Buna is a village in Oro Province, Papua New Guinea. It was the site in part, of the Battle of Buna-Gona during World War II, when it constituted a variety of native huts and a handful of houses with an airstrip. Buna was the trailhead to the Kokoda Track leading to Kokoda.
Location within Papua New Guinea
|Country||Papua New Guinea|
|Time zone||UTC+10 (AEST)|
During World War II, Imperial Japanese troops invaded on 21–22 July 1942 and established it as a base (see Buna Airfield). Six months later, Buna was recaptured by the Australian and American armies during the Battle of Buna-Gona on 2 January 1943 during the New Guinea campaign in the South West Pacific Area. The Fifth Air Force established air bases there as the Allied counter-offensive against Japan picked up the pace and continued operations to isolate the major Japanese base at Rabaul and attack Lae and points west.
For weeks at a time General Douglas MacArthur, commander in the South Pacific, used Buna as an informal forward base. MacArthur's biographer William Manchester relates a story Lt. General George Kenney, commanding officer Allied air loved repeating of how he'd gone back to Australia for a week, and MacArthur had stolen his house, claiming it was cooler at night than his own. A week later the Monsoon winds shifted, making MacArthurs' old house now the cooler— and he never asked for Kenney to switch back.
The 435th Bombardment Squadron, also known as the "Kangaroo" Squadron, is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the Eighth Air Force 333d Bombardment Group, based at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa. It was inactivated on May 28, 1946.8th Special Operations Squadron
The 8th Special Operations Squadron is a squadron of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the 1st Special Operations Wing, Air Force Special Operations Command, stationed at Hurlburt Field, Florida. The squadron is equipped with the Bell Boeing CV-22 Osprey in support of special operations.
The 8th is one of the oldest units in the United States Air Force, being organized as the 8th Aero Squadron on 21 June 1917 at Camp Kelly, Texas. The squadron deployed to France and fought on the Western Front during World War I, equipped with United States-built Dayton-Wright DH-4, as reconnaissance aircraft.
During World War II, the squadron fought in the Southwest Pacific Area with Fifth Air Force as an attack and later North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber squadron. During the Cold War, it fought in the Korean War with Douglas B-26 Invader medium bombers and Vietnam War as a Martin B-57 Canberra medium bomber and later as an air commando squadron with Cessna A-37 Dragonfly counter-insurgency aircraft.Buna Airfield
Buna Airfield was an aerodrome located near Buna, Papua New Guinea. Built as an emergency landing ground, it was extended during the Second World War by the Imperial Japanese. A new runway was under construction until both runways were neutralized by Allied air bombing in late 1942.Fay B. Begor
Fay Broughton Begor (15 October 1916 – 9 September 1943) was an officer in the United States Navy during World War II.Japanese destroyer Yūgumo (1941)
Yūgumo (夕雲, "Evening Clouds") was the lead ship of her class of destroyer built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II.Lance Collins
Lance Kitchener Collins (19 June 1916 – 3 January 1988) was a leading Australian rules footballer of the 1940s, playing for Carlton Football Club in the Victorian Football League (VFL).
Born in Beulah, Victoria, Collins joined Victorian Football Association (VFA) club Coburg in 1935 and played 98 games for them, kicking 432 goals (including 116 goals in 1936), a club goal kicking record.Called "a fine athlete with a big leap and strong hands... a precise kick for goal, and a deadly snapshot on the run", Collins spurned offers from numerous VFL clubs and was appointed captain-coach of Coburg in 1940. He led Coburg to the 1941 VFA Grand Final where they lost to Port Melbourne by 19 points.Coburg went into recess in 1942 due to World War II and Carlton recruited Collins. Wearing guernsey number four, Collins made his VFL debut in Round three 1942 against Essendon at Windy Hill, kicking one goal.Collins played nine games in 1942, kicking 13 goals, and had played a further seven games, kicking 16 goals in 1943 before enlisting in the Australian Army on 22 June 1943. Collins was posted to 53 Australian Bulk Issues Petroleum and Oil Depot Platoon, gaining the rank of Staff Sergeant. Initially based in Buna, Papua New Guinea the 53rd BIPOD Platoon was part of the 4th Base Sub Area, supporting the Bougainville campaign.
Returning to Australia in 1945, Collins sought to continue playing for Carlton in the 1945 VFL season rather than return to Coburg, which Coburg initially refused and it was not until well into the season, after intense negotiations, that Coburg granted a transfer, and Collins was immediately named in the centre in Carlton's league side.Collins kicked six goals in their Round 10 match against North Melbourne, which was said to "galvanise the side" and led ultimately to the 1945 premiership. Collins continued to play well throughout the season in either the forward line or on the ball and, known as a big game player, Collins was particularly important for Carlton in the 1945 finals series. He kicked eight goals in the first Semi-Final against North Melbourne (garnering the praise "His pace and anticipation in the final was electric") and four goals in the Preliminary Final against Collingwood.Collins lined up on a half forward flank for Carlton's victory in the 1945 VFL Grand Final but unfortunately tore tendons in his ankle early in the first quarter and, although he remained on the ground with his ankle strapped, played little further part in the match before being replaced at half-time.Club leading goalkicker in 1945 with 49 goals, Collins retired from VFL football to accept a coaching position with Tasmanian Football League side Sandy Bay, which he took to a premiership in 1946. He later accepted a coaching position with Ballarat Football League side Golden Point Football Club. At Golden Point there is evidence that Collins invented the checkside punt during the late 1940s, two decades before it was first used in the VFL.Collins was named vice-captain in Coburg's Team of the Century.List of Australian Silver Star recipients
The Silver Star is the third-highest military decoration that can be awarded by the United States. It is awarded for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States and may be awarded to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the armed forces, distinguishes himself or herself by extraordinary heroism.
The Silver Star is the successor decoration to the Citation Star which was established by an Act of the United States Congress on 9 July 1918. On 19 July 1932, the United States Secretary of War approved the Silver Star to replace the Citation Star.Little Eva (aircraft)
"Little Eva" was a USAAF Consolidated B-24 Liberator which, returning from a bombing mission, got lost and crashed having exhausted its fuel supply on 2 December 1942 north-west of Burketown, Queensland (near the Gulf of Carpentaria).
The crew had taken to their parachutes before the crash. The survivors, now in two groups, set out on foot. Two of the crew travelled east and came across people after twelve days. The other party travelled westerly, with the only surviving member being found some five months later.USS Amycus
USS Amycus (ARL-2) was one of 39 Achelous class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Amycus (in Greek mythology, the son of Poseidon and Melia), she was the only US Naval vessel to bear the name.USS Mahan (DD-364)
USS Mahan (DD-364) was the lead ship of the United States Navy's Mahan-class destroyers. The ship was named for Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan, a 19th-century naval historian and strategic theorist. Her design ushered in major advances over traditional destroyers. Among them were a third set of quadruple torpedo tubes, protective gun shelters, and emergency diesel generators. Along with a steam propulsion system that was simpler and more efficient to operate.
Mahan began her service in 1936. She was first assigned to the US Atlantic Fleet and then transferred to Pearl Harbor in 1937. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, Mahan was at sea with Task Force 12. The task force's mission to Midway Island was aborted to participate in the post-attack search for the enemy strike force. Unable to locate it, the task force returned to Pearl Harbor.
Early in World War II, Mahan took part in raids on the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. In the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, Admirals Chester Nimitz and William Halsey commended the destroyer group (of which Mahan was a member) for a stellar effort in screening the aircraft carriers Hornet and Enterprise against heavy odds. During the New Guinea campaign to take the northeast coast from the Japanese, Mahan was engaged in the amphibious landings at Salamaua, Lae, and Finschhafen. She participated in landings at Arawe and Borgen Bay (near Cape Gloucester), New Britain, and provided support for the troop landing at Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands.
Late in the Pacific War, the Japanese kamikaze relentlessly plagued US Naval operations. On 7 December 1944, a group of suicide aircraft overwhelmed and disabled Mahan at Ormoc Bay, Leyte, in the Philippine Islands. On fire and exploding, the ship was abandoned, and a US destroyer sank her with torpedoes and gunfire.USS Shaw (DD-373)
USS Shaw (DD-373) was a Mahan-class destroyer and the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Captain John Shaw, a naval officer. Commissioned in 1936, Shaw was plagued by construction deficiencies and was not fully operational until 1938. After training in the Atlantic, she was transferred to the Pacific and in dry dock in Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.
Shaw sustained major damage from several bomb hits by Japanese forces during the attack on Pearl Harbor. The spectacular explosion of her forward magazine provided one of the most iconic photographs of the attack. She was repaired within a few months of the attack, and served in the Pacific through the rest of World War II, earning 11 battle stars.
Shaw was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in July 1946.USS Walke (DD-416)
USS Walke (DD-416) was a World War II-era Sims-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Rear Admiral Henry A. Walke USN (1809–1896). Walke operated with the Neutrality Patrol in the Caribbean before World War II and fought in the Pacific Theater during the war before being sunk in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.
Walke was laid down by the Naval Shipyard at Boston in Massachusetts on 31 May 1938, launched on 20 October 1939 by Mrs. Clarence Dillon, grandniece of Rear Admiral Walke and commissioned on 27 April 1940.