The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is a public statement of principles relating to open access to the research literature, which was released to the public February 14, 2002. It arose from a conference convened in Budapest by the Open Society Institute on December 1–2, 2001 to promote open access – at the time also known as Free Online Scholarship. This small gathering of individuals is recognised as one of the major defining events of the open access movement. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the initiative, it was reaffirmed in 2012 and supplemented with a set of concrete recommendations for achieving "the new goal that within the next ten years, OA will become the default method for distributing new peer-reviewed research in every field and country."
The opening sentence of the Budapest Open Access Initiative encapsulates what the open access movement is all about, and what its potential is:
An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peer-reviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds.— Budapest Open Access Initiative
The document also contains one of the most widely used definitions of open access, which has subsequently been reaffirmed as the definition of open access, 10 years after it was first published:
By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.
The 16 original signatories of the Budapest Open Access Initiative included some of the world's early leaders in the open access movement: Leslie Chan of Bioline International; Darius Cuplinskas, Melissa Hagemann, Rima Kupryte and István Rév of Open Society Institute; Michael Eisen of the Public Library of Science; Fred Friend († April 23, 2014) of University College London; Yana Genova of Next Page Foundation; Jean-Claude Guédon of the Université de Montréal; Stevan Harnad of the University of Southampton/Université du Québec à Montréal; Rick Johnson of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Manfredi La Manna of the Electronic Society for Social Scientists; Monika Segbert, Electronic Information for Libraries (eIFL.net) Project consultant; Sidnei de Souza, Informatics Director at CRIA, Bioline International; Peter Suber, Professor of Philosophy, Earlham College and The Free Online Scholarship Newsletter; Jan Velterop of BioMed Central.
On February 14, 2002, the BOAI was released in a version that could be signed by the public. As on 14th Feb. 2016, more than 5,932 individuals and 837 organizations have signed it.
The year 2001 in science and technology involved many events, some of which are included below.Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing
The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing is a 2003 statement which defines the concept of open access and then supports that concept.Boai
Boai or BOAI may refer to:
Budapest Open Access Initiative, conference convened by the Open Society Institute in 2001
Bo'ai County, in Henan, ChinaBudapest Declaration
Budapest Declaration could refer to:
Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances of 1994, regarding Ukraine
International Union of Food Science and Technology Budapest Declaration of 1995
Budapest Open Access Initiative declaration of 2002
Budapest Declaration on Machine Readable Travel Documents of 2006COnnecting REpositories
CORE (COnnecting REpositories) is a service provided by the Knowledge Media Institute, based at The Open University, United Kingdom. The goal of the project is to aggregate all open access content distributed across different systems, such as repositories and open access journals, enrich this content using text mining and data mining, and provide free access to it through a set of services. The CORE project also aims to promote open access to scholarly outputs. It fully supports the taxpayer's entitlement to the research they have funded and facilitates the wide dissemination of the open access content. CORE works closely with digital libraries and institutional repositories.
Based on the open access fundamental principles, as they were described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the open access content not only must be openly available to download and read, but it must also allow its reuse, both by humans and machines. As a result, there was a need to exploit the content reuse, which could be made possible with the implementation of a technical infrastructure. Thus the CORE project started with the goal of connecting metadata and full-text outputs offering, via the content aggregation, value-added services, and opening new opportunities in the research process.
Currently there are existing commercial academic search systems, such as Google Scholar, which provide search and access level services, but do not support programmable machine access to the content, for example with the use of an API or data dumps. This limits the further reuse of the open access content, for example, with regards to text and data mining. Taking into consideration that there are three access levels to content: 1. access at the granularity of papers, 2. analytical access and granularity of collections and 3. programmable machine access to data the programmable machine access is the main feature that distinguishes CORE from Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search.Cape Town Open Education Declaration
The Cape Town Open Education Declaration is a major international statement on open access, open education and open educational resources. It emerged from a conference on open education hosted in Cape Town on 14 and 15 September 2007 by the Shuttleworth Foundation and the Open Society Institute. The "aim of this meeting [being] to accelerate efforts to promote open resources, technology and teaching practices in education". Individuals and organizations that sign the Declaration share its "statement of principle, a statement of strategy and a statement of commitment".The declaration was "released officially" on January 22, 2008.
As of January 2014, over 2,400 individuals and 250 organisations (including the Wikimedia Foundation) have signed the declaration.Collegium Artium
Collegium Artium is an independent, non-profit organisation registered in Poland with a charitable status (according to Polish law: a public benefit organization) promoting excellence in the field of humanities.Projects conducted by Collegium Artium are related to cultural heritage in the broadest sense, with particular emphasis on the history of art. The organisation carries out research projects, publishes a book series and awards fellowships and prizes. As a signatory of, among others, the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, it participates in the open science and culture movement and contributes to the creation of the world’s greatest open-access repository of art-historical texts operated by the Heidelberg University Library.Collegium Artium is a member of Polish National Federation of Non-Governmental Organisations (OFOP) and the Coalition for Open Education (KOED). Supervision: Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland. The activity of Collegium Artium is managed by the Board, the Council is its controlling body, and the Scientific Committee draws up the programme.Directory of Open Access Journals
The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a website that hosts a community-curated list of open access journals, maintained by Infrastructure Services for Open Access (IS4OA). The project defines open access journals as scientific and scholarly journals making all their content available for free, without delay or user-registration requirement, and meeting high quality standards, notably by exercising peer review or editorial quality control. DOAJ uses the Budapest Open Access Initiative's definition of open access to define required rights given to users, for the journal to be included, as the rights to "read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of [the] articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose". The aim of DOAJ is to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, open access scholarly research journals".In 2015, DOAJ launched a reapplication process based on updated and expanded inclusion criteria. At the end of the process (December 2017), close to 5,000 journals, out of the 11,600 indexed in May 2016, had been removed from their database, in majority for failure to reapply. This substantial cleanup notwithstanding, the number of journals included in DOAJ has continued to grow, to reach 12,728 as of 25 February 2019.Gratis versus libre
The English adjective free is commonly used in one of two meanings: "for free" (gratis) and "with little or no restriction" (libre). This ambiguity of free can cause issues where the distinction is important, as it often is in dealing with laws concerning the use of information, such as copyright and patents.
The terms gratis and libre may be used to categorise intellectual property, particularly computer programs, according to the licenses and legal restrictions that cover them, in the free software and open source communities, as well as the broader free culture movement. For example, they are used to distinguish freeware (software gratis) from free software (software libre).
Richard Stallman summarised the difference in a slogan: "Think free as in free speech, not free beer."History of open access
The idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term "open access" was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s and physicists had been self-archiving in arxiv since the 1990s. The Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994.The term "open access" itself was first formulated in three public statements in the 2000s: the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in June 2003, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003, and the initial concept of open access refers to an unrestricted online access to scholarly research primarily intended for scholarly journal articles.Jan Velterop
Johannes (Jan) Josephus Marinus Velterop (born 18 March 1949) is a science publisher.MyCoRe
MyCoRe (portmanteau of My Content Repository) is an open source repository software framework for building disciplinary or institutional repositories, digital archives, digital libraries, and scientific journals. The software is developed at various German university libraries and computer centers. Although most MyCoRe web applications are located in Germany, there are English-language applications, such as "The International Treasury of Islamic Manuscripts" at the University of Cambridge (UK).OPAR L'Orientale Open Archive
OPAR L'Orientale Open Archive is the institutional repository of the University of Naples "L'Orientale", designed according to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in Science and Humanities and the Messina Declaration ratified by CRUI in 2004.
OPAR L'Orientale Open Archive is a digital repository, accessible to all. Registered users can deposit different items: articles, technical reports, Ph.D. theses, books, working papers and preprints, articles already appeared in journals, conference papers and chapters from books already published, training aid, dataset and more.
Since 2001, the Budapest Open Access Initiative promotes the free availability or research articles in all academic fields and concerns a growing number of individuals and organizations from around the world who represent researchers, universities, laboratories, libraries, foundations, journals, publishers, learned societies, and kindred open-access initiatives.Open-access monograph
An open-access monograph is a scholarly monograph which is made freely available with a creative commons licence.Open-access repository
An open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute. To facilitate open access such repositories must be interoperable according to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Search engines harvest the content of open access repositories, constructing a database of worldwide, free of charge available research.As opposed to a simple institutional repository or disciplinary repository, open-access repositories provide free access to research for users outside the institutional community and are one of the recommended ways to achieve the open access vision described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access. This is sometimes referred to as the self-archiving or "green" route to open access.Peter Suber
Peter Dain Suber (born November 8, 1951) is a philosopher specializing in the philosophy of law and open access to knowledge. He is a Senior Researcher at the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Director of the Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication, and Director of the Harvard Open Access Project (HOAP). Suber is known as a leading voice in the open access movement, and as the creator of the game Nomic.Subversive Proposal
The "Subversive Proposal" was an Internet posting by Stevan Harnad on June 27 1994 (presented at the 1994 Network Services Conference in London ) calling on all authors of "esoteric" research writings to archive their articles for free for everyone online (in anonymous FTP archives or websites). It initiated a series of online exchanges, many of which were collected and published as a book in 1995. This led to the creation in 1997 of Cogprints, an open access archive for self-archived articles in the cognitive sciences and in 1998 to the creation of the American Scientist Open Access Forum (initially called the "September98 Forum" until the founding of the Budapest Open Access Initiative which first coined the term "Open Access"). The Subversive Proposal also led to the development of the GNU EPrints software used for creating OAI-compliant open access institutional repositories.
The proposal was updated gradually across the years, as summarized in the American Scientist Open Access Forum on its 10th anniversary.
A retrospective was written by Richard Poynder.
was posted on its 15th anniversary in 2009. An online interview of Steven Harnard was conducted by Richard Poynder on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the subversive proposal.Telecommunications in Senegal
Telecommunications in Senegal include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Senegal has an excellent telecommunications infrastructure, which is now digital. Cable, telex, fax, and Internet services are available. There has been a boom of Internet-related activities and services and in cell phone usage. The last several years have witnessed spectacular growth of mobile telephone use from 1.5 million subscribers in 2005 to 13.3 million in 2012. In 2012 the country had roughly 338,200 landlines for its 13.0 million inhabitants. A number of cyber cafés are located in the capital, Dakar, and other cities.The Open Definition
The Open Definition is a document published by Open Knowledge International (OKI) (previously the Open Knowledge Foundation) to define openness in relation to data and content. It specifies what licences for such material may and may not stipulate, in order to be considered open licences. The definition itself was derived from the Open Source Definition for software.OKI summarise the document as:
Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness).
The latest form of the document, published in November 2015, is version 2.1. The use of language in the document is conformant with RFC 2119.The document is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which itself meets the Open Definition.