Buffalo pound

The buffalo pound was a hunting device constructed by native peoples of the North American plains for the purpose of entrapping and slaughtering American bison, also known as buffalo. It consisted of a circular corral at the terminus of a flared chute through which buffalo were herded and thereby trapped. David Mandelbaum's The Plains Cree contains diagrams and a complete description of the construction and use of such a pound.[1]

In 1758, explorer and fur trader Joseph Smith was the first European to record the use of a buffalo pound while travelling to the Assiniboine River.[2]

The common Cree name "Poundmaker", refers to someone who makes buffalo pounds.

Royal Alberta Museum (8724641368)
Diorama of a buffalo pound at the Royal Alberta Museum

References

  1. ^ Mandelbaum, David G. (1940). The Plains Cree: An Ethnographic, Historical, and Comparative Study. New York: Aims Pr Inc. ISBN 978-0-404-15626-8.
  2. ^ Ray, Arthur (1998). Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Role as Trappers, Hunters. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 249. Retrieved 12 July 2014.

See also

Belle Plaine, Saskatchewan

Belle Plaine (2016 Population 85) is a village in the rural municipality of Rural Municipality of Pense No. 160, Saskatchewan, Canada. Belle Plaine is located on Highway 1 (also known as the Trans Canada Highway), 21 kilometers east of the city of Moose Jaw in south-central Saskatchewan. Buffalo Pound Provincial Park and Regina Beach are located near Belle Plaine.

Bethune, Saskatchewan

The village of Bethune lies within the RM Dufferin No. 190, province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The village is 56 km northwest of Regina on Highway 11 which is now designated as the Louis Riel Trail. The population of Bethune is 400 people. Bethune is nestled amidst some beautiful waterways. Arm River flows along a river valley north of Bethune and features picturesque camping sites, and the Qu'Appelle River is a short way south. Last Mountain Lake or Long Lake is northeast of Bethune whereas Buffalo Pound Lake is just southwest.

The post office of Bethune, Assiniboia, NWT was established 5 June 1905, three months before Saskatchewan became a province. The village takes its name from C.B. Bethune, the engineer on the first train to travel the railway in 1887.

Buffalo Pound Lake

Buffalo Pound Lake is a eutrophic prairie lake in Saskatchewan, Canada, formed from glaciation about 10,000 years ago, on the Qu'Appelle River approximately 28 km north of Moose Jaw and 11 km northeast of Tuxford. The lake gets its name from the method used by First Nations people to capture the bison using the natural topography as corrals or buffalo pounds. Bison once numbered more than 60 million, by 1900 they were all but extinct due to settlement. Bison were reintroduced into the area in 1972. The Qu'Appelle River was dammed by the Buffalo Pound Dam in 1939 to control fluctuating water levels. The dam is an embankment dam approximately 1400 metres long.

A fish ladder installed in 1999-2000 allows fish to migrate in and out of the lake and new gates were installed to create a better water supply downstream. The height of the dam was also raised 1 metre. The problem with fluctuating water levels wasn't solved all together until the construction of the Qu'Appelle River Dam and Gardiner Dam that created Lake Diefenbaker 100 km upstream in 1967. As a result, water flow in the Qu'Appelle River now remains relatively constant. This, however, has flushed the lake out and allowed excessive algae growth due to the cleaner water which reduced the popularity of swimming and boating during the summer months, raised the cost of water treatment, and the lake still remains eutrophic, due to low oxygen levels and highly nutritious soil on the lake's bottom.

The lake provides drinking water for the cities of Regina, Moose Jaw, and The Mosaic Company potash mine at Belle Plaine, approximately 25% of the province's population. It is also used for recreational purposes such as camping, boating, and fishing and is home to a host of fish species including walleye, sauger, yellow perch, northern pike, cisco, mooneye, lake whitefish, white sucker, channel catfish, burbot, bigmouth buffalo, and common carp. Buffalo Pound Provincial Park is located on the southern part of the lake and can be accessed by Highway 202 and Highway 301. Cabins can be rented or bought along the shores of the lake.

Highway 2 crosses by causeway on the lake.

The Moose Jaw River joins the Qu'Appelle River 5 km east of the dam.

Buffalo Pound Provincial Park

Buffalo Pound Provincial Park is a Saskatchewan Provincial Park located in southern Saskatchewan about 30 km (19 mi) northeast of the city of Moose Jaw and 86 km (53 mi) northwest of the city of Regina.The park centres on Buffalo Pound Lake, a prairie lake formed from glaciation about 10,000 years ago. Seasonal recreation activities include swimming (two public beaches and a pool), camping, fishing, mini-golf, biking, hiking, and access to the Trans-Canada Trail. The park also features a captive herd of bison, along with the Nicolle Flats Marsh where a variety of wildlife can be observed. There is also a trout pond, known as Buffalo Pond, which is stocked with rainbow, brown and tiger trout. Highways 202 and 301 intersect near the park.

Bullpound Creek

Bullpound Creek is a stream in Alberta, Canada.Bullpound Creek's name comes from the Blackfoot Indians of the area, due to a buffalo pound near its course.

Carswell crater

Carswell is an impact crater within the Athabasca Basin of the Canadian Shield in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. It is 39 kilometres (24 mi) in diameter and the age is estimated to be 115 ± 10 million years (Lower Cretaceous). The crater is exposed at the surface.

George Tuxford

Brigadier-General George Stuart Tuxford, (7 February 1870 – 1942) was a pioneer of the Buffalo Pound Lake District, Saskatchewan, and later a senior officer in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). During the First World War he served first as officer commanding the 5th (Western Cavalry) Battalion and later as General Officer Commanding 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division.

Joseph Smith (explorer)

Joseph Smith was a British fur trader and explorer working for the Hudson's Bay Company. He was one of the first Europeans to explore the interior of what later became Canada from Hudson Bay. Smith died June 1765 en route to York Factory from the Saskatchewan River country. Smith’s explorations played an important role in opening up the interior of western Canada to European trade, and his journals provide one of the earliest accounts of Cree life.Joseph Smith arrived at Hudson Bay as a labourer in 1753. Three years later he was sent inland with Joseph Waggoner to accompany a Cree chief, Washiabitt, to his home grounds. Their instructions were to distribute gifts to the Indians they encountered in an effort to persuade them to travel downriver to York Factory. Following the Hayes and Fox rivers, they reached Cedar Lake on 31 October. Adopting the native way of life and travel, Smith continued south past the Porcupine Hills, crossing the Assiniboine River where he hunted buffalo.In March 1757 Smith continued his travels by going north to the Swan River region. There his party built birch bark canoes, and traveled to Fort Bourbon. They then returned to York Factory by way of Oxford and Knee Lakes. The next year Smith returned to the Assiniboine River, and was the first European to record the use of a buffalo pound. In 1759 Smith joined the explorer Anthony Henday on a trip into Saskatchewan country, returning with a large flotilla of Cree bringing furs to trade. In 1763, the Cree leader Meesinkeeshick guided Smith inland via the Grass River. He became the first European to visit Lake Athapapuskow and the important Cranberry Portage. During his travels, Smith established a family with a Cree woman near Nipawin.In 1764, accompanied by Isaac Batt, Smith traveled the same route up the Grass River. On the return journey Smith died. After his death his Cree wife brought their child and his furs downriver to York Factory. The Hudson Bay Company gave the furs, which he had traded illegally, to his "tent mate".

List of lakes of Saskatchewan

This is not a complete list of lakes of Saskatchewan, a province of Canada. This list will begin by listing the major ones.

List of protected areas of Saskatchewan

This is a list of protected areas of Saskatchewan.

Qu'Appelle River

The Qu'Appelle River is a Canadian river that flows 430 kilometres (270 mi) east from Lake Diefenbaker in southwestern Saskatchewan to join the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, just south of Lake of the Prairies, near the village of St. Lazare.

With the construction of the Qu'Appelle River Dam and Gardiner Dam upstream water flow was significantly increased and regulated. Most of the Qu'Appelle's present flow is actually water diverted from the South Saskatchewan River.

Qu'Appelle River Dam

The Qu'appelle River Dam is the smaller of two embankment dams: which created Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan, Canada. The larger dam is Gardiner Dam, the biggest embankment dam in Canada and one of the biggest in the world. Construction of both dams began in the 1959 and was completed in 1967. The dam keeps the flow of water in the Qu'Appelle River relatively constant, as the Qu'Appelle river used to dry up in many places every summer when the snow that fills in the South Saskatchewan River from the Rocky Mountains was done melting. This along with Buffalo Pound Dam at Buffalo Pound Lake, which supplies water to Regina, Moose Jaw and the Mosaic potash mine at Belle Plaine, keeps the lake from fluctuating too much.

The Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the river atop of the dam.

The dam is 3100 metres long and 27 metres high.

Douglas Provincial Park (named after former premier of Saskatchewan Tommy Douglas) extends from the dam to Mistusinne.

Highway 19 crosses the Qu'Appelle Valley about 1 km southeast of the dam, and provides access to a vantage point of the dam Lake Diefenbaker and the Qu'Appelle Valley.

During the time of glaciation on North America, the retreating glacier would block the flow north and would force the water flow down the Qu'Appelle River. When the glaciers retreated further, water would then flow north. Before the Gardiner Dam was built, spring flows were high enough to allow water down the Qu'Appelle but would dry up later in the fall. Now as the Qu'Appelle Dam always retains the water of Lake Diefenbaker, water is released into the Qu'Appelle to maintain flows all year long. This serves the farmers along the Qu'Appelle who use it for irrigation and watering their livestock.

Rural Municipality of Pense No. 160

Pense No. 160, Saskatchewan is a rural municipality of 490 rural residents (2006 census) in the southeastern part of Saskatchewan, Canada. The RM was incorporated January 1, 1913. As of 1923, the population rose to 2227 residents. Other localities in the area include Pense, Belle Plaine, Cottonwood, Eastview, Kalium, Keystown, Madrid, Pattee, Schulerville, Stelcam, Stony Beach, Stony Beach Airport Within this RM are 600 kilometres (km) of roads of which the Trans Canada Highway is one of the main roads. Nicolle Flats Nature Area (Buffalo Pound Provincial Park) is located here as well. The Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), an endangered animal, makes its home in this area. Bigmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus) is of special concern in this ecoregion.

The first municipal organization within the boundaries of the present municipality was formed in 1897 and consisted of one township Local Improvement Districts (L.I.D.s). Ratepayers decided at annual meetings what needed to be done. An overseer was hired to do the work. Taxes were levied to pay for the work. Ratepayers could pay their taxes by performing day labour.

In 1904 the L.I.D.s were replaced with larger L.I.D.s organized under the L.I.D. Ordinance of 1903. Four townships were included in this L.I.D. One councilor was elected for each township.

On December 13, 1909, L.I.D. Number 160 was organized with the same boundaries as the present municipality (nine townships).

A rural municipality is an administrative district consisting of an elected reeve, councilors, administrator who provide essential services within their area.

A person could work for the municipality and have his earnings put toward the taxes on his land; at one time, money collected in each Division stayed in that Division....The RM has as its responsibilities for many areas: agricultural programs and concerns in general; tax collections for needs of the municipality - road construction and maintenance; protective services - pest control, fire protection, weed control, environmental development, cultural and educational services; medical and veterinary needs and so forth.

Saskatchewan Highway 2

Highway 2 is a provincial highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It is the longest Saskatchewan Highway, at 809 km (503 mi). The highway is partially divided and undivided. However, only about 18 kilometres (11 mi) near Moose Jaw, 11 kilometres (7 mi) near Chamberlain, and 21 kilometres (13 mi) near Prince Albert are divided highway. Highway 2 is a major north-south route, beginning at the Canada–US border at the Port of West Poplar River, and Opheim, Montana customs checkpoints. Montana Highway 24 continues south. The town of La Ronge delimits the northern terminus with Highway 102 continuing north. It passes through the major cities of Moose Jaw in the south and Prince Albert in the north. Highway 2 overlaps Highway 11 between the towns of Chamberlain and Findlater. This 11 kilometres (7 mi) section of road is a wrong-way concurrency. The highway ends at La Ronge, where it becomes Highway 102.

The highway started as a graded road in the 1920s which followed the grid lines of the early survey system and was maintained by early homesteaders of each rural municipality. Paving projects of the 1950s created all weather roads. Technological advances have paved the way for cost-effective methods of improvements to highway surfaces to meet the wear and tear of increased tourist and commercial highway traffic. The stretch of Highway 2 from Moose Jaw to Prince Albert was designated in 2005 as Veterans Memorial Highway. The designation coincided with Veterans Week 2005. The CanAm Highway comprises Saskatchewan Highways 35, 39, 6, 3, and 2.

Saskatchewan Highway 202

Highway 202 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 2 near Tuxford to Highway 301 near the Buffalo Pound Provincial Park. Highway 202 is about 12.5 km (8 mi) long.

Saskatchewan Highway 301

Highway 301 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from the Highway 1-Highway 39 intersection near Pasqua (east of Moose Jaw) to Highway 202 near Buffalo Pound Provincial Park. Highway 301 is about 21 km (13 mi) long.Highway 301 also passes through Pleasant Mount.

Saskatchewan Water Security Agency

The Saskatchewan Water Security Agency (before 2013, the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority) is an arms length organization responsible for the management of water resources to ensure safe drinking water sources and reliable water supplies for economic, environmental and social benefits in Saskatchewan, Canada. The authority is a treasury board crown corporation administered by a board of directors appointed by the provincial government.

The authority performs the following functions:

operates dams and related facilities,

maintains an inventory of the quantity and quality of ground and surface water,

administer the allocation of water,

regulate and control the flow of water such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs,

represents the provincial government when negotiating inter-provincial and international water agreements,

regulates water works and drainage works,

develops flood forecasting and identify flood susceptible areas,

promote the efficient use of water for environmental and socio-economic benefit,

develops watershed studies and research,

protection watersheds, including ecosystems, erosion control, waterfowl conservation and fish habitat,

Saskatchewan Safe Drinking Water Strategy,

The agency is responsible for the operation of the following dam facilities:

Alameda Dam

Avonlea Dam

Blackstrap North Dam

Blackstrap South Dam

Bradwell East Dam

Bradwell West Dam

Brightwater Creek Dam

Broderick East Dam

Broderick West Dam

Buffalo Pound Dam

Candle Lake

Chicken Lake Dam

Cowan Lake Dam

Craven Dam

Crooked Lake Dam

Darmody Dam

Dellwood Brook Dam

Echo Lake Dam

Esterhazy Dam

Five Mile Dam

Gardiner Dam

Hugonard Dam

Katepwa Dam

Kingsway Dam

Kipahigan Lake Dam

Lac la Plonge Dam

Lac la Ronge Dam

Makwa Lake Control

Moose Mountain Dam

Northminster Effuent Reservoir

Opuntia Lake Control

Pike Lake Water Supply

Qu'Appelle River Dam

Rafferty Dam

Round Lake Dam

Scott Dam

Spruce River Dam

Star City Dam

Stelcam Weir

Summercove Dam

Tee-Pee Creek Dam

Theodore Dam

Wascana Lake Weir

West Poplar Dam

Woody Lake Weir

Valeport Dam

Zelma Dam

Tuxford, Saskatchewan

Tuxford, named for George Tuxford, is a community in Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw is 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south and Buffalo Pound Lake is 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) north. Highway 2, Highway 42 and Highway 202 all intersect in the community. Highway 202 connects the community to Buffalo Pound Provincial Park 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) east. The community contains a car and truck dealership.

The community was founded in 1907 and named after General George Stuart Tuxford of the 3rd Canadian Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division. The community celebrated its centennial in 2007.

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