Budapest Ghetto

The Budapest Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto set up in Budapest, Hungary, where Jews were forced to relocate by a decree of the Hungarian Government during the final stages of World War II. The ghetto existed only from November 29, 1944 - January 17, 1945.

History

The area consisted of several blocks of the old Jewish quarter which included the two main synagogues of the city, the Neolog Dohány Street Synagogue and Orthodox Kazinczy Street Synagogue.[1] The ghetto was created on November 29, 1944, by a decree of the Royal Hungarian Government.[2] It was surrounded by a high fence and stone wall that was guarded so that contraband could not be sneaked in, and people could not get out. The Nazi occupation of Budapest (Operation Margarethe) started on March 19, 1944. The ghetto was established in November 1944, and lasted for less than two months, until the liberation of Budapest on January 17, 1945 by the Soviet Army during the Battle of Budapest.

Bp-getto-map
Area of the ghetto by decree of Gábor Vajna (1944)

As with other ghettos that had been set up in other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe the area was completely cut off from the outside world: no food was allowed in, rubbish and waste were not collected, the dead lay on the streets and piled up in the bombed-out store fronts and the buildings were overcrowded, leading to the spread of diseases such as typhoid.

More than half of those that were forced into the ghetto in 1944 were sent to concentration camps, starting almost immediately from the establishment of the ghetto. From occupation to liberation the Jewish population of Budapest was reduced from 200,000 to 70,000 in the ghetto, and about 20,000 housed in specially marked houses outside the ghetto having been granted diplomatic protection by neutral politicians, including Raoul Wallenberg, who issued Protective Passports on behalf of the Swedish Legation, and Carl Lutz, who did the same via the Swiss Government. Of those that were deported (most of them to a concentration camp on the Austrian border), the vast majority were liberated by the advancing Red Army.

Saving the ghetto in January 1945

BudapestGhettowall
Walls of the ghetto, last section demolished in 2006

Károly Szabó an employee on the Swedish Embassy in Budapest attracted exceptional attention on December 24, 1944 as Hungarian Arrow Cross Party members occupied the Embassy building on Gyopár street. He rescued 36 kidnapped employees[3] from the Budapest ghetto. This action attracted Raoul Wallenberg's interest. He agreed to meet Szabó's influential friend, Pál Szalai, a high-ranking member of the police force The meeting was in the night of December 26. This meeting was preparation to save the Budapest ghetto in January 1945.

Badge-Swedish legation 1944 in Budapest
Swedish Legation Budapest 1944 - Badge Karoly Szabo

Pál Szalai provided Raoul Wallenberg with special favors and government information. In the second week of January 1945, Raoul Wallenberg found out that Adolf Eichmann planned a massacre of the largest Jewish ghetto in Budapest. The only one who could stop it was the man given the responsibility to carry the massacre out, the commander of the German troops in Hungary, General Gerhard Schmidhuber. Through Szalai, Wallenberg sent Schmidhuber a note promising that he, Raoul Wallenberg, would make sure the general was held personally responsible for the massacre and that he would be hanged as a war criminal when the war was over. The general knew that the war would be over soon and that the Germans were losing. The massacre was stopped at the last minute thanks to the courage and daring action of Wallenberg.[4]

According to Giorgio Perlasca, who posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944 and saved 5218 Jews, Pál Szalai lied to save his life during his criminal trial, and the history of the saving is different.[5][6][7][8] Raoul Wallenberg (who was already dead at the time of the Szalai's deposition) saved hundreds of people but was not directly involved in the plan to save the ghetto. While Perlasca was posing as the Spanish consul-general, he came to know about the intention to burn down the ghetto. Shocked and incredulous, he asked for a direct hearing with the Hungarian interior minister Gábor Vajna, in the basement of the Budapest City Hall where he had his headquarter, and threatened fictitious legal and economic measures against the "3000 Hungarian citizens" (in fact, a much smaller number) declared by Perlasca as residents of Spain, and the same treatment by two Latin American governments, to force the minister to withdraw the project. This actually happened in the following days.[6][8][5][7]

Memorial Wall

The last remaining section of the ghetto wall was demolished in 2006 during construction works. It was situated in the backyard of a building (No. 15 Király Street) and was originally an old stone wall made use by the Nazis in 1944 adding a line of barbed wire. The walls of the ghetto were typically older structures found on the area. A memorial wall was erected on the place in 2008, using some original material, but not matching the exact details. Still in some areas in the Jewish quarter tiny bits of the wall remain.

References

  1. ^ US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Map of the Budapest Ghetto.
  2. ^ Decree On the Establishment of the Budapest Ghetto at the Jewish Virtual Library.
  3. ^ József Szekeres: Saving the Ghettos of Budapest in January 1945, Pál Szalai "the Hungarian Schindler" ISBN 963-7323-14-7, Budapest 1997, Publisher: Budapest Archives, Page 41 and 71
  4. ^ Incredible People: Wallenberg
  5. ^ a b United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Oral history interview with Giorgio Perlasca, 5 September 1990
  6. ^ a b Interview by Enrico Deaglio with Giorgio Perlasca, from: Mixer, Giorgio Perlasca, Giovanni Minoli, Rai, 1990.
  7. ^ a b VareseNews, Gli uomini giusti muoiono di sabato, 22 May 2010
  8. ^ a b Interview by Enrico Deaglio to Giorgio Perlasca, from: Fondazione Giorgio Perslasca, Giorgio Perlasca - il mixer israeliano in ebraico, 1990

External links

Coordinates: 47°29′56″N 19°03′52″E / 47.49889°N 19.06444°E

Arrow Cross Party

The Arrow Cross Party (Hungarian: Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement", abbreviated NYKP) was a far-right Hungarist party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity. They were in power from 15 October 1944 to 28 March 1945. During its short rule, ten to fifteen thousand civilians (many of whom were Jews and Romani) were murdered outright, and 80,000 people were deported from Hungary to various concentration camps in Austria. After the war, Szálasi and other Arrow Cross leaders were tried as war criminals by Hungarian courts.

Carl Lutz

Carl Lutz (30 March 1895 – 12 February 1975) was a Swiss diplomat. He served as the Swiss Vice-Consul in Budapest, Hungary from 1942 until the end of World War II. He is credited with saving over 62,000 Jews, the largest rescue operation of Jews of the Second World War.Due to his actions, half of the Jewish population of Budapest survived and was not deported to Nazi extermination camps during the Holocaust. He was awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

Dohány Street Synagogue

The Dohány Street Synagogue (Hungarian: Dohány utcai zsinagóga / nagy zsinagóga; Hebrew: בית הכנסת הגדול של בודפשט, Bet ha-Knesset ha-Gadol shel Budapesht), also known as the Great Synagogue or Tabakgasse Synagogue, is a historical building in Erzsébetváros, the 7th district of Budapest, Hungary. It is the largest synagogue in Europe, seating 3,000 people and is a centre of Neolog Judaism.

The synagogue was built between 1854 and 1859 in the Moorish Revival style, with the decoration based chiefly on Islamic models from North Africa and medieval Spain (the Alhambra). The synagogue's Viennese architect, Ludwig Förster, believed that no distinctively Jewish architecture could be identified, and thus chose "architectural forms that have been used by oriental ethnic groups that are related to the Israelite people, and in particular the Arabs". The interior design is partly by Frigyes Feszl.

The Dohány Street Synagogue complex consists of the Great Synagogue, the Heroes' Temple, the graveyard, the Memorial and the Jewish Museum, which was built on the site on which Theodor Herzl's house of birth stood. Dohány Street itself, a leafy street in the city center, carries strong Holocaust connotations as it constituted the border of the Budapest Ghetto.

Giorgio Perlasca

Giorgio Perlasca (Como 31 January 1910 – Padua 15 August 1992) was an Italian businessman and former fascist who, with the collaboration of official diplomats, posed as the Spanish consul-general to Hungary in the winter of 1944, and saved 5,218 Jews from deportation to Nazi extermination camps in eastern Europe.

Glass House (Budapest)

The Glass House (Hungarian: Üvegház) was a building used by the Swiss diplomat Carl Lutz to help Jews in Budapest during the Holocaust.

Gábor Vajna

Gábor Vajna (4 November 1891 – 12 March 1946) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Minister of the Interior from 1944 to 1945.

History of the Jews in Hungary

The Jews have a long history in Hungary, with some records even predating the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895 CE by over 600 years. Written sources prove that Jewish communities lived in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and it is even assumed that several sections of the heterogeneous Hungarian tribes practiced Judaism. Jewish officials served the king during the early 13th century reign of Andrew II. From the second part of the 13th century, the general religious tolerance decreased and Hungary's policies became similar to the treatment of the Jewish population in Western Europe.

The Jews of Hungary were fairly well integrated into Hungarian society by the time of the First World War. By the early 20th century, the community had grown to constitute 5% of Hungary's total population and 23% of the population of the capital, Budapest. Jews became prominent in science, the arts and business. By 1941, over 17% of Budapest's Jews were Roman Catholic conversos.Anti-Jewish policies grew more repressive in the interwar period as Hungary's leaders, who remained committed to regaining the territories lost at the peace agreement (Treaty of Trianon) of 1920, chose to align themselves with the governments of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy – the international actors most likely to stand behind Hungary's claims. Starting in 1938, Hungary under Miklós Horthy passed a series of anti-Jewish measures in emulation of Germany's Nürnberg Laws. The vast majority of 18,000 mostly foreign Jews who were rounded up in Hungary and deported were massacred on August 27–28, 1941 by the German SS (Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre). In the massacres of Újvidék (Novi Sad) and villages nearby, 2,550–2,850 Serbs, 700–1,250 Jews and 60–130 others were murdered by the Hungarian Army and "Csendőrség" Gendarmerie in January 1942. Following the German occupation of Hungary on March 19, 1944, Jews from the Hungarian provinces outside Budapest and its suburbs were rounded up and the first transports to Auschwitz began in early May 1944 and continued even as Soviet troops approached. During the last years of World War II, they suffered severely, with roughly 420,000 to 600,000 perishing between 1941 and 1945 (the numbers relate to Hungary's territory in 1941), mainly through deportation to Nazi German-run extermination camps. A Jew living in the Hungarian countryside in March 1944 had a less than 10% chance of surviving the following 12 months. In Budapest, a Jew's chance of survival of the same 12 months was about 50%.

The 2011 Hungary census data had 10,965 people (0.11%) who self-identified as religious Jews, of whom 10,553 (96.2%) declared themselves as ethnic Hungarian. Estimates of Hungary's Jewish population in 2010 range from 54,000 to more than 130,000 mostly concentrated in Budapest,. The intermarriage rates for Hungarian Jews is around 60%. There are many active synagogues in Hungary, including the Dohány Street Synagogue, the largest synagogue in Europe and the second largest synagogue in the world after the Temple Emanu-El in New York City.

Ilka Gedő

Ilka Gedő (May 26, 1921 – June 19, 1985) was a Hungarian painter and graphic artist. Her work survives decades of persecution and repression, first by the semi-fascist regime of the 1930s and 1940s and then, after a brief interval of relative freedom between 1945 and 1949, by the communist regime of the 1950s to 1989. In the first stage of her career, which came to an end in 1949, she created a huge number of drawings that can be divided into various series. From 1964 on, she resumed her artistic activities creating oil paintings. "Ilka Gedő is one of the solitary masters of Hungarian art. She is bound to neither the avant-garde nor traditional trends. Her matchless creative method makes it impossible to compare her with other artists."

Index of World War II articles (B)

B-17 Flying Fortress

B-17, Queen of the Skies

B-24 Liberator

B-29 Superfortress

B-Reactor

Błyskawica radiostation

Błyskawica submachine gun

Børge Mathiesen

BA-10

BA-11

BA-20

BA-21

BA-27

BA-3

BA-30

BA-6

BA-64

BA-I armoured car

Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel

Babi Yar

Baldur von Schirach

Bali Holocaust Conference

Balkan ethnic conflict in the 1940s

Balkans Campaign German order of battle

Balkans Campaign

Baltic Sea Campaigns (1939-1945)

Banat (1941–1944)

Band of Brothers (TV miniseries)

Banjica concentration camp

Banka Island massacre

Bardufoss concentration camp

Barefoot Gen

Baron Blitzkrieg

Battery Lothringen

Battery Moltke

Battle at Borodino Field

Battle between HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Battle for Australia

Battle for Brest

Battle for Caen

Battle for Czech Radio

Battle for Germany

Battle for Henderson Field

Battle for Kharkov

Battle for Soviet Ukraine

Battle for The Hague

Battle for Velikiye Luki (1943)

Battle of Łódź (1939)

Battle of Åndalsnes

Battle of Aachen

Battle of Alam el Halfa

Battle of Ambon

Battle of Angaur

Battle of Anzio

Battle of Arawe

Battle of Arracourt

Battle of Arras (1940)

Battle of Badung Strait

Battle of Balikpapan (1942)

Battle of Balikpapan (1945)

Battle of Bamianshan

Battle of Baoying

Battle of Barking Creek

Battle of Bataan (1945)

Battle of Bataan

Battle of Bautzen (1945)

Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Battle of Beirut (1941)

Battle of Belgorod

Battle of Berlin (air)

Battle of Białystok-Minsk

Battle of Biak

Battle of Bir Hakeim

Battle of Blackett Strait

Battle of Bloody Gulch

Battle of Borneo (1941–42)

Battle of Borowa Góra

Battle of Brisbane

Battle of Britain (film)

Battle of Britain Aircraft

Battle of Britain Airfields

Battle of Britain II: Wings of Victory

Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

Battle of Britain Memorial, Capel-le-Ferne

Battle of Britain Monument in London

Battle of Britain RAF squadrons

Battle of Britain

Battle of Brody (1941)

Battle of Broekhuizen

Battle of Bryansk (1941)

Battle of Brześć Litewski

Battle of Budapest

Battle of Bukit Timah

Battle of Buna-Gona

Battle of Calabria

Battle of Cape Bon (1941)

Battle of Cape Esperance

Battle of Cape Gloucester

Battle of Cape Matapan

Battle of Cape Passero (1940)

Battle of Cape Spada

Battle of Cape Spartivento

Battle of Cape St. George

Battle of Carentan

Battle of Central Henan

Battle of Changde

Battle of Changsha (1939)

Battle of Changsha (1941)

Battle of Changsha (1942)

Battle of Changsha (1944)

Battle of Cherbourg

Battle of Chojnice (1939)

Battle of Christmas Island

Battle of Cisterna

Battle of Cocos

Battle of Corregidor (1945)

Battle of Corregidor

Battle of Crete

Battle of Crucifix Hill

Battle of Dachen Archipelago

Battle of Dakar

Battle of Dalushan Islands

Battle of Damascus (1941)

Battle of Damour

Battle of Dazhongji

Battle of Debrecen

Battle of Deir ez-Zor

Battle of Demyansk (1943)

Battle of Dengbu Island

Battle of Dombås

Battle of Dong-Yin

Battle of Dongshan Island

Battle of Drøbak Sound

Battle of Dražgoše

Battle of the Transdanubian Hills

Battle of Driniumor River

Battle of Dunkirk

Battle of Dutch Harbor

Battle of Edson's Ridge

Battle of El Guettar

Battle of Elsenborn Ridge

Battle of Empress Augusta Bay

Battle of Eniwetok

Battle of Flers-Courcelette

Battle of Fort Eben-Emael

Battle of France

Battle of Gabon

Battle of Gallipoli

Battle of Gazala

Battle of Gdańsk Bay

Battle of Gdynia

Battle of Gemmano

Battle of Gondar

Battle of Gratangen

Battle of Greece

Battle of Grodno (1939)

Battle of Groningen

Battle of Grudziądz

Battle of Guadalcanal order of battle

Battle of Guam (1941)

Battle of Guam (1944)

Battle of Guanzhong (1946–1947)

Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou

Battle of Halbe

Battle of Hannut

Battle of Hayes Pond

Battle of Hegra Fortress

Battle of Hel

Battle of Hill 70

Battle of Hong Kong

Battle of Honkaniemi

Battle of Houmajia

Battle of Huaiyin-Huai'an

Battle of Hurtgen Forest

Battle of Ilomantsi

Battle of Imphal

Battle of Iwo Jima

Battle of Jarosław

Battle of Java (1942)

Battle of Jezzine (1941)

Battle of Jianmenguan

Battle of Jinzhou

Battle of Jitra

Battle of Jiulianshan

Battle of Jordanów

Battle of Kępa Oksywska

Battle of Königsberg

Battle of Kałuszyn

Battle of Kaiapit

Battle of Kampar

Battle of Kampinos Forest

Battle of Kelja

Battle of Keren

Battle of Khalkhin Gol

Battle of Kissoué

Battle of Kobryń

Battle of Kock (1939)

Battle of Kohima

Battle of Kolberg (1945)

Battle of Kollaa

Battle of Kolombangara

Battle of Koromokina Lagoon

Battle of Kos

Battle of Kozara

Battle of Kranji

Battle of Krasnobród

Battle of Krasny Bor

Battle of Kufra (1941)

Battle of Kula Gulf

Battle of Kuningtou

Battle of Kunlun Pass

Battle of Kursk order of battle

Battle of Kwajalein

Battle of Lanfeng

Battle of Lanzerath ridge

Battle of Lasy Królewskie

Battle of Le Transloy

Battle of Lenino

Battle of Leros

Battle of Leyte Gulf

Battle of Leyte

Battle of Lingbi

Battle of Lone Tree Hill (1944)

Battle of Los Angeles

Battle of Luzon

Battle of Lwów (1939)

Battle of Mława

Battle of Maastricht

Battle of Madagascar

Battle of Mairy

Battle of Makassar Strait

Battle of Makin

Battle of Malaya

Battle of Manado

Battle of Manila (1945)

Battle of Manners Street

Battle of Marseille

Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay

Battle of Memel

Battle of Merdjayoun

Battle of Midtskogen

Battle of Midway

Battle of Mikołów

Battle of Milne Bay

Battle of Mindanao

Battle of Mindoro

Battle of Modlin

Battle of Moerbrugge

Battle of Mokra

Battle of Mont Sorrel

Battle of Monte Cassino

Battle of Monte Castello

Battle of Morotai

Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse

Battle of Muar

Battle of Mura

Battle of Murowana Oszmianka

Battle of Nan'ao Island

Battle of Nanchang

Battle of Nancy (1944)

Battle of Nanking

Battle of Nanpēng Archipelago

Battle of Nanpéng Island

Battle of Nanri Island

Battle of Narva - Battle for the Narva Bridgehead (1944)

Battle of Narva - Battle of the Tannenberg Line (1944)

Battle of Narva (1944)

Battle of Neretva

Battle of New Georgia

Battle of Niangziguan

Battle of Nietjärvi

Battle of Nikolayevka

Battle of Noemfoor

Battle of North Borneo

Battle of North Cape

Battle of Northern and Eastern Henan

Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan

Battle of Okinawa

Battle of Oktwin

Battle of Ormoc Bay

Battle of Ortona

Battle of Osuchy

Battle of Overloon

Battle of Pęcice

Battle of Palembang

Battle of Palmyra

Battle of Pasir Panjang

Battle of Peleliu

Battle of Petsamo (1939)

Battle of Phoenix Peak

Battle of Pindus

Battle of Pingxingguan

Battle of Piva Forks

Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations

Battle of Poljana

Battle of Porkuni

Battle of Poznań (1945)

Battle of Prachuab Khirikhan

Battle of Prokhorovka

Battle of Przemyśl (1939)

Battle of Pszczyna

Battle of Różan

Battle of Raate road

Battle of Rabaul (1942)

Battle of Radom

Battle of Radzymin (1944)

Battle of Ramree Island

Battle of Raseiniai

Battle of Rehe

Battle of Remagen

Battle of Rennell Island

Battle of Rovaniemi

Battle of Rugao-Huangqiao

Battle of Rugao

Battle of Saipan order of battle

Battle of Saipan

Battle of Salla (1939)

Battle of San Pietro Infine

Battle of Saranda

Battle of Saumur (1940)

Battle of Savo Island

Battle of Shangcai

Battle of Shanggao

Battle of Shanghai

Battle of Shaobo

Battle of Shicun

Battle of Sidi Bou Zid

Battle of Singapore

Battle of Siping

Battle of Skerki Bank

Battle of Slater's Knoll

Battle of Slim River

Battle of South Guangxi

Battle of South Henan

Battle of South Shanxi

Battle of Stalingrad in the media

Battle of Stalingrad

Battle of Studzianki

Battle of Suixian-Zaoyang

Battle of Sunda Strait

Battle of Suomussalmi

Battle of Sutjeska

Battle of Szack

Battle of Tachiao

Battle of Taierzhuang

Battle of Taiyuan

Battle of Tali-Ihantala

Battle of Tangtou-Guocun

Battle of Tarakan (1942)

Battle of Tarakan (1945)

Battle of Taranto

Battle of Tarawa

Battle of Tashan

Battle of Tassafaronga

Battle of Tehumardi

Battle of the Admin Box

Battle of the Afsluitdijk

Battle of the Ancre Heights

Battle of the Argenta Gap

Battle of the Atlantic

Battle of the Barents Sea

Battle of the Bay of Viipuri

Battle of the Beams

Battle of the Bismarck Sea

Battle of the Border

Battle of the Bulge (1991 game)

Battle of the Bulge (film)

Battle of the Bulge order of battle

Battle of the Bulge

Battle of the Bzura

Battle of the Caribbean

Battle of the Caucasus

Battle of the Cigno Convoy

Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle of the Denmark Strait

Battle of the Duisburg Convoy

Battle of the Dukla Pass

Battle of the Eastern Solomons

Battle of the Espero Convoy

Battle of the Green Islands

Battle of the Java Sea

Battle of the Kasserine Pass

Battle of the Kerch Peninsula

Battle of the Komandorski Islands

Battle of the Kuril Islands

Battle of the Last Panzer

Battle of the Litani River

Battle of the Malacca Strait

Battle of the Mediterranean

Battle of the Netherlands

Battle of the Oder-Neisse

Battle of the Philippine Sea

Battle of the Philippines (1941–42)

Battle of the pips

Battle of the Reichswald

Battle of the River Plate

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

Battle of the Scheldt

Battle of the Seelow Heights

Battle of the St. Lawrence

Battle of the Tarigo Convoy

Battle of the Tenaru

Battle of the Tennis Court

Battle of the Treasury Islands

Battle of the Visayas

Battle of Thermopylae (1941)

Battle of Tianmen

Battle of Tianquan

Battle of Tienhaara

Battle of Timor

Battle of Tinian

Battle of Tokyo Bay

Battle of Tolvajärvi

Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski

Battle of Tomaszów Mazowiecki

Battle of Tornio

Battle of Toungoo

Battle of Troina

Battle of Tuchola Forest

Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo

Battle of Târgul Frumos

Battle of Uman

Battle of Vella Gulf

Battle of Verrières Ridge

Battle of Vevi (1941)

Battle of Villers-Bocage

Battle of Vimy Ridge

Battle of Vinjesvingen

Battle of Voronezh (1942)

Battle of Voronezh (1943)

Battle of Vuosalmi

Battle of Węgierska Górka

Battle of Wólka Węglowa

Battle of Wake Island

Battle of Walcheren Causeway

Battle of Wanjialing

Battle of Wau

Battle of West Henan-North Hubei

Battle of West Hubei

Battle of West Hunan

Battle of West Suiyuan

Battle of West Ukraine (1944)

Battle of Westerplatte

Battle of Wilno (1939)

Battle of Wizna

Battle of Wola Cyrusowa

Battle of Wuhan

Battle of Wuhe

Battle of Wuyuan

Battle of Wytyczno

Battle of Xiangshuikou

Battle of Xinkou

Battle of Xiushui River

Battle of Xuzhou

Battle of Yenangyaung

Battle of Yijiangshan Islands

Battle of Yinji

Battle of Yiwu

Battle of Yongjiazhen

Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road

Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang

Battle of Zeeland

Battle off Horaniu

Battle off Samar

Battle on Lijevča field

Battlefield (documentary series)

Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons Of WWII

Battlefield 1942

Battleground (film)

Battlehawks 1942

Battles and operations of the Indian National Army

Battles of Arkan

Battles of Narvik

Battles of Rzhev

Battles of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Batu Lintang camp

Bazooka

BBC History of World War II

BBC People's War

Beer Hall Putsch

Begleitkommando-SS

Behind Enemy Lines (book)

Belfast Blitz

Belgian armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

Belgian Congo in World War II

Belgian Holocaust denial law

Belgian National Movement

Belgian government in exile

Belgian Resistance

Belgium in World War II

Belorussian Front

Belsen Trial

Belsen Was a Gas

Belzec extermination camp

Benito Mussolini

Berg concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp

Berghof (Hitler)

Berlin (comics)

Berlin 1939-1945 Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery

Berlin Air Safety Center

Berlin Embassy (book)

Berlin Declaration (1945)

Berlin: The Downfall 1945

Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg

Beyond Castle Wolfenstein

Białystok Ghetto Uprising

Białystok Ghetto

Big Stink (B-29)

Birth of the B-29

Biscari massacre

Bismarck-class battleship

Black Book (film)

Black Book (World War II)

Black Brigades

Black Fox: The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler

Black Friday (1945)

Black May (1943)

Black Rain (Japanese film)

Black Rain (novel)

Black Rain

Black Sea Campaigns (1941-44)

Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre

Black triangle (badge)

Blazing Angels 2: Secret Missions of WWII

Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII

Bleiburg repatriations

Blitzkrieg (video game)

Blitzkrieg 2

Blitzkrieg

Blockleiter

Blood and soil

Blood, toil, tears, and sweat

Bloody Sunday (1939)

Bobrek concentration camp

Bockscar

Boeing B-17 Survivors

Boeing B-29 survivors

Bomber B

Bombing of Augsburg in World War II

Bombing of Belgrade in World War II

Bombing of Berlin in World War II

Bombing of Braunschweig in World War II

Bombing of Bucharest in World War II

Bombing of Chongqing

Bombing of Cologne in World War II

Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II

Bombing of Darwin (February 1942)

Bombing of Dresden in World War II

Bombing of Dublin in World War II

Bombing of Duisburg in World War II

Bombing of Essen in World War II

Bombing of Frampol

Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II

Bombing of Gelsenkirchen in World War II

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

Bombing of Hanau in World War II

Bombing of Helsinki in World War II

Bombing of Hildesheim in World War II

Bombing of Innsbruck in World War II

Bombing of Königsberg in World War II

Bombing of Kassel in World War II

Bombing of Kobe in World War II

Bombing of Konigsberg in World War II

Bombing of Lübeck in World War II

Bombing of Mannheim in World War II

Bombing of Minsk in World War II

Bombing of Nagoya in World War II

Bombing of Naples in World War II

Bombing of Osaka in World War II

Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II

Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II

Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

Bombing of Prague in World War II

Bombing of Prague

Bombing of Rabaul (1942)

Bombing of Rabaul (November 1943)

Bombing of Romania in World War II

Bombing of Rome in World War II

Bombing of Rothenburg in World War II

Bombing of Schaffhausen in World War II

Bombing of Schwäbisch Hall in World War II

Bombing of Sofia in World War II

Bombing of Stalingrad in World War II

Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II

Bombing of Tallinn in World War II

Bombing of Tokyo in World War II

Bombing of Treviso in World War II

Bombing of Ulm in World War II

Bombing of Vienna in World War II

Bombing of Warsaw in World War II

Bombing of Wesel in World War II

Bombing of Wewak

Bombing of Wieluń

Bombing of Würzburg in World War II

Bombing of Wuppertal in World War II

Bombing of Zara in World War II

Bombings of Heilbronn in World War II

Bombings of Switzerland in World War II

Bon Voyage (1944 film)

Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy

Borneo Campaign (1945) order of battle

Borneo campaign (1945)

Bougainville campaign (1943–45)

Bowmanville POW camp

Brazzaville Conference of 1944

Bredtvet concentration camp

Breendonk

Breitenau concentration camp

Breton nationalism and World War II

Breton Social-National Workers' Movement

Bretteville-sur-Laize Canadian War Cemetery

Brigadeführer

Bristol Beaufighter

Bristol Blitz

Britannia Theatre

British 51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

British anti-invasion preparations of World War II

British Armies in World War II

British armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II

British armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

British Army Aid Group

British Army Groups in World War II

British Army Groups in WWII

British Army of the Rhine

British Brigades in World War II

British Commandos

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

British Commonwealth Occupation Force

British Corps in World War II

British Divisions in World War II

British Expeditionary Force order of battle (1940)

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

British Far East Command

British First Army order of battle, 20 April 1943

British First Army order of battle, 4 May 1943

British Free Corps

British Guards Division

British hardened field defences of World War II

British Home Guard

British Motor Minesweepers (BYMS)

British Ninth Army

British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II

British Official Armour Specification

British propaganda during World War II

British S-class submarine (1914)

British S-class submarine (1931)

British Salonika Army

British U-class submarine

British V-class submarine (1914)

British V-class submarine

British World War II destroyers

Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial

Bronze Star Medal

Brotherhood of War (novel series)

Brothers in Arms (N-Gage 2.0)

Brothers in Arms DS

Brothers in Arms: Art of War

Brothers in Arms: D-Day

Brothers in Arms: Double Time

Brothers in Arms: Earned in Blood

Brothers in Arms: Hell's Highway

Brothers in Arms: Road to Hill 30

Buchenwald concentration camp

Budapest ghetto

Budapest Offensive

Bugs & Daffy: The Wartime Cartoons

Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips

Bulgarian Air Force

Bulgarian National Socialist Party

Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II

Burma Campaign 1942-1943

Burma Campaign 1944-1945

Burma Campaign 1944

Burma Campaign

Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery

Károly Szabó

See also Károly Szabó (Ambassador to the United States)

Károly Szabó (November 17, 1916 – October 28, 1964) was an employee of the Swedish Embassy in Budapest from 1944 to 1945. He was a supporter of Raoul Wallenberg and had a significant role in making contact with the representatives of the Hungarian police and other state officials. He was arrested without legal proceedings in 1953 in Budapest, in a secret trial.

Honored as Righteous among the Nations on November 12, 2012.

List of Nazi ghettos

This article is a partial list of selected Jewish ghettos created by the Nazis for the purpose of isolating, exploiting and finally, eradicating Jewish population (and sometimes Gypsies) on territories they controlled. Most of the prominent ghettos listed here were set up by the Third Reich and its allies in the course of World War II. In total, according to USHMM archives, "The Germans established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied and annexed Poland and the Soviet Union alone." Therefore, the examples are intended only to illustrate their scope across Eastern and Western Europe.

Memorial Wall

A memorial wall is a wall typically engraved to commemorate a number of people with something in common (e.g., from one country or place) killed in a single conflict, violent event, or disaster, often with names.

Memorial Walls include:

Many memorial walls without specific names in places such as crematoriums and synagogues

Memorial Wall of Royal Australian Air Force Memorial

Memorial Stadium (Baltimore)#Memorial wall (US)

Budapest Ghetto#Memorial Wall

Canadian National Vimy Memorial (France)

CIA Memorial Wall (US)

Memorial Wall of Cenotaph War Memorial, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

DIA Memorial Wall (US)

FDNY memorial wall (New York City, US)

Korean War Memorial Wall (disambiguation)

Korean War Memorial Wall (Canada)

Walls of Kranji War Memorial (Singapore)

Piccadilly, Warwickshire#Miners Memorial Wall (England)

Tangshan Earthquake Memorial Wall (China)

Veterans Memorial Wall (US)

Vietnam Veterans Memorial (US)

The Moving Wall, replica of Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Oradea ghetto

The Oradea ghetto was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II. It was located in the city of Oradea (Hungarian: Nagyvárad) in Bihor County, Transylvania, now part of Romania but administered as part of Bihar County by the Kingdom of Hungary from the 1940 Second Vienna Award's grant of Northern Transylvania until late 1944. It was active in the spring of 1944, following Operation Margarethe.

Aside from the Budapest ghetto, this was the largest ghetto in Hungary. There were in fact two ghettoes in the city. The first, for Oradea's Jews, numbered 27,000 inhabitants and was situated near the Orthodox synagogue and the Great Square. The second contained nearly 8,000 Jews from the many rural communities of a dozen districts: Aleșd, Berettyóújfalu, Biharkeresztes, Cefa, Derecske, Marghita, Oradea, Săcueni, Sălard, Salonta, Sárrétudvari and Valea lui Mihai. Many Jews from these communities were also placed around the Mezey lumber yard.The ghetto was strikingly overpopulated. The Oradea Jews, who formed 30% of the city's population, were crowded into an area sufficient for one-fifteenth of the city. Conditions were such that one room had to shelter fourteen or fifteen Jews. As in other ghettoes, Oradea's suffered from a lack of food and drink. The local authorities, unusually vehement in their anti-Semitism, created victims with their punitive measures. They often interrupted the flow of electricity and water to the ghetto. Furthermore, the gendarmes, commanded by lieutenant-colonel Jenő Péterffy, were especially sadistic in their searches for valuables, which took place right by the ghetto in the Dréher brewery. Internal administration took place under the auspices of a Judenrat headed by Sándor Leitner, leader of the local Orthodox Jewish community. In the spring of 1944 the ghetto was evacuated in nine transports, the first two from the lumber yard and the remainder from the city: May 23 (3,110), May 25 (3,148), May 28 (3,227), May 29 (3,166), May 30 (3,187), June 1 (3,059), June 3 (2,972), June 5 (2,527), June 27 (2,819). Thus, with 6,258 Jews in the first category and 20,957 in the second, a total of 27,215 Jews were sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp.The June 27 transport involved Jews from the part of Bihar County that remained in Hungary following the Treaty of Trianon. Coming from small communities south and southeast of Debrecen, such as Derecske and Konyár, they were brought to Oradea on June 16–17. Thus, while the ghetto was originally part of the Cluj military district, it was transferred to the Debrecen district during the period when this last group of deportees lived there.

Perlasca – Un eroe Italiano

Perlasca – Un eroe Italiano (English: Perlasca, an Italian Hero also known as Perlasca, The Courage of a Just Man) is a 2002 Italian drama, directed by Alberto Negrin, about Giorgio Perlasca, an Italian businessman working in Hungary for his government. After Italy surrendered to the Allies, he took refuge in the Spanish Embassy. Aware of the threat to Jews, he first began to help them find shelter in Spanish safe houses.

After the Spanish ambassador moved to Switzerland, Perlasca posed as the Spanish consul, tricking Nazi officials and saving the lives of more than 5,000 Jews in Hungary in 1944 during the Holocaust. The film was made by Rai Uno and aired as a two-part TV film. The Village Voice deemed this account as "more courageous than Spielberg."

Raoul Wallenberg

Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (4 August 1912 – disappeared 17 January 1945) was a Swedish architect, businessman, diplomat, and humanitarian. He is remembered for saving tens of thousands of Jews in Nazi-occupied Hungary during the Holocaust from German Nazis and Hungarian Fascists during the later stages of World War II. While serving as Sweden's special envoy in Budapest between July and December 1944, Wallenberg issued protective passports and sheltered Jews in buildings designated as Swedish territory.On 17 January 1945, during the Siege of Budapest by the Red Army, Wallenberg was detained by SMERSH on suspicion of espionage and subsequently disappeared. He was later reported to have died on 17 July 1947 while imprisoned by the KGB secret police in the Lubyanka, the KGB headquarters and affiliated prison in Moscow. The motives behind Wallenberg's arrest and imprisonment by the Soviet government, along with questions surrounding the circumstances of his death and his ties to US intelligence, remain mysterious and are the subject of continued speculation.As a result of his successful efforts to rescue Hungarian Jews, Wallenberg has been the subject of numerous humanitarian honours in the decades following his presumed death. In 1981, US Congressman Tom Lantos, one of those saved by Wallenberg, sponsored a bill making Wallenberg an honorary citizen of the United States, the second person ever to receive this honour. Wallenberg is also an honorary citizen of Canada, Hungary, Australia, and Israel. Israel has designated Wallenberg one of the Righteous Among the Nations. Numerous monuments have been dedicated to him, and streets have been named after him throughout the world. The Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States was created in 1981 to "perpetuate the humanitarian ideals and the nonviolent courage of Raoul Wallenberg." It gives the Raoul Wallenberg Award annually to recognize persons who carry out those goals. He was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress "in recognition of his achievements and heroic actions during the Holocaust."

Shoes on the Danube Bank

The Shoes on the Danube Bank is a memorial in Budapest, Hungary. Conceived by film director Can Togay, he created it on the east bank of the Danube River with sculptor Gyula Pauer to honour the Jews who were killed by fascist Arrow Cross militiamen in Budapest during World War II. They were ordered to take off their shoes, and were shot at the edge of the water so that their bodies fell into the river and were carried away. It represents their shoes left behind on the bank.

Sunshine (1999 film)

Sunshine is a 1999 historical drama film directed by István Szabó and written by Israel Horovitz and Szabó. It follows five generations of a Hungarian Jewish family, originally named Sonnenschein (German: "sunshine"), later changed to Sors (Hungarian: "fate"), during changes in Hungary, focusing mostly on the three generations from the late 19th century through the mid-20th century. The family story traverses the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire through to the period after the 1956 Revolution, while the characters are forced to surrender much of their identity and endure family conflict. The central male protagonist of all three generations is portrayed by Ralph Fiennes. The film's stars include Rachel Weisz and John Neville, with the real-life daughter and mother team of Jennifer Ehle and Rosemary Harris playing the same character across a six-decade storyline.

The film was an international co-production among companies from Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Canada. It won three European Film Awards, including Best Actor for Fiennes, and three Canadian Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture.

Tom Lantos

Thomas Peter Lantos (born Tamás Péter Lantos; February 1, 1928 – February 11, 2008) was an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from California, serving from 1981 until his death as the representative from a district that included the northern two-thirds of San Mateo County and a portion of southwestern San Francisco. Lantos had announced in early January 2008 that he would not run for reelection because of cancer of the esophagus, but died before finishing his term. A Hungarian-American, Lantos was the only Holocaust survivor to have served in the United States Congress.In speaking before the House of Representatives after his death, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi stated that Lantos "devoted his public life to shining a bright light on the dark corners of oppression... He used his powerful voice to stir the consciousness of world leaders and the public alike." U2 lead singer Bono called him a "prizefighter", whose stamina would make him go "any amount of rounds, with anyone, anywhere, to protect human rights and common decency".In 2008, after his death, the Congressional Human Rights Caucus, which he founded in 1983, was renamed the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission. Its mission is partly "to promote, defend and advocate internationally recognized human rights". In 2011, the Tom Lantos Institute was set up in Budapest to promote tolerance and support minority issues in central and eastern Europe and in the world.

Tommy Lapid

Yosef (Joseph) "Tommy" Lapid (Hebrew: יוסף "טומי" לפיד, born as Tomislav Lampel (Serbian Cyrillic: Томислав Лампел); 27 December 1931 – 1 June 2008) was a Serbian-born Israeli radio and television presenter, playwright, journalist, politician and government minister known for his sharp tongue and acerbic wit. Lapid headed the secular-liberal Shinui party from 1999 to 2006. He fiercely opposed the ultra-Orthodox political parties and actively sought to exclude any religious observance from the legal structure of the Israeli State.

Ghettos in Hungary in 1944–1945

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