Buddhism and Theosophy

Theosophical teachings have borrowed some concepts and terms from Buddhism. Some theosophists like Helena Blavatsky, Helena Roerich and Henry Steel Olcott also became Buddhists. Henry Steel Olcott helped shape the design of the Buddhist flag. Tibetan Buddhism was popularised in the West at first mainly by Theosophists including Evans-Wentz and Alexandra David-Neel.

Blavatsky sometimes compared Theosophy to Mahayana Buddhism. In The Key to Theosophy she writes:

"But the schools of the Northern Buddhist Church ... teach all that is now called Theosophical doctrines, because they form part of the knowledge of the initiates..."[1]

Olcott and Buddhists
The Buddhists and Colonel Olcott in Colombo (1883)

The Theosophists as Buddhists and Buddhologists

The Founders of the Theosophical Society

25 May 1880 Blavatsky[2][3] and Olcott[4][5] embraced Buddhism: they publicly took in Galle the Refuges and Pancasila from a prominent Sinhalese bhikkhu.[A] Olcott and Blavatsky (she received US citizenship previously) were the first Americans who were converted to Buddhism in the traditional sense.[7]

In Buddhology there are an impression that the "theosophical Buddhists" were the forerunners of all subsequent Western, or, as they were called, the "white" of the Buddhists. In addition, they have attempted to rationalize the Buddhism, to clear the doctrine, removing from it an elements of "folk superstition". In addition, they tried to identify Buddhism with esoteric doctrine, recognizing the Lord Buddha as the "Master-Adept."[B][C] And finally, they considered it their duty to provide assistance and political support to the oppressed Sinhalese Buddhists.[9][D]

Theosophical revival of Buddhism

In 1880 Olcott began to build up the Buddhist Educational Movement in Ceylon. In 1880 there were only two schools in Ceylon managed by the Buddhists. Due to the efforts of Olcott the number rose to 205 schools and four colleges in 1907 (Ananda College in Colombo, Mahinda College in Galle, Dharmaraja College in Kandy and Maliyadeva College in Kurunegala). Thus began the great Buddhist revival in Ceylon. Olcott also represented the Buddhist cause to the British government, and found redress for the restrictions imposed against Buddhists, such as the prohibition of processions, Buddhist schools, the improved financial administration of temple properties, and so on.[6]

Olcott "united the sects of Ceylon in the Buddhist Section of the Theosophical Society (1880); the 12 sects of Japan into a Joint Committee for the promotion of Buddhism (1889); Burma, Siam, and Ceylon into a Convention of Southern Buddhists (1891); and finally Northern and Southern Buddhism through joint signatures to his Fourteen Propositions of Buddhism (1891)."[6][4]

Anagarika Dharmapala

An important part of Olcott's work in Ceylon became the patronage of young Buddhist Don David Hewavitharana, who took himself later name Anagarika Dharmapala.[7][11][12][E] Dharmapala, a founder the Maha Bodhi Society, Sri Lanka's national hero, was one of the major figures in the movement for the revival of Buddhism in Ceylon during the British colonial rule.[14][F]

In December 1884 Blavatsky, accompanied by Leadbeater and the marrieds Cooper-Oakley came to Ceylon.[15] Leadbeater, following the example of the leaders of the Theosophical Society, has officially become a Buddhist, without renouncing Christianity (he was an Anglican priest).[16] David joined the Blavatsky's team to go to India.[G]

Upon arrival in India Dharmapala as a member of the Theosophical Society worked with Blavatsky and Olcott. They advised him to devote himself to the service of "the benefit of mankind," and begin to study Pali and the Buddhist philosophy.[11][18] Sangharakshita wrote that at the age of 20 years Dharmapala was equally fascinated by both Buddhism and theosophy.[19]

After returning from India, Dharmapala worked in Colombo as general secretary of the Buddhist section of the Theosophical Society, and as director of the Buddhist press.[11][20] In 1886, he was a translator, when together with Olcott and Leadbeater made a lecture tour of the island.[21] He helped Olcott in a work on the organization of Buddhist schools.[11] When Olcott instructed Leadbeater to prepare a shortened version of the Buddhist Catechism, Dharmapala undertook to translate it to Sinhala.[22][H] Work of Dharmapala and theosophists contributed to the revival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and other countries of the Southern Buddhism.[24]

Leadbeater has initiated the organization in various parts of Colombo a large number of Buddhist Sunday schools. He also founded an English school, which later became known as Ananda College (one of the most famous schools of Ceylon). Among the pupils of this school was a young Buddhist Jinarajadasa, who later worked as the fourth President of the Theosophical Society Adyar.[25][I][J]

In 1893, Dharmapala went to the West, first to England and then to the Chicago, where he represented Buddhism at the World Parliament of Religions. Although he was only 29 years old, he was the most famous representative of Buddhism in parliament. At the conference, he made several appearances on three main themes. Firstly, he said that Buddhism is a religion, which perfectly consistent with modern science, because the Buddhist teachings are completely compatible with the doctrine of evolution. He outlined the Buddhist idea that the cosmos is a sequential process of deployment in accordance with the laws of nature. Secondly, Dharmapala said that in the ethics of Buddhism is much more love and compassion than in the sermons of Christian missionaries working in Ceylon. By a third paragraph of his performances was the assertion that Buddhism is a religion of optimism and activity, but in any case not of pessimism and inactivity.[11][28]

Christmas Humphreys

In 1924 in London Humphreys[29] founded the Buddhist Lodge of the Theosophical Society.[K] According to Humphreys, conceptually the Theosophy and Buddhism are identical: the single life after many incarnations returns to the Unmanifest; all the individual consciousness are unreal compared to the "Self", which is a reflection of the Absolute; karma and reincarnation are a basic laws. Path lays through self-fulfillment with Nirvana in the end. Thus, wrote Humphreys, the difference between the Theosophy and Buddhism is only in emphasis.[31][L]

Thanks to the missionary efforts of Dharmapala, in 1926 the British Buddhists established their branch Maha Bodhi Society.[33] At the same time the Buddhist Lodge was transformed into the British Buddhist Society, whose president become Humphreys.[34][35] Humphreys was a tireless lay Buddhist as a lecturer, journalist, writer and organizer. He was the author and/or the editor of The Buddhist Lodge Monthly Bulletin, Buddhism in England, The Middle Way, and The Theosophical Review.[34]

Watts and Conze

British philosopher and Buddhist author Alan Watts[36] became a member of the Buddhist Lodge of the Theosophical Society in London at the age of 15. His first book, The Spirit of Zen came out when he was 19 years old.[M]

Another active member of the Theosophical Society was Edward Conze, who later became a famous buddhologist.[37][38][N][O]

D. Suzuki and B. Suzuki

The famous Buddhist philosopher and popularizer of Zen D. T. Suzuki[40][41] and his wife Beatrice Suzuki became members of the Theosophical Society in Tokyo in 1920; their names appear on the list of Theosophical Society members sent to Adyar on 12 May 1920. After moving to Kyoto in 1924, the Suzukis formed a new branch of the Theosophical Society called the Mahayana Lodge. Most of the Lodge members were university professors. In 1937 Jinarajadasa, future president of the Theosophical Society, read two lectures in Tokyo which were translated into Japanese by D. T. Suzuki.[42]

Analysis of the theosophical texts

According to buddhologists Reigle and Taylor, Blavatsky herself, and her immediate Masters, and the Master of her Masters were Buddhists by faith and lexis, who were strongly associated by relationships "pupil-teacher". Blavatsky often uses in her works the references to Buddhism, in particular, to the Mahayana teachings, while in the "mahatma letters" Buddhism is present on virtually every page, and it is immediately evident from the frequent use of specific terminology on the Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, Chinese and Mongolian languages.[43][44]

The Mahatma letters

Humphreys wrote that theosophists got their knowledge from two Masters who prepared Blavatsky for her mission in the world. Their letters were published later, in 1923: it was a book The Mahatma Letters to A. P. Sinnett.[45] He noted that the founders of the theosophical movement, Blavatsky and Olcott, publicly declared themselves Buddhists and, more important still, the two Masters, who founded the Theosophical movement, spoke: "Our Great Patron is the Teacher of Nirvana and the Law." And their Master, the Maha-Chohan, once said, describing himself and his fellow-adepts, that they were all "the devoted followers of the spirit incarnate of absolute self-sacrifice, of philanthropy, divine kindness, as of all the highest virtues attainable on this earth of sorrow, the man of men, Gautama Buddha."[46][47] Speaking about Buddha, Humphries repeatedly quoted the Master Kuthumi,[P] for example:

  • "Our great Buddha—the patron of all the adepts, the reformer and the codifier of the occult system."[49][50]
  • "In our temples there is neither a god nor gods worshipped, only the thrice sacred memory of the greatest as the holiest man that ever lived."[51][52]

Humphreys stated: "All who dare to call themselves Theosophists or Buddhists must study, and teach and strive to apply this garnered Wisdom."[46]

The Secret Doctrine and the Books of Kiu-te

Oldmeadow wrote that Blavatsky's second major work, The Secret Doctrine, includes elements that clearly derive from the Vajrayana, often conflated with Vedantic ideas. He noted: "Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup was sufficiently confident of Blavatsky's account of the Bardo to endorse her claim that she had been initiated into 'the higher lamaistic teachings'."[53]

Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup (a translator of The Tibetan Book of the Dead) believed that Blavatsky had "intimate acquaintance with the higher lamaistic teachings".[Q]

Humphreys in his autobiography praised The Secret Doctrine. At the time he published an abridgment of this book.[55][R]

Blavatsky claimed to have access to a popularised version of Buddhist secret doctrines, a fourteen volume esoteric commentary, "worked out from one small archaic folio, the Book of the Secret Wisdom of the World", as well as secret texts she termed Kiu-Te.[57] Buddhologist David Reigle identified Blavatsky's "Books of Kiu-te" as the Tantra section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon.[58]

The Voice of the Silence

Zen Buddhism scholar D. T. Suzuki wrote about Blavatsky's book The Voice of the Silence: "Undoubtedly Madame Blavatsky had in some way been initiated into the deeper side of Mahayana teaching and then gave out what she deemed wise to the Western world."[S] He also commented: "Here is the real Mahayana Buddhism."[T]

In 1927 the staff of the 9th Panchen Lama Tub-ten Cho-gyi Nyima helped Theosophists put out the "Peking Edition" of The Voice of the Silence.[U]

The 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso wrote in the preface to the 1989 Centenary edition of The Voice of the Silence, "I believe that this book has strongly influenced many sincere seekers and aspirants to the wisdom and compassion of the Bodhisattva Path."[V]

Humphreys wrote: "The Buddhists and Theosophists of the West, all converts, be it noted, from some other faith, have much in common: The Voice of the Silence ('a pure Buddhist work', as the late Anagarika Dharmapala of Ceylon wrote to me, and the Dalai Lama signed my copy long ago) and Colonel Olcott's Buddhist Catechism."[46]

According to Kalnitsky, the contents of The Voice of the Silence reflects "authentic Buddhist sentiment, even if not universally acknowledged as a pure Buddhist historical document."[59]

Esoteric Buddhism

According to Lopez, the author of Esoteric Buddhism "has a broader view of the Buddha" than that of Western Buddhologists and scholars of Oriental studies. Sinnett stated that the Buddha is simply one of a row "of adepts who have appeared over the course of the centuries."[60] Buddha's next incarnation happened approximately sixty years after his death. He appeared as Shankara, the well-known Vedantic philosopher. Sinnett noted that for the uninitiated it is known that date of Shankara's birth is one thousand years after Buddha's death, and that he was hostile to Buddhism. Sinnett wrote that the Buddha came as Shankara "to fill up some gaps and repair certain errors in his own previous teaching."[61] The Buddha had leaved "from the practice of earlier adepts by opening the path" to adeptship to men of all castes. "Although well intentioned, this led" to a deterioration of occult knowledge when it was penetrated into ignominious hands.[60] Sinnett wrote that to further appeared a need "to take no candidates except from the class which, on the whole, by reason of its hereditary advantages, is likely to be the best nursery of fit candidates."[62]
Sinnett claimed that the Buddha's next incarnation was as the great Tibetan adept reformer of the 14th century Tsong-ka-pa.[63]

Criticism

The existence of a hidden or esoteric teaching in Buddhism is not accepted by Theravadin Buddhists. For example, Rhys Davids wrote:

"In this connection I shall doubtless be expected to say a few words on Theosophy, if only because one of the books giving an account of that very curious and widely spread movement has been called Esoteric Buddhism. It has always been a point of wonder to me why the author should have chosen this particular title for his treatise. For if there is anything that can be said with absolute certainty about the book it is, that it is not esoteric, and not Buddhism. The original Buddhism was the very contrary of esoteric."[64][W][X]

Guénon believed that Blavatskyan "theosophism" is a "confused mixture" of Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Jewish Kabbalah, Hermeticism, and occultism. He wrote: "From the start this heteroclite mixture was presented as 'esoteric Buddhism'; but since it was still too easy to see that it presented only very vague relationships with true Buddhism."[68]

Oldmeadow claimed:

"Despite the legend which she and her hagiographers propagated, Blavatsky never stepped on Tibetan soil. Her claims that her later writings derived from Himalayan Mahatmas, forming a kind of Atlantean brotherhood residing in secrecy in a remote region of Tibet and with access to longhidden, antediluvian sources of esoteric wisdom, need not be treated seriously."[69]

In 2015 Uditha Devapriya stated that Olcott's Buddhist Catechism was based on the Catholic Catechism, and his schools were by same institutions which he criticised: "This meant that the Buddhism he 'founded' was not the sort of Buddhism which Gunananda Thero began a journey to find."[70]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Along with them embraced Buddhism an active member of the Theosophical Society Damodar K. Mavalankar, who renounced caste Brahmin and worked at headquarters TS.[6]
  2. ^ Blavatsky called her mysterious Masters an "esoteric Buddhists".[7]
  3. ^ Blavatsky claimed that before her arrival in America she studied for seven years in Tibet under the direction of mahatmas, and that later she maintained telepathic contact with them, especially with the Masters Kuthumi and Morya – sometimes through dreams and visions, but most of all, through letters, which materialized in her room in a cupboard, or she wrote down them herself by automatic writing.[8]
  4. ^ Melton wrote that Olcott become an avid supporter of Buddhism and a defender of the Sri Lankan Buddhists.[10]
  5. ^ Thanks to Blavatsky and Olcott, David in 1880 was open to the world, and he joined the efforts of Olcott on the revival of Buddhism in Ceylon.[13]
  6. ^ Similarly Olcott is considered a leading figure in the modern history of Sri Lankan Buddhism.[5]
  7. ^ Previously David received permission of his father. But the day of departure the father changed his mind, because he had a bad dream. The situation was resolved by Blavatsky: she told the father that if David will not be allowed to leave, he will die. Finally Blavatsky led David "by his hand up the gangplank."[17]
  8. ^ The Smaller Buddhist Catechism was approved and recommended for the instruction of Buddhist children by Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thero. It was translated into Sinhala by Anagarika Dharmapala (published in two parts in 1889).[23]
  9. ^ Speaking of himself, Jinarajadasa noted: "I am a Buddhist by birth; but I am a Theosophist first and a Buddhist after."[26]
  10. ^ June 23, 1886 Blavatsky has sent a letter to Leadbeater in which were rows relating to Sri Lankan Buddhists: "My love and blessings to Don David and all the Brethren. My greatest respectful salams to the High Priest Rev. Sumangala. Ask his blessing to me."[27]
  11. ^ Oldmeadow wrote that theosophy, occultism and Buddhism are intricately intertwined in the individual of Humphreys.[30]
  12. ^ Humphreys claimed that the theosophy is concentrated wisdom of mankind.[32]
  13. ^ Humphreys first met with Watts in the early 1930s.[34]
  14. ^ Edward Conze remained a theosophist throughout his life.[39]
  15. ^ One of the most famous buddhologists 20th century Edward Conze was a theosophist.[35]
  16. ^ "Koot Hoomi... is not the Master's personal name, but the title of his office as a high dignitary of the Koothoompa sect of Tibetan Buddhism."[48]
  17. ^ See The Tibetan Book of the Dead, p. 7 footnote.
    See also note 24: "The Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup was not only knowledgeable of the Secret Doctrine, like Evans-Wentz, but in a position to confirm the genuineness of some of HPB's statements regarding esoteric Tibetan teachings."[54]
  18. ^ Two of most important Blavatsky's works are The Secret Doctrine and The Voice of the Silence.[3] Hurst wrote: "Blavatsky's Buddhist-influenced book The Secret Doctrine remains influential as a spiritual text and in print after more than a century."[56]
  19. ^ He said also: "H. P. Blavatsky was one who had truly attained." // Eastern Buddhist, old series. Vol. 5, p. 377.
  20. ^ See The Middle Way, August 1965, p. 90.
  21. ^ See Blavatsky H. P. The Voice of the Silence, ed. Alice Cleather and Basil Crump. Peking: Chinese Buddhist Research Society, 1927. — P. 113.
  22. ^ See Blavatsky H. P. The Voice of the Silence. Centenary edition. Santa Barbara: Concord Grove Press, 1989. // Foreword by the XIVth Dalai Lama.
  23. ^ Nonetheless Humphreys wrote that "Buddha's Teaching was not born from a spiritual vacuum, but was an expression of some portion of that Gupta Vidya 'the accumulated Wisdom of the ages', which antedates all known religions."[65]
    "Gupta-vidya (Sanskrit) Gupta-vidyā [from gupta from the verbal root gup to conceal, preserve + vidyā knowledge, wisdom] Secret knowledge, secret wisdom; the source of all religions and philosophies known to the world: theosophy, the ancient wisdom-religion, the esoteric philosophy."[66]
  24. ^ Sinnett received instruction from Tibetan Masters, and Rhys Davids believed that Lamaism was a Religion not only different from Buddhism, but and being in his time in antagonism with the teachings and the institutions of original Buddhism.[67]

Citations

  1. ^ Blavatsky 2007, p. 14.
  2. ^ Bowden 1993a.
  3. ^ a b PDB 2013a.
  4. ^ a b Bowden 1993b.
  5. ^ a b PDB 2013e.
  6. ^ a b c Adyar.
  7. ^ a b c Prebish, Tanaka 1998, p. 198.
  8. ^ Melton 1990, p. 195; Lopez 2011, pp. 20–21.
  9. ^ Prebish, Tanaka 1998, p. 199.
  10. ^ Melton 2014, p. 127.
  11. ^ a b c d e Bond 2013a.
  12. ^ PDB 2013c.
  13. ^ Burgan 2009, p. 36; Lopez 2008, p. 92.
  14. ^ Epasinghe.
  15. ^ Tillett 1986, p. 145.
  16. ^ Tillett 1986, p. 147.
  17. ^ Guruge 1998, p. 349.
  18. ^ Lopez 2008, p. 92.
  19. ^ Sangharakshita 2013, p. 25.
  20. ^ Guruge 1998, p. 368.
  21. ^ Sangharakshita 2013, p. 27.
  22. ^ Sangharakshita 2013, p. 28.
  23. ^ Tillett 1986, p. 977.
  24. ^ Bond 2013b.
  25. ^ Sangharakshita 2013, p. 29.
  26. ^ Jinarajadasa 1948, p. 29.
  27. ^ Jinarajadasa 2010.
  28. ^ Burgan 2009, p. 34.
  29. ^ PDB 2013d.
  30. ^ Oldmeadow 2004, p. 91.
  31. ^ Humphreys 2013, Chap. 17.
  32. ^ Humphreys 2013, p. 168.
  33. ^ Baumann 2013.
  34. ^ a b c Oldmeadow 2004, p. 93.
  35. ^ a b Taylor 1999, Chap. 1.
  36. ^ PDB 2013f.
  37. ^ Prebish 2013.
  38. ^ PDB 2013b.
  39. ^ Lopez 1999, p. 52.
  40. ^ Bowden 1993c.
  41. ^ Burgan 2009, p. 84.
  42. ^ Algeo 2007.
  43. ^ Taylor 1999, Chap. 2.
  44. ^ Reigle 2000.
  45. ^ Humphreys 2013, pp. 165–166.
  46. ^ a b c Humphreys 2012, p. 32.
  47. ^ Jinarajadasa 2010, Second letter.
  48. ^ Jinarajadasa 2010, First letter.
  49. ^ Humphreys 2012, p. 24.
  50. ^ Barker 1924, Letter 9.
  51. ^ Humphreys 2013, p. 167.
  52. ^ Barker 1924, Letter 10.
  53. ^ Oldmeadow 2004, p. 131.
  54. ^ Sanat.
  55. ^ Oldmeadow 2004, p. 92.
  56. ^ Hurst 1995, p. 162.
  57. ^ Blavatsky 1910, p. 405.
  58. ^ Reigle 1983.
  59. ^ Kalnitsky 2003, p. 322.
  60. ^ a b Lopez 2008, p. 189.
  61. ^ Sinnett 1885, p. 176.
  62. ^ Sinnett 1885, p. 177.
  63. ^ Sinnett 1885, p. 181.
  64. ^ Rhys Davids 1896, pp. 209–210.
  65. ^ Humphreys 2012, p. 23.
  66. ^ Glossary 1999.
  67. ^ Лесевич 1887, p. 16.
  68. ^ Guénon 2004, pp. 91–92.
  69. ^ Oldmeadow 2004, pp. 130–131.
  70. ^ Devapriya.

Sources

Further reading

Archibald Keightley

Archibald Keightley (1859–1930) joined the Theosophical Society in 1884. In the London Lodge of the TS at the time were: A.P. Sinnett, Dr. Anna Kingsford, William Kingsland, Prof. William Crookes, Frank Podmore, F.W.H. Myers, Edmund Gurney, Charles Massey.Keightley was a prominent member of the TS who helped in the editing of Helena P. Blavatsky's magnum opus, The Secret Doctrine. He served as the General Secretary of the English Theosophical Society from 1888 to 1890. He was married to Julia van der Planck a.k.a. "Jasper Niemand", the author of a number of Theosophical tracts. Bertram Keightley, his uncle (although younger by one year), was also a Theosophist.

He later sided with William Quan Judge and his American branch over that led by Annie Besant, and then the faction associated with Ernest Temple Hargrove over that led by Katherine Tingley. After the death of his wife, he relocated to New York City, where he participated in the activities of the "Hargrove" branch until his death in 1930.

Bertram Keightley

Bertram Keightley (4 April 1860 in Birkenhead, England – 31 October 1944), like his nephew Archibald Keightley, was a prominent English Theosophist who helped Helena P. Blavatsky in editing her magnum opus, The Secret Doctrine. He founded the Indian Section of the Theosophical Society and became its first General Secretary from 1897 to 1901. He also served as the General Secretary of the English Section of the Theosophical Society from 1901 to 1905.

Charu Sheel Singh

Charu Sheel Singh (Hindi: चारु शील सिंह, born 1955) is an Indian writer and scholar of English language. A treader of the triple path, like Arnold, Eliot and Sri Aurobindo, Charu Sheel Singh is a poet, critic and literary theorist and is not only well acquainted with current schools of thought but also conversant with philosophical theories of the East and the West and the occult traditions, Buddhism and theosophy being among his special areas of interest. He is well known for writing poems and criticism in English. He is a professor of English literature in Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapeeth. He received the Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Akademy Award and The Best Writer Award by Penguin International. He is considered to be one of the best mythifiers of the city of Varanasi and his Kashi: A Mandala Poem is the only epic in English language on the city of Kashi

Isabel Cooper-Oakley

Harriet Isabella (Isabel) Cooper-Oakley (31 January 1854 – 3 March 1914), was a prominent Theosophist and author.She was born in Amritsar, India to (Frederic) Henry Cooper, C.B., commissioner of Lahore and his wife Mary (née Steel), receiving a good education because of her father's belief in the value of education for women. She had suffered a severe injury in an accident aged 23 which prevented her from walking for two years, during which time she intensified her reading. She went on to study at Girton College, Cambridge, and whilst at the university she met- and later married- fellow student Alfred John Oakley. They then both changed their surname to Cooper-Oakley. . Alfred stayed some years at Adyar, India, as an assistant to Henry Steel Olcott. He left to become Registrar of the University of Madras. Sometime in the late 1890s, G.R.S. Mead became her brother-in-law when he married her sister, another prominent Theosophist, Laura Cooper.

Isabel Cooper-Oakley died on March 3, 1914, at Budapest, Hungary.

Lucifer (magazine)

Lucifer was a journal published by Helena Blavatsky. The first edition was issued in September 1887 in London. The journal published articles on philosophical, theosophical, scientific and religious topics. It also contained book reviews, for example of Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

Master Hilarion

The Master Hilarion, is considered a saint within the I AM movement and is one of the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom" and in the Ascended Master Teachings is one of the Ascended Masters (also collectively called the Great White Brotherhood). He is considered to be the Chohan (Lord) of the Fifth Ray (see Seven Rays).

Masters of the Ancient Wisdom

The Masters of the Ancient Wisdom are reputed to be enlightened beings originally identified by the Theosophists Helena Blavatsky, Henry S. Olcott, Alfred Percy Sinnett, and others. These Theosophists claimed to have met some of the so-called Masters during their lifetimes in different parts of the world. Sometimes they are referred to by Theosophists as Elder Brothers of the Human Race, Adepts, Mahatmas, or simply as The Masters.

Helena Blavatsky was the first person to introduce the concept of the Masters to the West. At first she talked about them privately, but she stated that after a few years two of these adepts, Kuthumi (K.H.) and Morya (M.), agreed to maintain a correspondence with two British Theosophists – Alfred P. Sinnett and A. O. Hume. This communication took place from 1880 to 1885, and during those years the reputed existence and objectives of the Mahatmas became public. The original letters are currently kept in the British Library in London and have been published as the Mahatma Letters.

Neo-Theosophy

The term Neo-Theosophy is a term, originally derogatory, used by the followers of Blavatsky to denominate the system of Theosophical ideas expounded by Annie Besant and Charles Webster Leadbeater following the death of Madame Blavatsky in 1891. This material differed in major respects from Blavatsky's original presentation, but it is accepted as genuinely Theosophical by many Theosophists around the world.

Occult Chemistry

Occult Chemistry: Investigations by Clairvoyant Magnification into the Structure of the Atoms of the Periodic Table and Some Compounds (originally subtitled A Series of Clairvoyant Observations on the Chemical Elements) is a book written by Annie Besant and C.W. Leadbeater, who were all members of the Theosophical Society based in Adyar, India. Besant was at the time the President of the Society having succeeded Henry Olcott after his death in 1907.

Paul the Venetian

Paul the Venetian or the Venetian Chohan is one of the "Masters of the Ancient Wisdom" in the teachings of Theosophy and is regarded as one of the ascended masters in the Ascended Master Teachings (also collectively called the Great White Brotherhood). He is regarded as the Master of the Third Ray (see Seven Rays). According to the Church Universal and Triumphant, his final life was his incarnation as the artist Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), after which he is said to have become an Ascended Master.

Sunrise (magazine)

Sunrise is a journal of the Theosophical Society Pasadena.

The Ancient Wisdom

The Ancient Wisdom is a book by Annie Besant published in 1897, as per the dedication in the leader of the undated first pressing.

In this book, Besant introduces and explains the Physical plane, Astral plane, Mental plane and other planes of existence.

George Farthing has criticized the book, because Besant has introduced new terms like "Etheric body" into the theosophical literature, which were not used by Blavatsky or the theosophical Mahatmas.

The Key to Theosophy

The Key to Theosophy is an 1889 book by Helena Blavatsky, expounding the principles of theosophy in a readable question-and-answer manner. It covers Theosophy and the Theosophical Society, Nature of the Human Being, Life After Death, Reincarnation, Kama-Loka and Devachan, the Human Mind, Practical Theosophy and the Mahatmas. The book is an introduction to Theosophical mysticism and esoteric doctrine.

Nonviolent activist Mohandas Gandhi spoke of it in his autobiography:

"This book stimulated in me the desire to read books on Hinduism, and disabused me of the notion fostered by the missionaries that Hinduism was rife with superstition."

The Theosophist

The Theosophist is the monthly journal of the international Theosophical Society based in Adyar, India. It was founded in India in 1879 by Helena Blavatsky, who was also its editor. The journal is still being published till date. For the year 1930, the journal was published in Hollywood, California by Annie Besant and Marie Russak Hotchener, but it returned to Adyar in 1931. The journal features articles about philosophy, art, literature and occultism.

The Voice of the Silence

The Voice of the Silence is a book by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. It was written in Fontainebleau and first published in 1889. According to Blavatsky, it is a translation of fragments from a sacred book she encountered during her studies in the East, called "The Book of the Golden Precepts".

Theosophical Glossary

The Theosophical Glossary by Helena Blavatsky was first published in 1892. Some other important theosophical glossaries are the Encyclopedic Theosophical Glossary by Gottfried de Purucker and the Collation of Theosophical Glossaries.

Theosophical Order of Service

The Theosophical Order of Service (TOS) is an international organization founded in 1908 by Annie Besant, the second International President of the Theosophical Society. Its motto is: "A union of those who love in the service of all that suffers."

The TOS is found in many countries in the world and is engaged in various service projects that seek to alleviate suffering, such as medical missions, assistance during disasters, orphanages, scholarships, establishment of schools, rehabilitation of malnourished children, caring for the disabled, preventing cruelty to animals, promoting vegetarianism, character building for young people, etc. TOS members need not be members of the Theosophical Society, but it is administered by Theosophists.

William Scott-Elliot

William Scott-Elliot (sometimes incorrectly spelled Scott-Elliott) (1849-1919) was a theosophist who elaborated Helena Blavatsky's concept of root races in several publications, most notably The Story of Atlantis (1896) and The Lost Lemuria (1904), later combined in 1925 into a single volume called The Story of Atlantis and the Lost Lemuria. In 1893 he married Matilda (Maude) Louise Travers (1859-1929), daughter of Dr Robert Boyle Travers F.R.C.S., of Farsid Lodge, Rostellan, County Cork, Ireland.

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