Buddhism by country

Buddhism is a religion practiced by an estimated 488 million in the world,[1] 495 million,[2] or 535 million[3] people as of the 2010s, representing 9% to 10% of the world's total population.

China is the country with the largest population of Buddhists, approximately 244 million or 18.2% of its total population.[1] They are mostly followers of Chinese schools of Mahayana, making this the largest body of Buddhist traditions. Mahayana, also practised in broader East Asia, is followed by over half of the world's Buddhists.[1]

The second largest body of Buddhist schools is Theravada, mostly followed in Southeast Asia.[1] The third and smallest body of schools Vajrayana, is followed mostly in Tibet, the Himalayan region, Mongolia and parts of Russia,[1] but is disseminated throughout the world.

According to a demographic analysis reported by Peter Harvey (2013):[3]

  • Eastern Buddhism (Mahayana) has 360 million adherents;
  • Southern Buddhism (Theravada) has 150 million adherents; and
  • Northern Buddhism (Vajrayana) has 18.2 million adherents.
  • Seven million additional Buddhists are found outside Asia.
Buddhism percent population in each nation World Map Buddhist data by Pew Research
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center.

By country

Buddhist population by country
Country/Territory Population (2010)
Pew estimate[1]
% Buddhist (2010)
Pew estimate[1]
No. of Buddhists (2010)
Pew estimate[1]
No. of Buddhists
Other estimates
Afghanistan Afghanistan 31,410,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Albania Albania 3,200,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Algeria Algeria 35,470,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 American Samoa 70,000 0.3% < 10,000
 Andorra 80,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Angola Angola 19,080,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Argentina Argentina 40,410,000 < 0.1% 20,000
 Armenia 3,090,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Aruba 110,000 0.1% < 10,000
Australia Australia 22,270,000 2.7% 600,000
Austria Austria 8,390,000 0.2% 20,000
 Azerbaijan 9,190,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Bahamas 340,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Bahrain Bahrain 1,260,000 2.5% 30,000
Bangladesh Bangladesh 148,690,000 0.5% 720,000
 Barbados 270,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Belarus 9,600,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Belgium Belgium 10,710,000 0.2% 30,000
Belize Belize 310,000 0.5% < 10,000
 Benin 8,850,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Bermuda 60,000 0.5% < 10,000
Bhutan Bhutan 730,000 74.7% 540,000
 Bolivia 9,930,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Botswana Botswana 2,010,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Brazil Brazil 194,950,000 0.1% 250,000
Brunei Brunei 400,000 8.6% 30,000
Bulgaria Bulgaria 7,490,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 16,470,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Myanmar Burma (Myanmar) 47,960,000 87.9% 38,410,000
Cambodia Cambodia 14,140,000 96.9% 13,690,000
Cameroon Cameroon 19,600,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Canada Canada 34,020,000 0.8% 280,000
Chad Chad 11,230,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Chile 17,110,000 < 0.1% 10,000
China China 1,341,340,000 18.2% 244,130,000
 Colombia 46,290,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 65,970,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 4,040,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Costa Rica Costa Rica 4,660,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 19,740,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Croatia Croatia 4,400,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Cuba 11,260,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
 Cyprus 1,100,000 0.2% < 10,000
Czech Republic Czech Republic 10,490,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Denmark Denmark 5,550,000 0.2% 10,000
 Dominica 70,000 0.1% < 10,000
 Dominican Republic < 0.1% < 10,000
 Ecuador < 0.1% < 10,000
Egypt Egypt < 0.1% < 10,000
El Salvador El Salvador < 0.1% < 10,000
 Estonia < 0.1% < 10,000
Ethiopia Ethiopia < 0.1% < 10,000
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands < 0.1% < 10,000
 Federated States of Micronesia 110,000 0.4% < 10,000
 Fiji < 0.1% < 10,000
Finland Finland < 0.1% < 10,000
France France 62,790,000 0.5% 280,000
 French Guiana < 0.1% < 10,000
 French Polynesia < 0.1% < 10,000
Germany Germany 82,300,000 0.3% 210,000
Ghana Ghana < 0.1% < 10,000
Greece Greece < 0.1% < 10,000
 Guam 180,000 1.1% < 10,000
Guatemala Guatemala < 0.1% < 10,000
Guinea Guinea < 0.1% < 10,000
 Guyana < 0.1% < 10,000
 Haiti < 0.1% < 10,000
Honduras Honduras 7,600,000 0.1% < 10,000
Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,050,000 13.2% 930,000
Hungary Hungary < 0.1% < 10,000
Iceland Iceland 320,000 0.4% < 10,000
India India 1,224,610,000 0.8% 9,250,000
Indonesia Indonesia 239,870,000 0.7% 1,720,000
Iran Iran < 0.1% < 10,000
Iraq Iraq < 0.1% < 10,000
 Ireland 4,470,000 0.2% < 10,000
Israel Israel 7,420,000 0.3% 20,000
Italy Italy 60,550,000 0.2% 110,000
 Jamaica 2,740,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Japan Japan 126,540,000 36.2% 45,820,000
Jordan Jordan 6,190,000 0.4% 20,000
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 16,030,000 0.2% 40,000
Kenya Kenya < 0.1% < 10,000
North Korea North Korea 24,350,000 1.5% 370,000
South Korea South Korea 48,180,000 22.9% 11,050,000
Kuwait Kuwait 2,740,000 2.8% 80,000
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan < 0.1% < 10,000
Laos Laos 6,200,000 66.1% 4,100,000
 Latvia < 0.1% < 10,000
Lebanon Lebanon 4,230,000 0.2% < 10,000
Lesotho Lesotho < 0.1% < 10,000
Liberia Liberia < 0.1% < 10,000
Libya Libya 6,360,000 0.3% 20,000
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein < 0.1% < 10,000
 Lithuania < 0.1% < 10,000
 Luxembourg < 0.1% < 10,000
Macau Macau 540,000 17.3% 90,000
Madagascar Madagascar < 0.1% < 10,000
Malawi Malawi < 0.1% < 10,000
Malaysia Malaysia 28,400,000 19.8 % 5,010,000
Maldives Maldives 320,000 0.6% < 10,000
Mali Mali < 0.1% < 10,000
 Malta < 0.1% < 10,000
 Martinique < 0.1% < 10,000
Mauritius Mauritius < 0.1% < 10,000
Mexico Mexico < 0.1% < 10,000
Mongolia Mongolia 2,760,000 55.1% 1,520,000
 Montenegro < 0.1% < 10,000
Morocco Morocco < 0.1% < 10,000
Mozambique Mozambique < 0.1% < 10,000
Namibia Namibia < 0.1% < 10,000
 Nauru 10,000 1.1% < 10,000
Nepal Nepal 29,960,000 10.3% 3,080,000
Netherlands Netherlands 16,610,000 0.2% 40,000
 New Caledonia 250,000 0.6% < 10,000
 New Zealand 4,370,000 1.6% 70,000
Nicaragua Nicaragua < 0.1% < 10,000
Nigeria Nigeria 158,420,000 < 0.1% 10,000
 Northern Mariana Islands 60,000 10.6% < 10,000
 North Macedonia < 0.1% < 10,000
Norway Norway 4,880,000 0.6% 30,000
Oman Oman 2,780,000 0.8% 20,000
Pakistan Pakistan 173,590,000 < 0.1% 20,000
 Palau 20,000 0.8% < 10,000
State of Palestine Palestine < 0.1% < 10,000
Panama Panama 3,520,000 0.2% < 10,000
 Papua New Guinea < 0.1% < 10,000
 Paraguay < 0.1% < 10,000
 Peru 29,080,000 0.2% 50,000
Philippines Philippines 93,260,000 < 0.1% 80,000 46,558 (2010 census)[4]
Poland Poland < 0.1% < 10,000
 Portugal 10,680,000 0.6% 60,000
 Puerto Rico 3,750,000 0.3% 10,000
Qatar Qatar 1,760,000 3.1% 50,000
Réunion Réunion 850,000 0.2% < 10,000
 Romania < 0.1% < 10,000
Russia Russia 142,960,000 0.1% 170,000
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 27,450,000 0.3% 90,000
Senegal Senegal 12,430,000 0.3% < 10,000
 Serbia < 0.1% < 10,000
Seychelles Seychelles < 0.1% < 10,000
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 5,870,000 0.3% < 10,000
Singapore Singapore 5,090,000 33.9% 1,730,000
Slovakia Slovakia < 0.1% < 10,000
Slovenia Slovenia < 0.1% < 10,000
 Solomon Islands 540,000 0.3% < 10,000
South Africa South Africa 50,130,000 0.2% 100,000
 Spain < 0.1% < 10,000
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 20,860,000 69.3% 14,450,000 70.2% / 14,222,844 (2011 census)[5]
Sudan Sudan < 0.1% < 10,000
 Suriname 520,000 0.6% < 10,000
Eswatini Swaziland < 0.1% < 10,000
Sweden Sweden 9,380,000 0.4% 40,000
Switzerland Switzerland 7,660,000 0.4% 30,000
Taiwan Taiwan 23,220,000 21.3% 4,950,000 35% / 8,050,000 (2006)[6]
Tajikistan Tajikistan < 0.1% < 10,000
Tanzania Tanzania < 0.1% < 10,000
Thailand Thailand 69,120,000 93.2% 64,420,000
Togo Togo < 0.1% < 10,000
 Tonga 100,000 < 0.1% < 10,000
Tunisia Tunisia < 0.1% < 10,000
 Trinidad and Tobago 1,340,000 0.3% < 10,000
Turkey Turkey 72,750,000 < 0.1% 40,000
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan < 0.1% < 10,000
 Tuvalu < 0.1% < 10,000
Uganda Uganda < 0.1% < 10,000
Ukraine Ukraine 45,450,000 < 0.1% 20,000
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 7,510,000 2% 150,000
United Kingdom United Kingdom 62,040,000 0.4% 240,000
United States United States 310,380,000 1.2% 3,570,000
 Uruguay < 0.1% < 10,000
United States Virgin Islands US Virgin Islands < 0.1% < 10,000
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 27,440,000 < 0.1% 10,000
 Vanuatu < 0.1% < 10,000
Venezuela Venezuela < 0.1% < 10,000
Vietnam Vietnam 87,850,000 16.4% 14,380,000
Yemen Yemen < 0.1% < 10,000
Zambia Zambia < 0.1% < 10,000
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe < 0.1% < 10,000
World 6,895,890,000 7.1% 487,540,000

By region

Buddhism by region in 2010[1]
Region Estimated total population Estimated Buddhist population %
Asia-Pacific 4,054,990,000 481,290,000 11.9%
North America 344,530,000 3,860,000 1.1%
Europe 742,550,000 1,330,000 0.2%
Middle East-North Africa 341,020,000 500,000 0.1%
Latin America-Caribbean 590,080,000 410,000 <0.1%
Total 6,895,890,000 487,540,000 7.1%

Ten countries with the largest Buddhist populations

Countries with the largest Buddhist populations as of 2010[1]
Country Estimated Buddhist population % of the total population of the country % of world Buddhist population
China 244,130,000 18.2% 50.1%
Thailand 64,420,000 93.2% 13.2%
Japan[7][1] 45,820,000 36.2% 9.4%
Myanmar 38,410,000 87.90% 7.9%
Sri Lanka 14,450,000 69.3% 3.0%
Vietnam 14,380,000 16.4% 2.9%
Cambodia 13,690,000 96.9% 2.8%
South Korea 11,050,000 22.9% 2.3%
India 9,250,000 0.8% 1.9%
Malaysia 5,010,000 19.8% 1.0%
Subtotal for the ten countries 460,610,000 (% of total of all ten countries) 15.3% 94.5%
Subtotal for the rest of the world 26,930,000 (% of rest of world population) 0.4% 5.5%
World total 487,540,000 7.1% 100%

note: Exact number of followers when calculating Buddhists varies because Buddhism is often mixed with the native East Asian religions in their respective countries. For example, in Japan the number of Buddhists when calculating including the Shintoists would ramp the percentage of Buddhists in Japan from 67% to >98%.

See also

Other religions:

General:

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Global Religious Landscape: Buddhists". Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012.
  2. ^ Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. (2013). The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography (PDF). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  3. ^ a b Harvey, Peter (2013). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521676748. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  4. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2015%20PSY%20PDF.pdf
  5. ^ Department of Census and Statistics,The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2011
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
Buddhism in Afghanistan

Buddhism in Afghanistan was one of the major religious forces in the region during pre-Islamic era. The religion was widespread south of the Hindu Kush mountains. Buddhism first arrived in Afghanistan in 305 BC when the Greek Seleucid Empire made an alliance with the Indian Maurya Empire. The resulting Greco-Buddhism flourished under the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (250 BC-125 BC) and the later Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC - 10 AD) in modern northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. Greco-Buddhism reached its height under the Kushan Empire, which used the Greek alphabet to write its Bactrian language.

Lokaksema (c. 178 AD), who travelled to the Chinese capital of Luoyang and was the first translator of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures into Chinese, and Mahadharmaraksita who, according to the Mahavamsa (Chap. XXIX), led 30,000 Buddhist monks from "the Greek city of Alasandra" (Alexandria of the Caucasus, around 150 km north of today's Kabul in Afghanistan), to Sri Lanka for the dedication of the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura. The Greco-Bactrian King Menander I, (Pali) "Milinda," ruled 165 BC - 135 BC, was a renowned patron of Buddhism immortalized in the Buddhist text the Milinda Panha.

The famous Persian Buddhist monastery in Balkh in northern Afghanistan, known as Nava Vihara ("New Monastery"), functioned as the center of Central Asia Buddhist learning for centuries.

The Buddhist religion in Afghanistan started fading with the arrival of Islam in the 7th century but finally ended during the Ghaznavids in the 11th century.

Buddhism in Argentina

Buddhism in Argentina has been practiced since the early 1980s.

Although Argentina is largely Catholic Christianity, Chinese immigrants established the first Chinese temple in 1986, and Korean immigrants founded their own temple. Since then many groups have been giving teachings, some of them rooted in the best known Sōtō tradition from Japan, but also in many Tibetan institutes for the practice of meditation (Mahamudra, Dzog Chen, Lam Rim).

The XIV Dalai Lama visited Buenos Aires twice. The first time was in 1991 or 1992.

Nowadays many branches have flourished and teach.

Many organizations have cooperated to bring the relics of the Buddha to Argentina. This event was supported by the Royal Embassy of Thailand in Buenos Aires.

Among scholars who contributed to the spreading of Buddhism in Argentina are Samuel Wolpin, whose books have opened a door to many students and the general public, and Carmen Dragonetti and Fernando Tola, who have been researching and studying Buddhism for many years, with their books translated to many languages.

Teachers who have visited the country include Pu Hsien, founder of the Tzon Kuan Temple, Mok Sunim, responsible for spreading of Korean Buddhism in the early twentyfirst century, Chogyal Namkhai Norbu, founder of the international Dzog Chen Community who transmitted Dzog Chen teachings here, and Lama Ngawang Sherab Dorje, who visited Argentina many times.

Local teachers include Augusto Alcalde (Diamond Sangha) the first Roshi in this country. Jorge Bustamante, Soto lineage. Alberto Pulisi (Upasaka). Gonzalo Barreiros (Dharma Teacher), and two Argentine lamas, Horacio and Consuelo.

Buddhism in Australia

In Australia, Buddhism is a minority religion. According to the 2016 census, 2.4 percent of the total population of Australia identified as Buddhist. It was also the fastest-growing religion by percentage, having increased its number of adherents by 79 percent between the 1996 and 2001 censuses. The highest percentage of Buddhists in Australia is present in Christmas Island,where Buddhism constitute 18.1% of the total population according to the 2016 Census.Buddhism is the third largest religion in the country after Christianity and Islam.

Buddhism in Bangladesh

It is said that Buddha once in his life came to this region East Bengal to spread Buddhism and he was successful to convert the local people of East Bengal to Buddhism. Buddhism is now the third largest religion in Bangladesh with about 2% of population adhering to Theravada Buddhism. Over 65% of the Buddhist population is concentrated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region, where Buddhism the predominant faith of the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, other Jumma people and the Barua, while the remaining 35% of the population are from the Bengali Buddhist community. Buddhist communities are present in the urban centers of Bangladesh, particularly Chittagong and Dhaka.

Buddhism in Bhutan

Buddhism is the most widely practiced religion in Bhutan. Vajrayana Buddhism is the state religion of Bhutan, and Buddhists comprise two-thirds to three-quarters and Hinduism one-quarter of its population. Although the Buddhism practiced in Bhutan originated in Tibetan Buddhism, it differs significantly in its rituals, liturgy, and monastic organization. The state religion has long been supported financially by the government through annual subsidies to Buddhist monastery, shrines, monks, and nuns. In the modern era, support of the state religion during the reign of Jigme Dorji Wangchuck includes the manufacture of 10,000 gilded bronze images of the Buddha, publication of elegant calligraphied editions of the 108-volume Kangyur (Collection of the Words of the Buddha) and the 225-volume Tengyur (Collection of Commentaries), and the construction of numerous chorten (stupas) throughout the country. Guaranteed representation in the National Assembly and the Royal Advisory Council, Buddhists constitute the majority of society and are assured an influential voice in public policy.

Buddhism in Brazil

With nearly 250,000 Buddhists, Brazil is home to the third largest Buddhist population in the Americas, after the United States and Canada. Buddhism in Brazil consists of practitioners from various Buddhist traditions and schools. A number of Buddhist organisations and groups are also active in Brazil, with nearly 150 temples spread across the states.

Buddhism in France

Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in France, after Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.

France has over two hundred Buddhist meditation centers, including about twenty sizable retreat centers in rural areas. The Buddhist population mainly consists of Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean immigrants, with a substantial minority of native French converts and "sympathizers." The rising popularity of Buddhism in France has been the subject of considerable discussion in the French media and academy in recent years.

Buddhism in Indonesia

Buddhism has a long history in Indonesia, and is recognized as one of six official religions in Indonesia, along with Islam, Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism), Hinduism and Confucianism. According to the 2000 national census roughly 0.8% of the total citizens of Indonesia were Buddhists, and numbered around 1.7 million. Most Buddhists are concentrated in Jakarta, Riau, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, North Sumatra, and West Kalimantan. These totals, however, are probably inflated, as practitioners of Taoism and Chinese folk religion, which are not considered official religions of Indonesia, likely declared themselves as Buddhists on the most recent census. Today, the majority of Buddhists in Indonesia are Chinese, however small numbers of native (such as Javanese and Sasak) Buddhists are also present.

Buddhism in Iran

Buddhism in Iran dates back to the 2nd century, when Parthians, such as An Shigao, were active in spreading Buddhism in China. Many of the earliest translators of Buddhist literature into Chinese were from Parthia and other kingdoms linked with present-day Iran.

Buddhism in Malaysia

Buddhism is the second largest religion in Malaysia, after Islam, with 19.2% of Malaysia's population being Buddhist although some estimates put that figure up to 21.6% when combined with Chinese religions. Buddhism in Malaysia is mainly practised by the ethnic Malaysian Chinese, but there are also Malaysian Siamese, Malaysian Sri Lankans and Burmese in Malaysia that practice Buddhism such as Ananda Krishnan and K. Sri Dhammananda and a sizeable population of Malaysian Indians.

Buddhism in Mongolia

Buddhism in Mongolia derives much of its recent characteristics from Tibetan Buddhism of the Gelug and Kagyu lineages, but is distinct and presents its own unique characteristics.

Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) emperors' conversion to Tibetan Buddhism. The Mongols returned to shamanic traditions after the collapse of the Mongol Empire, but Buddhism reemerged in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Buddhism in Nepal

Buddhism in Nepal started spreading since the reign of Ashoka through Indian and Tibetan missionaries. The Kiratas were the first people in Nepal who embraced Gautama Buddha’s teachings, followed by the Licchavis and Newars.

Buddha was born in Lumbini in the Shakya Kingdom. Lumbini is considered to lie in present-day Rupandehi district, Lumbini zone of Nepal.

Buddhism is the second-largest religion in Nepal. According to 2011 census, the Buddhist population in Nepal is 9% of the country population. It has not been possible to assign with certainty the year in which Prince Siddhartha, the birth name of the Buddha, was born, it is usually placed at around 563 BCE. According to 2001 census, 10.74% of Nepal's population practice Buddhism, consisting mainly of Tibeto-Burman-speaking ethnicities, the Newar. In Nepal's hill and mountain regions Hinduism has absorbed Buddhist tenets to such an extent that in many cases they have shared deities as well as temples. For instance, the Muktinath Temple is sacred and a common house of worship for both Hindus and Buddhists.

Buddhism in Russia

Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Siberia in the early 17th century. Buddhism is considered as one of Russia's traditional religions, legally a part of Russian historical heritage. Besides the historical monastic traditions of Buryatia, Kalmykia and Tuva, Buddhism is now widespread all over Russia, with many ethnic Russian converts.The main form of Buddhism in Siberia is the Gelukpa school of Tibetan Buddhism, informally known as the "yellow hat" tradition, with other Tibetan and non-Tibetan schools as minorities. Although Tibetan Buddhism is most often associated with Tibet, it spread into Mongolia, and via Mongolia into Russia.Datsan Gunzechoinei in Saint Petersburg is the northernmost Buddhist temple in Russia.

Buddhism in Scotland

Buddhism in Scotland is a relatively recent phenomenon. In Scotland Buddhists represent 0.2% of the population or 12,795 people.

Buddhism in Singapore

Buddhism in Singapore is practiced by approximately 33% of the country's population. In 2015, out of 3,276,190 Singaporeans polled, 1,087,995 (33.21%) of them identified themselves as Buddhists.Buddhism was introduced in Singapore primarily by migrants from across the world over past centuries. The first recorded histories of Buddhism in Singapore can be observed in the early days' monasteries and temples such as Thian Hock Keng and Jin Long Si Temple that were built by settlers that came from various parts of the world, in particularly Asia.

There are a variety of Buddhist organizations in Singapore, with the more predominant authorities being established ones such as the Singapore Buddhist Federation.

Buddhism in Venezuela

Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52,000 people (roughly 0.2% of the population). The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans.

Most identify with the Mahayana tradition, reflecting the religious heritage of their emigrant countries.

However, in the mid-1990s Keun-Tshen Goba (né Ezequiel Hernandez Urdaneta), together with Jigme Rinzen, founded a meditation center using the Shambhala Training method.

There are Buddhist centers in Caracas, Maracay, Mérida, Puerto Ordáz, San Felipe, and Valencia.

Buddhism in the Maldives

Buddhism in the Maldives was the predominant religion at least until the 12th century CE. It is not clear how Buddhism was introduced into the islands.

Buddhism in the United Kingdom

Buddhism in the United Kingdom has a small but growing number of supporters which, according to a Buddhist organisation, is mainly because of the result of conversion. In the UK census for 2011, there were about 178,000 people who registered their religion as Buddhism, and about 174,000 who cited religions other than Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, Jainism and Sikhism. This latter figure is likely to include some people who follow the traditional Chinese mixture of religions including Buddhism.

Newar Buddhism

Newar Buddhism is the form of Vajrayana Buddhism practiced by the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It has developed unique socio-religious elements, which include a non-monastic Buddhist society based on the Newar caste system and patrilineality. The ritual priests (guruju), vajracharya (who perform rituals for others) and shakya (who perform rituals mostly for their own families) form the non-celibate religious sangha while other Buddhist Newar castes like the Urāy act as patrons. Uray also patronise Tibetan Vajrayanin, Theravadin, and even Japanese clerics.Although there was a vibrant regional tradition of Buddhism in the Kathmandu Valley during the first millennium, the transformation into a distinctive cultural and linguistic form of Buddhism appears to have taken place in the fifteenth century, at about the same time that similar regional forms of Indic Buddhism such as those of Kashmir and Indonesia were on the wane. As a result, Newar Buddhism seems to preserve some aspects of Indian Buddhism that were not preserved in schools of Buddhism elsewhere.

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Buddhism by country

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