princely state of the Bundelkhand Agency of the British Raj.

It was a small Sanad state of about 82.87 km2 with a population of 4,297 inhabitants in 1901. Its capital was at Beri, a small town —2,387 inhabitants in 1901— located by the Betwa River in modern Hamirpur district of Uttar Pradesh, about 30 km from Hamirpur town.

Together with Baoni State (Kadaura) at its northwestern edge Beri State was forming an enclave within the directly administered British territory of the Central Provinces.

Bijawar State

Bijawar State was a princely state of colonial India, located in modern Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh.The native state of Bijawar covered an area of 2520 km² (973 sq. m.) in the Bundelkhand Agency. Forests covered nearly half the total area of the state, which was believed to be rich in minerals, but lack of transport facilities had hindered the development of its resources.

Bundela

The Bundelas are a Rajput clan of central India. The families belonging to this clan ruled several small states in the Bundelkhand region from the 16th century.

Bundeli language

Bundeli (Devanagari: बुन्देली or बुंदेली; or Bundelkhandi, is a Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bundelkhand region of central India. It belongs to the Central Indo-Ayran languages and is part of the Western Hindi subgroup.

Bundelkhand Agency

The Bundelkhand Agency was a political agency of the British Raj, managing the relations of the British government with the protected princely states of the Bundelkhand region.

Bundelkhand University

Bundelkhand University is a public state university based in Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Founded in 1975, it has professional, technical and vocational study programmes along with facilities for research.

The University is a member of Association of Indian Universities (AIU), Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU). The University is accredited by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC).

Charkhari State

Charkhari State was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. On India’s independence, this Princely state acceded to India. Currently Charkhari town, the former state's capital, is a part of Uttar Pradesh state.

Chhatarpur State

Chhatarpur was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. The state was founded in 1785 and its capital was located in Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh.

Chhatarpur's last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950.

Chitrakoot division

Chitrakoot Division is an administrative division of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. Hisotrically part of Bundelkhand region, it includes the districts of:

Banda,

Chitrakoot,

Hamirpur, and

Mahoba.Until a few years ago, this was the part of Jhansi division, but due to administrative requirements, this division was established. Chitrakoot division is one of the most backward areas of the country, which cons. full of natural raw material like moram, ballast, granite etc.

Three major rivers are part of this division:

Ken,

Betwa and

Yamuna.

Datia State

Datia State (Hindi: दतिया राज्य) was a princely state in subsidiary alliance with British India.The state was administered as part of the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India. It lay in the extreme north-west of Bundelkhand, near Gwalior, and was surrounded on all sides by other princely states of Central India, except on the east where it bordered upon the United Provinces.

Jainism in Bundelkhand

Bundelkhand, in the heart of India, has been an ancient centre of Jainism. It is mostly in modern Madhya Pradesh, but part of it is in Uttar Pradesh.

Bundelkhand was known as Dasharna or Jaijakabhukti in ancient times. The Betwa (Vetravati) and Dhasan (Dasharna) rivers flow through it.

It is one of the few regions in India where Jainism has a strong presence and influence. There are many ancient tirthas in Bundelkhand. Many of the modern scholars of Jainism are from this region.

Jhansi

Jhansi (pronunciation ) is a historic city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It lies in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj River, in the extreme south of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi district and Jhansi division. Called the Gateway to Bundelkhand, Jhansi is situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa at an average elevation of 285 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres (258 mi) from New Delhi and 99 kilometres (62 mi) south of Gwalior.

The original walled city grew around its stone fort which crowns a neighbouring rock. The ancient name of the city was Balwantnagar. From 1817 to 1854, Jhansi was the capital of the princely state of Jhansi which was ruled by Gurjar rajas. The state was annexed by the British Governor General in 1854; Damodar Rao's claim to the throne was rejected but Rani Lakshmibai ruled it from June 1857 to June 1858.

Jhansi is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. The National Highways Development Project has supported development of Jhansi. Srinagar to Kanyakumari North-South corridor passes through Jhansi as does the East-West corridor; consequently there has been a sudden rush of infrastructure and real estate development in the city.Jhansi was adjudged the third cleanest city of Uttar Pradesh and the fastest moving city in the North Zone in Swachh Survekshan 2018 rankings. A greenfield airport development has been planned. On 28 August, 2015 Jhansi was selected among 98 cities for smart city initiative by Government of India.

Jhansi division

Jhansi Division is one of 17 divisions of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. The city of Jhansi is the administrative center. The division is part of the historic Bundelkhand region, which includes a portion of southern Uttar Pradesh and extends into neighboring Madhya Pradesh state.

Jhansi Division is subdivided into three districts:

Jhansi District

Jalaun District

Lalitpur District

Kalinjar Fort

Kalinjar (Hindi: कालिंजर) is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region of central India. Kalinjar is located in Banda District of Uttar Pradesh state, near the temple-city and World Heritage Site of Khajuraho. The fortress is strategically located on an isolated rocky hill at the end the Vindhya Range, at an elevation of 1,203 feet (367 m) and overlooks the plains of Bundelkhand. It served several of Bundelkhand's ruling dynasties, including the Chandela dynasty of Rajputs in the 10th century, and the Solankis of Rewa. The fortress contains several temples dating as far back as the Gupta dynasty of the 3rd-5th centuries.

Khajuraho Group of Monuments

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu temples in Chhatarpur, Madhya Pradesh, India, about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi. They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. Historical records note that the Khajuraho temple site had 85 temples by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers Of these, only about 25 temples have survived, spread over 6 square kilometers. Of the various surviving temples, the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple is decorated with a profusion of sculptures with intricate details, symbolism and expressiveness of ancient Indian art.The Khajuraho group of temples were built together but were dedicated to two religions, Hinduism and Jainism, suggesting a tradition of acceptance and respect for diverse religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region.

Mahoba district

Mahoba district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India and Mahoba town is the district headquarters. Mahoba district is a part of Chitrakoot Division. The district occupies an area of 2884 km². It has a population of 876,055 (2011 census). As of 2011 it is the least populous district of Uttar Pradesh (out of 75).2 Mahoba District also known as Alha-Udal Nagari.

Orchha State

Orchha State (also known as Urchha, Ondchha and Tikamgarh) was a princely state of the Bundelkhand region of British India. It was located within what is now the state of Madhya Pradesh.

The Chaturbhuj Temple was built, during the time of Akbar, by the Queen of Orchha, while the Raj Mandir was built by Madhukar Shah during his reign, 1554 to 1591. In 1811, during the period of Company Rule in India, it became part of the Bundelkhand Agency within the Central India Agency; after the independence of India in 1947, it acceded to the Union of India, in 1950.

Samthar State

Samthar State was a princely state in India during the British Raj.

The state was administered as part of the Bundelkhand Agency of Central India. Its capital was Samthar town, located in a level plain in the Bundelkhand region crossed by the Pahuj and the Betwa rivers.

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