Bugatti

Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial designer Ettore Bugatti. The cars were known for their design beauty and for their many race victories. Famous Bugattis include the Type 35 Grand Prix cars, the Type 41 "Royale", the Type 57 "Atlantic" and the Type 55 sports car.

The death of Ettore Bugatti in 1947 proved to be the end for the marque, and the death of his son Jean Bugatti in 1939 ensured there was not a successor to lead the factory. No more than about 8,000 cars were made. The company struggled financially, and released one last model in the 1950s, before eventually being purchased for its airplane parts business in 1963. In the 1990s, an Italian entrepreneur revived it as a builder of limited production exclusive sports cars. Today, the name is owned by the Volkswagen Group.

Coordinates: 48°31′32″N 07°30′01″E / 48.52556°N 7.50028°E

Bugatti
Private
IndustryAutomotive
FateSold to Hispano-Suiza (1963)[1]
SuccessorBugatti Automobiles S.A.S.
Founded1909
FounderEttore Bugatti
Defunct1963
Headquarters
Molsheim, Alsace
,
Key people
ProductsAutomobiles
Websitebugatti.com
Ettore Bugatti in 1932
Ettore Bugatti, 1932

Under Ettore Bugatti

Founder Ettore Bugatti was born in Milan, Italy, and the automobile company that bears his name was founded in 1909 in Molsheim located in the Alsace region which was part of the German Empire from 1871 to 1919. The company was known both for the level of detail of its engineering in its automobiles, and for the artistic manner in which the designs were executed, given the artistic nature of Ettore's family (his father, Carlo Bugatti (1856–1940), was an important Art Nouveau furniture and jewelry designer).

World War I and its aftermath

Bugatti Typ 13 Brescia Sport-Racing 1922
Bugatti Type 13 Brescia Sport-Racing, 1922

During the war Ettore Bugatti was sent away, initially to Milan and later to Paris, but as soon as hostilities had been concluded he returned to his factory at Molsheim.[2] Less than four months after the Versailles Treaty formalised the transfer of Alsace from Germany to France, Bugatti was able to obtain, at the last minute, a stand at the 15th Paris motor show in October 1919.[2] He exhibited three light cars, all of them closely based on their pre-war equivalents, and each fitted with the same overhead camshaft 4-cylinder 1,368cc engine with four valves per cylinder.[2] Smallest of the three was a "Type 13" with a racing body (constructed by Bugatti themselves) and using a chassis with a 2,000 mm (78.7 in) wheelbase.[2] The others were a "Type 22" and a "Type 23" with wheelbases of 2,250 and 2,400 mm (88.6 and 94.5 in) respectively.[2]

Racing successes

Bugatti Type 35
Bugatti Type 35B

The company also enjoyed great success in early Grand Prix motor racing: in 1929 a privately entered Bugatti won the first ever Monaco Grand Prix. Racing success culminated with driver Jean-Pierre Wimille winning the 24 hours of Le Mans twice (in 1937 with Robert Benoist and 1939 with Pierre Veyron).

Bugatti cars were extremely successful in racing. The little Bugatti Type 10 swept the top four positions at its first race. The 1924 Bugatti Type 35 is one of the most successful racing cars. The Type 35 was developed by Bugatti with master engineer and racing driver Jean Chassagne who also drove it in the car’s first ever Grand Prix in 1924 Lyon.[3] Bugattis swept to victory in the Targa Florio for five years straight from 1925 through 1929. Louis Chiron held the most podiums in Bugatti cars, and the modern marque revival Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. named the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car in his honour. But it was the final racing success at Le Mans that is most remembered—Jean-Pierre Wimille and Pierre Veyron won the 1939 race with just one car and meagre resources.

Aeroplane racing

Bugatti 100 Racing Plane @ Oshkosh (2234509290) (2)
Bugatti 100P Racing Plane

In the 1930s, Ettore Bugatti got involved in the creation of a racer airplane, hoping to beat the Germans in the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize. This would be the Bugatti 100P,[4][5] which never flew. It was designed by Belgian engineer Louis de Monge who had already applied Bugatti Brescia engines in his "Type 7.5" lifting body.

Railcar

Hugh llewelyn ZZy 24408 (5729560683)
Bugatti Railcar

Ettore Bugatti also designed a successful motorised railcar, the Autorail Bugatti (Autorail Bugatti).[6]

Family tragedy

The death of Ettore Bugatti's son, Jean Bugatti, on 11 August 1939 marked a turning point in the company's fortunes. Jean died while testing a Type 57 tank-bodied race car near the Molsheim factory.

After World War II

Bugatti Coach Type 73A (1947) pic1
Bugatti Type 73A

World War II left the Molsheim factory in ruins and the company lost control of the property. During the war, Bugatti planned a new factory at Levallois, a northwestern suburb of Paris. After the war, Bugatti designed and planned to build a series of new cars, including the Type 73 road car and Type 73C single seat racing car, but in all Bugatti built only five Type 73 cars.

Development of a 375 cc supercharged car was stopped when Ettore Bugatti died on 21 August 1947. Following Ettore Bugatti's death, the business declined further and made its last appearance as a business in its own right at a Paris Motor Show in October 1952.[7]

After a long decline, the original incarnation of Bugatti ceased operations in 1952.

Design

Fondation Bugatti-Molsheim-Moteur Type 49 (2)
Bugatti Type 49 Engine

Bugattis are noticeably focused on design. Engine blocks were hand scraped to ensure that the surfaces were so flat that gaskets were not required for sealing, many of the exposed surfaces of the engine compartment featured guilloché (engine turned) finishes on them, and safety wires had been threaded through almost every fastener in intricately laced patterns. Rather than bolt the springs to the axles as most manufacturers did, Bugatti's axles were forged such that the spring passed through a carefully sized opening in the axle, a much more elegant solution requiring fewer parts. He famously described his arch competitor Bentley's cars as "the world's fastest lorries" for focusing on durability. According to Bugatti, "weight was the enemy".

Important models built

Prototypes Racing cars Road cars

Gallery

Bugatti 1913

1913 Bugatti 22, 3 seat Vinet

Bugatti Type 50 i

Bugatti Type 50 i

RL 1938 Bugatti 57SC Atlantic 34 2

1938 Type 57SC Atlantic from the Ralph Lauren collection

1933 Bugatti Type 59 Grand Prix 34 rear

1933 Type 59 Grand Prix racer from the Ralph Lauren collection

Bugatti 43 Cockpit

Bugatti Type 43 Cockpit

Notable finds in the modern era

Relatives of Harold Carr found a rare 1937 Bugatti Type 57S Atalante when cataloguing the doctor's belongings after his death in 2009. Carr's Type 57S is notable because it was originally owned by British race car driver Earl Howe. Because much of the car's original equipment is intact, it can be restored without relying on replacement parts.[9]

On 10 July 2009, a 1925 Bugatti Brescia Type 22 which had lain at the bottom of Lake Maggiore on the border of Switzerland and Italy for 75 years was recovered from the lake. The Mullin Museum in Oxnard, California bought it at auction for $351,343 at Bonham's Rétromobile sale in Paris in 2010.

Attempts at revival

The company attempted a comeback under Roland Bugatti in the mid-1950s with the mid-engined Type 251 race car. Designed with help from Gioacchino Colombo, the car failed to perform to expectations and the company's attempts at automobile production were halted.

In the 1960s, Virgil Exner designed a Bugatti as part of his "Revival Cars" project. A show version of this car was actually built by Ghia using the last Bugatti Type 101 chassis, and was shown at the 1965 Turin Motor Show. Finance was not forthcoming, and Exner then turned his attention to a revival of Stutz.

Bugatti continued manufacturing airplane parts and was sold to Hispano-Suiza, also a former auto maker turned aircraft supplier, in 1963.[1] Snecma took over Hispano-Suiza in 1968. After acquiring Messier, Snecma merged Messier and Bugatti into Messier-Bugatti in 1977.

Modern revivals

Bugatti Automobili S.p.A. (1987–1995)

BUGATTI AUTOMOBILI
View of the assembly line building of the Bugatti Automobili factory in Campogalliano

Italian entrepreneur Romano Artioli acquired the Bugatti brand in 1987, and established Bugatti Automobili S.p.A.. Artioli commissioned architect Giampaolo Benedini to design the factory which was built in Campogalliano, Modena, Italy. Construction of the plant began in 1988, alongside the development of the first model, and it was inaugurated two years later—in 1990.[10]

By 1989, the plans for the new Bugatti revival were presented by Paolo Stanzani and Marcello Gandini, designers of the Lamborghini Miura and Lamborghini Countach. The first production vehicle was the Bugatti EB110 GT. It used a carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer chassis, a 3.5-litre, 5-valve per cylinder, quad-turbocharged 60° V12 engine, a six-speed gearbox, and four-wheel drive.

Famed racing car designer Mauro Forghieri served as Bugatti's technical director from 1992 through 1994.

On 27 August 1993, through his holding company, ACBN Holdings S.A. of Luxembourg, Romano Artioli purchased Lotus Cars from General Motors. Plans were made to list Bugatti shares on international stock exchanges.

Bugatti presented a prototype large saloon called the EB112 in 1993.

Perhaps the most famous Bugatti EB110 owner was seven-time Formula One World Champion racing driver Michael Schumacher who purchased an EB110 in 1994. Schumacher sold his EB110, which had been repaired after a severe 1994 crash, to Modena Motorsport, a Ferrari service and race preparation garage in Germany.

By the time the EB110 came to market, the North American and European economies were in recession. Poor economic conditions forced the company to fail and operations ceased in September 1995. A model specific to the US market called the "Bugatti America" was in the preparatory stages when the company ceased operations.

Bugatti's liquidators sold Lotus Cars to Proton of Malaysia. German firm Dauer Racing purchased the EB110 licence and remaining parts stock in 1997 in order to produce five more EB110 SS vehicles. These five SS versions of the EB110 were greatly refined by Dauer. The Campogalliano factory was sold to a furniture-making company, which became defunct prior to moving in, leaving the building unoccupied.[11] After Dauer stopped producing cars in 2011, Toscana-Motors GmbH of Germany purchased the remaining parts stock from Dauer.

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. (1998–present)

Pre-Veyron

Volkswagen Group acquired the Bugatti brand in 1998. Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. commissioned Giorgetto Giugiaro of ItalDesign to produce Bugatti Automobiles's first concept vehicle, the EB118, a coupé that debuted at the 1998 Paris Auto Show. The EB118 concept featured a 408-kilowatt (555 PS; 547 bhp), W-18 engine. After its Paris debut, the EB118 concept was shown again in 1999 at the Geneva Auto Show and the Tokyo Motor Show. Bugatti introduced its next concepts, the EB 218 at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show and the 18/3 Chiron at the 1999 Frankfurt Motor Show (IAA).

Veyron era (2005–2015)

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. began assembling its first regular-production vehicle, the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 (the 1001 PS super car with an 8-litre W-16 engine with four turbochargers) in September 2005 at the Bugatti Molsheim, France assembly "studio".[12][13] On 23 February 2015, Bugatti sold its last Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse, which was named La Finale.[14]

Chiron era (2016–present)

The Bugatti Chiron is a mid-engined, two-seated sports car, designed by Achim Anscheidt[15], developed as the successor to the Bugatti Veyron.[16] The Chiron was first revealed at the Geneva Motor Show on March 1, 2016.[17][18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wood, Jonathan (1992). Bugatti, The Man and the Marque. The Crowood Press. p. 369-370. ISBN 978-1-85223-364-8.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1920 (salon [Oct] 1919). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 31: 63. 2004.
  3. ^ L’Automobiliste, 1971 P. 7
  4. ^ "Bugatti Model 100 at the EAA Museum". Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  5. ^ "Bugatti Aircraft Association – 100P Airplane". Bugattiaircraft.com. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  6. ^ Hearst Magazines (December 1934). "Streamlined Auto-Rail Car Used in France". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. p. 885.
  7. ^ "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1953 (salon Paris oct 1952). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 14: Pages 6 & 10. 2000.
  8. ^ Georgano, G.N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  9. ^ "1937 Bugatti Atalante Supercar, One of 17, Found in English Garage, Associated Press, January 2, 2009". The Huffington Post. 2009-01-02. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  10. ^ AISA (2011), p. 28.
  11. ^ Copyright. Est February 2003. "Bugatti on TradeTwentyfourSeven website". Trade-247.com. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  12. ^ "Bugatti: 1,001 horsepower, $1.24 million". CNN. 2005-09-16. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  13. ^ "Manufacturing the Veyron". Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. 2011-11-30. Archived from the original on 2013-07-19. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  14. ^ Sorokanich, Robert (23 February 2015). "The very last Bugatti Veyron has been sold". Road and Track. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  15. ^ Wewer, Antje. "Porsche Achim Anscheidt, B AA 9117 H". Porsche AG – Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
  16. ^ Branman, Miles (2015-11-24). "Bugatti's world-challenging Chiron supercar will let you take its roof off". Digital Trends. US. Retrieved 2016-10-28.
  17. ^ Taylor, James (2016-02-29). "Bugatti Chiron revealed at Geneva 2016: the world has a new fastest production car". CAR Magazine. UK. Retrieved 2016-03-23.
  18. ^ "2016 Geneva Auto Show – Auto Show". Car and Driver. US. Retrieved 2016-03-23.

External links

Bugatti (song)

"Bugatti" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Ace Hood. It was released on January 29, 2013, as the first single from his fourth studio album, Trials & Tribulations. The song, produced by Mike WiLL Made It and co-produced by J-Bo, features guest appearances from fellow American rappers Future and Rick Ross. The song peaked at number 33 on the Billboard Hot 100, making it Ace Hood's most successful single of his career. The single has sold over one million copies and was certified platinum by the RIAA.

Bugatti Automobiles

Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. (French pronunciation: ​[bygati]) is a French high-performance luxury automobiles manufacturer and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, with its head office and assembly plant in Molsheim, Alsace, France. Volkswagen purchased the Bugatti trademark in June 1998 and incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. in 1999.

Bugatti presented several concept cars between 1998 and 2000 before commencing development of its first production model, the Veyron 16.4, delivering the first Veyron to a customer in 2005.

Bugatti Chiron

The Bugatti Chiron is a mid-engine two-seater sports car developed and manufactured in Molsheim, France by French automobile manufacturer Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. as the successor to the Bugatti Veyron. The Chiron was first shown at the Geneva Motor Show on 1 March 2016. The car is based on the Bugatti Vision Gran Turismo concept car.

The car is named after the Monegasque driver Louis Chiron. The car shares the name with the 1999 Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car.

Bugatti EB 110

The Bugatti EB 110 is a mid-engine sports car produced by Bugatti Automobili S.p.A. from 1991 to 1995, when the company was liquidated. It was the only production model made by Romano Artioli's Italian incarnation of Bugatti.

Bugatti Prototypes

This is a list of prototype vehicles created by Bugatti that never reached full production.

Bugatti Royale

The Bugatti Type 41, better known as the Royale, is a large luxury car built from 1927 to 1933 with a 4.3 m (169.3 in) wheelbase and 6.4 m (21 ft) overall length. It weighs approximately 3,175 kg (7,000 lb) and uses a 12.763 litre (778 cu in) straight-eight engine. For comparison, against the modern Rolls-Royce Phantom (produced from 2003 onward), the Royale is about 20% longer, and more than 25% heavier. This makes the Royale one of the largest cars in the world.Ettore Bugatti planned to build twenty-five of these cars and sell them to royalty as the most luxurious car ever, but even European royalty were not buying such things during the Great Depression, and Bugatti was able to sell only three of the seven made (six still exist, one destroyed in wreck).

Bugatti Type 35

The Type 35 was the most successful of the Bugatti racing models. Its version of the Bugatti arch-shaped radiator that had evolved from the more architectural one of the Bugatti Type 13 Brescia, was to become the one that the marque is most known for though even in the ranks of the various Type 35s there were variations on the theme.

The Type 35 was phenomenally successful, winning over 1,000 races in its time. It took the Grand Prix World Championship in 1926 after winning 351 races and setting 47 records in the two prior years. At its height, Type 35s averaged 14 race wins per week. Bugatti won the Targa Florio for five consecutive years, from 1925 through 1929, with the Type 35.

Bugatti Type 51

The Bugatti Type 51 series succeeded the famous Type 35 as Bugatti's premier racing car for the 1930s. Unlike the dominant Type 35s of the prior decade, the Type 51 (and later Type 53, Type 54, and Type 59) were unable to compete with the government-supported German and Italian offerings.

Bugatti Type 57

The Bugatti Type 57 and later variants (including the famous Atlantic and Atalante) was an entirely new design created by Jean Bugatti, son of founder Ettore. Type 57s were built from 1934 through 1940, with a total of 710 examples produced.

Type 57s used a twin-cam 3,257 cc engine based on that of the Type 49 but heavily modified by Jean Bugatti, unlike the single cam engines of the Type 49 and earlier models. The engines of the Type 50, 51 used bevel gears at the front of the engine to transmit power from the crankshaft, whereas the Type 57 used a train of spur gears at the rear of the engine, with fiber gear wheels on the camshafts to achieve more silence in operation.

There were two basic variants of the Type 57 car:

The original Type 57

The lowered Type 57S/SCThe Type 57 chassis and engine was revived in 1951 as the Bugatti Type 101.

A rediscovered Type 57 sold for 3.4 million euros at auction on 7 February 2009 at a motor show in Paris.

Bugatti Veyron

The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engine sports car, designed and developed in Germany by the Volkswagen Group and manufactured in Molsheim, France, by French automobile manufacturer Bugatti. It was named after the racing driver Pierre Veyron.

The original version has a top speed of 407 km/h (253 mph). It was named Car of the Decade and best car award (2000–2009) by the BBC television programme Top Gear. The standard Bugatti Veyron also won Top Gear's Best Car Driven All Year award in 2005.

The Super Sport version of the Veyron is recognised by Guinness World Records as the fastest street-legal production car in the world, with a top speed of 431.072 km/h (267.856 mph). The Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse was the fastest roadster in the world, reaching an averaged top speed of 408.84 km/h (254.04 mph) in a test on 6 April 2013.The Veyron's chief designer was Hartmut Warkuß and the exterior was designed by Jozef Kabaň of Volkswagen, with much of the engineering work being conducted under the guidance of engineering chief Wolfgang Schreiber. The Veyron includes a sound system designed and built by Burmester Audiosysteme.Several special variants have been produced. In December, 2010, Bugatti began offering prospective buyers the ability to customise exterior and interior colours by using the Veyron 16.4 Configurator application on the marque's official website. The Bugatti Veyron was discontinued in late 2014. But special edition models continued production until 2015.

Circuit de la Sarthe

The Circuit des 24 Heures du Mans, also known as Circuit de la Sarthe (after the 1906 French Grand Prix triangle circuit) located in Le Mans, Sarthe, France, is a semi-permanent motorsport race course chiefly known as the venue for the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race. Comprising private, race-specific sections of track in addition to public roads which remain accessible most of the year, its present configuration is 13.626 kilometres (8.467 mi) long, making it one of the longest circuits in the world. Capacity of the race stadium, where the short Bugatti Circuit is situated, is 100,000. The Musée des 24 Heures du Mans is a motorsport museum located at the main entrance of the venue.

Up to 85% of the lap time is spent on full throttle, putting immense stress on engine and drivetrain components. Additionally, the times spent reaching maximum speed also mean tremendous wear on the brakes and suspension as cars must slow from over 320 km/h (200 mph) to around 100 km/h (60 mph) for the sharp corner at the village of Mulsanne.

Ettore Bugatti

Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti (15 September 1881 – 21 August 1947) was an Italian-born French automobile designer and manufacturer. He is remembered as the founder and proprietor of the automobile manufacturing company Automobiles E. Bugatti.

Jean-Pierre Wimille

Jean-Pierre Wimille (26 February 1908 – 28 January 1949) was a Grand Prix motor racing driver and a member of the French Resistance during World War II.

Louis Chiron

Louis Alexandre Chiron (3 August 1899 – 22 June 1979) was a Monégasque racing driver who competed in rallies, sports car races, and Grands Prix.

Among the greatest drivers between the two World Wars, his career embraced over thirty years, coming to light already in 1927, and ending at the end of the 1950s. This is also why he is still the oldest driver ever to have raced in Formula One, having taken 6th place in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix when he was 55. The Bugatti Chiron takes its name from him.

Maurice Trintignant

Maurice Bienvenu Jean Paul Trintignant (30 October 1917, in Sainte-Cécile-les-Vignes, Vaucluse – 13 February 2005, in Nîmes) was a motor racing driver and vintner from France. He competed in the Formula One World Championship for fourteen years, between 1950 and 1964, one of the longest careers in the early years of Formula One. During this time he also competed in sports car racing, including winning the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans race. Following his retirement from the track Trintignant concentrated on the wine trade.

Maurice Trintignant was the brother of Bugatti race car driver Louis Trintignant — who was killed in 1933, in practice, at Péronne, Picardy — and the uncle of renowned French film actor Jean-Louis Trintignant.

Pierre Veyron

Pierre Veyron (1 October 1903 – 2 November 1970) was a French Grand Prix motor racing driver active from 1933 through 1953.

Pierre Veyron enrolled at university to study engineering. Veyron's friend, Albert Divo, convinced Veyron to take up racing and introduced Veyron to André Vagniez, an industrialist who provided financial support to Veyron. Vagniez purchased a Bugatti Type 37A that Veyron drove to his first racing victory, winning the 1930 Geneva Grand Prix.Jean Bugatti, son of Bugatti founder Ettore Bugatti, hired Pierre Veyron in 1932 as a test driver and development engineer. Veyron entered races as a Bugatti company driver, winning many including the 1933 and 1934 Berlin Avus races while driving a Bugatti Type 51A. Veyron's most significant race victory was his 1939 win at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, co-driving a Bugatti Type 57S Tank with Jean-Pierre Wimille.During World War II, Veyron joined the French Resistance against German occupation. For his service during the war, the Republic of France awarded him the Legion of Honour in 1945.After the war, Veyron continued racing, but his main focus was on his family and his oil-drilling technology company. Veyron died in Èze, France in 1970.Bugatti Automobiles S.A.S. named the Veyron 16.4 supercar in honor of Veyron.

Romano Artioli

Romano Artioli (born 1932) is an Italian entrepreneur and one-time owner of Bugatti and Lotus automobile brands.

Artioli was born in Moglia in the Province of Mantua, and raised in Bolzano where in the 1980s he ran one of the largest Ferrari dealerships in the world, selling in northern Italy and southern Germany.

He also imported Japanese cars, owning Autoexpò which in 1982 became the first Italian importer of Suzuki.He had a large collection of Bugatti automobiles,

and was encouraged by Ferruccio Lamborghini and Paolo Stanzani to establish Bugatti International, a holding company that bought the Bugatti trademark name in 1987.

Artioli became chairman of Bugatti Automobili S.p.A., which made the Bugatti EB 110 between 1991 and 1995.

In 1993, his wife Renata Kettmeir formed the Bolzano-based Ettore Bugatti luxury item maker, also using the Bugatti "EB" logo. Their involvement ended in September 1995 due to bankruptcy, and the company was eventually bought by Volkswagen in April 1998. Prior to the sale to Volkswagen, private equity Investor CVC Ventures (a Citibank company) attempted a purchase of Bugatti via UK corporate finance advisor Anglo American Ventures however the £100m deal failed at due diligence stage.

Artioli purchased Lotus from General Motors in August 1993 and became its chairman until 1996 when he stepped down to be Special Projects director until 1998.

He sold a majority stake to Proton in 1996 to fund his losses due to the insolvency of Bugatti.

His daughter Elena Artioli (born 1970) is a politician for the South Tyrolean People's Party and

Lega Nord Alto Adige – Südtirol.

The Lotus Elise was named after Romano Artioli's granddaughter Elisa Artioli.

Safran Landing Systems

Safran Landing Systems (formerly Messier-Bugatti-Dowty) is a French company involved in the design, development, manufacture and customer support of all types of aircraft landing gear, wheels and brakes and a wholly owned subsidiary of Safran SA. It is the world's largest manufacturer of aircraft landing gear.The company projects are divided into two business units: Airbus & European Programs and Boeing & North American Programs.

W16 engine

A W16 engine is a sixteen cylinder piston internal combustion engine in a four-bank W configuration. The most common layout for W16 engines consists of two 'offset double-row' banks of eight cylinders, coupled to a single crankshaft. Other layouts, though, have been used before as well.

Volkswagen Group is the only automotive manufacturer currently producing W16 engines. These engines are most notably used in the Bugatti Veyron and Bugatti Chiron. French car maker Jimenez also used a custom 4.1L W16 made from four Yamaha motorcycle engines in the 1995 Jimenez Novia, a one-off French supercar. The Volkswagen W16 engine was introduced with the mid-engined Bentley Hunaudieres concept car (Bentley Motors Limited has been a Volkswagen Group holding since 1998). This W16 was later used in the Audi Rosemeyer concept car, and in the aforementioned Bugatti Veyron, Chiron and Divo.

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