Bud Selig

Allan Huber "Bud" Selig[3][4][5] (/ˈsiːlɪɡ/; born July 30, 1934) is an American baseball executive who currently serves as the Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball. Previously, he served as the ninth Commissioner of Baseball. He initially served as the acting commissioner beginning in 1992 before being named the official commissioner in 1998.[6] Selig oversaw baseball through the 1994 strike, the introduction of the wild card, interleague play, and the merging of the National and American Leagues under the Office of the Commissioner. He was instrumental in organizing the World Baseball Classic in 2006.[6] Selig also introduced revenue sharing.[7] He is credited for the financial turnaround of baseball during his tenure with a 400 percent increase in the revenue of MLB and annual record breaking attendance.[6]

During Selig's term of service, the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs became a public issue. The Mitchell Report, commissioned by Selig, concluded that the MLB commissioners, club officials, the Players Association, and the players all share "to some extent in the responsibility for the steroid era."[8] Following the release of the Mitchell Report, Congressman Cliff Stearns called publicly for Selig to step down as commissioner, citing his "glacial response" to the "growing stain on baseball."[6] Selig has pledged on numerous occasions to rid baseball of performance-enhancing drugs, and has overseen and instituted many rule changes and penalties to that end.[9]

Selig was previously the team owner and team president of the Milwaukee Brewers. As a Milwaukee native, he is credited for keeping baseball in Milwaukee. In 1970, he purchased the Seattle Pilots in bankruptcy court and renamed them the Milwaukee Brewers after the minor league team of the same name he had watched in his youth, which existed until the arrival of the Braves in Milwaukee in 1953. The Brewers went to the 1982 World Series (but were defeated in seven games by the St. Louis Cardinals, an event that Selig laments to this very day), and won seven Organization of the Year awards during his tenure. Selig remains a resident of Milwaukee.

On January 17, 2008, Selig's contract was extended through 2012, after which he planned to retire,[10] but he then decided to stay as commissioner until the end of the 2014 season, a move approved by the owners on January 12, 2012,[11] which would take his leadership past his 80th birthday. Selig made $14.5 million in the 12-month period ending October 31, 2005.[6] Selig announced on September 26, 2013, that he would retire in January 2015.[12] On January 22, 2015, MLB announced that Selig would formally step down from the office when his current term expired on January 24, 2015.[13][14] He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2017.

Bud Selig
Bud Selig on October 31, 2010
Selig in October 2010
Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball
Assumed office
January 25, 2015
Preceded byPosition created
9th Commissioner of Baseball
In office
July 9, 1998 – January 25, 2015
Acting: September 7, 1992 – July 9, 1998
Preceded byFay Vincent
Succeeded byRob Manfred
Personal details
Born
Allan Huber Selig

July 30, 1934 (age 84)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Spouse(s)
Donna Chaimson
(m. 1956; div. 1976)

Suzanne Lappin Steinman (m. 1977)
[1]
Alma materUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison (B.A.)

Baseball career
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction2017
Vote93.7% (15 of 16)
Election MethodToday's Game Committee[2]

Early life

Selig was born in Milwaukee, and grew up in a Jewish family. His father, Ben Selig, had come to the United States from Romania with his family when he was four years old.[15] Selig graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a B.A. in American history and political science in 1956.[16] He served two years in the U.S. Army before working with his father who owned a car leasing business in Milwaukee.[16][17] Selig continues to be involved in the automotive industry, serving as president of the Selig Executive Lease Company.[16]

Selig's interest in baseball came from his mother. An immigrant from Ukraine, Marie Selig attended college, a rare accomplishment for a woman in the early 20th century, and became a school teacher. When Selig was only three, Marie began taking him and his older brother, Jerry, to Borchert Field, where the minor league Milwaukee Brewers played. When the Boston Braves relocated to Milwaukee in 1953, Selig switched allegiances, and eventually became the team's largest public stockholder. Selig was devastated when he learned that the Braves were going to leave Milwaukee in favor of Atlanta. In 1965, when the Braves left Milwaukee, he divested his stock in the team. As a youngster, Selig's favorite player was Hershel Martin.

Milwaukee Brewers owner

As a minority owner of the Milwaukee Braves, Selig founded the organization Teams, Inc., in an attempt to prevent the majority owners (based out of Chicago) from moving the club to a larger television market. This was challenged legally on the basis that no prior team relocations (in the modern era) left a city without a team. Prior movements had all originated in cities which were home to at least two teams. When his quest to keep the team in Milwaukee finally failed after the 1965 season, he changed the group's name to Milwaukee Brewers Baseball Club, Inc., after the minor league baseball team he grew up watching, and devoted himself to returning Major League Baseball to Milwaukee.

Selig arranged for major league games to be played at Milwaukee County Stadium. The first, a pre-season match-up between the Chicago White Sox and Minnesota Twins, drew more than 51,000 spectators. Selig followed this up by hosting nine White Sox regular-season games in 1968 and eleven in 1969. One of the games played in Milwaukee that year was against the expansion Seattle Pilots, the team that would become the Brewers. Those Milwaukee "home" games were phenomenally successful, with the handful of games accounting for about one-third of total White Sox home attendance.

To satisfy that fan base, Selig decided to purchase the White Sox (with the intention of moving them to Milwaukee) in 1969. He entered into an agreement to buy the club, but the American League vetoed the sale, preferring to keep an American League team in Chicago, which at the time was still America's second largest city. Selig turned his attention to other franchises.

In 1970, he purchased the bankrupt Seattle Pilots franchise, moving them to his hometown and officially renaming the team the Brewers.

During Selig's tenure as club president, the Brewers participated in postseason play in 1981, when the team finished first in the American League East during the second half of the season, and in 1982, when the team made it to the World Series, under the leadership of future Hall of Famers Robin Yount and Paul Molitor. Under Selig's watch, the Brewers also won seven Organization of the Year awards. Selig was part of the owners' collusion in 1985–1987, resulting in the owners paying US$280 million in damages to the players.

Upon his assumption of the commissioner's role, Selig transferred his ownership interest in the Brewers to his daughter Wendy Selig-Prieb in order to remove any technical conflicts of interest, though it was widely presumed he maintained some hand in team operations. Although the team has been sold to Los Angeles investor Mark Attanasio, questions remain regarding Selig's past involvement. Selig's defenders point to the poor management of the team after Selig-Prieb took control as proof that Selig was not working behind the scenes.

Selig was elected to the Wisconsin Athletic Hall of Fame in 2001.

On August 24, 2010, a statue of Selig, the Selig Monument, commissioned by Brewers owner Mark Attanasio and designed by artist Brian Maughan, was unveiled outside Miller Park in Milwaukee.

Acting Commissioner (1992–1998)

Selig became an increasingly vocal opponent of Commissioner Fay Vincent, and soon became the leader of a group of owners seeking his removal. Selig has never stated that the owners colluded, while Vincent has:

The Union basically doesn't trust the ownership because collusion was a US$280 million theft by Selig and Jerry Reinsdorf of that money from the players. I mean, they rigged the signing of free agents. They got caught. They paid $280 million to the players. And I think that's polluted labor relations in baseball ever since it happened. I think it's the reason MLBPA executive director Donald Fehr has no trust in Selig.[18]

— Fay Vincent

Following an 18-9 no-confidence vote, Vincent resigned. Selig had by this time become chairman of the Executive Council of Major League Baseball, and as such became de facto acting commissioner.

His first major act was to institute the Wild Card and divisional playoff play, which has created much controversy amongst baseball fans. Those against the Wild Card see it as diminishing the importance of the pennant race and the regular season, with the true race often being for second rather than first place, while those in favor of it view it as an opportunity for teams to have a shot at the playoffs even when they have no chance of a first-place finish in their division, thus maintaining fan interest later in the season.

Selig suspended Cincinnati Reds owner Marge Schott for a year in 1993 for repeated racially insensitive and prejudicial remarks and actions. The same year, New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner was reinstated from a lifelong suspension that was instituted by Selig's predecessor Fay Vincent. Pete Rose has claimed that he applied for reinstatement over the years and received no such consideration. Rose, along with his close friend and former teammate Mike Schmidt (who is a strong supporter of Rose's reinstatement into baseball), met with Selig in 2002, where Rose privately admitted to Selig (two years before going public with his admission) about betting on baseball. Bud Selig was a close friend of the late Bart Giamatti, who was the commissioner when Rose was first banned from the sport in 1989.

As acting commissioner, Selig represented MLB during the 1994 players strike and cancelled the World Series, marking the first time the annual event had not been staged since 1904.

Commissioner (1998–2015)

After a six-year search for a new commissioner, the owners voted to give Selig the title on a permanent basis midway through the 1998 season.

During his tenure the game avoided a third work stoppage in 2002, and has seen the implementation of interleague play.

Whereas in the past, the National and American leagues had separate administrative organizations (which, for example, allowed for the introduction of different rules such as the designated hitter), under Selig, Major League Baseball consolidated the administrative functions of both leagues into the Commissioner's Office in 2000. The last official presidents of the NL and AL were Leonard S. Coleman Jr. and Dr. Gene Budig respectively.

Reaction after September 11, 2001

On September 11, 2001, Selig ordered all baseball games postponed for a week because of the terror attacks on New York and Washington. The games were postponed not only out of respect and mourning for the victims, but also out of concern for the safety and security of fans and players.

2001 contraction attempt

After the conclusion of the 2001 World Series, Selig held a vote on contracting two teams, reportedly the Minnesota Twins and Montreal Expos.[19] This action led to Selig (along with former Expos owner Jeffrey Loria) being sued for racketeering and conspiring with Loria to deliberately defraud the Expos minority owners.[20][21] If found liable, the league could have been ordered to pay as much as $500 million in total damages.[22] The judge also ruled that the Expos could not be moved or contracted until the case was over.[23] The case eventually went to arbitration and was settled out of court for an undisclosed sum.[24][25]

A week after Selig's announcement, Hennepin County Judge Harry Seymour Crump issued a temporary restraining order that forced the Twins to honor their lease and play the 2002 season at the Metrodome.[26] In August 2002, the effort to contract the Twins officially fizzled as players and owners reached a consensus on a new labor agreement which extended the team's Metrodome lease.[26]

Changes to the MLB All-Star Game

The 2002 All-Star Game, played in Selig's hometown of Milwaukee, was tied 7–7 after nine innings, and remained tied after the bottom of the 11th inning. Due to the recent managerial trend of granting playing time to as many available players as possible within the regulation nine innings, both managers had used their entire roster. Concerned for the arms of the pitchers currently on the mound, Selig made the controversial decision to declare the game a tie,[27] to the dissatisfaction of the Milwaukee fans. Selig later said that this call was "embarrassing" and that he was "tremendously saddened" by the outcome of the game.[27]

Selig subsequently tried to reinvigorate the All-Star Game by awarding the winning league home-field advantage in the World Series; that practice was initiated in 2003 and continued through 2016. The 2003 All-Star Game had the same U.S. viewership as 2002 (9.5 rating; 17 share) and the ratings declined in 2004 (8.8 rating; 15 share) and 2005 (8.1 rating; 14 share).[28] The American television audience increased in 2006 (9.3 rating; 16 share).[29]

Disciplinary actions

On July 1, 2005, Selig suspended Texas Rangers pitcher Kenny Rogers for 20 games and fined him US$50,000. On June 29, 2005, Rogers had purposely grabbed the camera of a cameraman, resulting in one camera falling to the ground. When the cameraman proceeded to pick up his camera, Rogers went back to him in an arguably threatening way. One of the reporters then resumed filming and Rogers knocked him down again.[30] While an appeal of his suspension was pending, Rogers appeared at the 2005 All-Star Game in Detroit, where fans loudly booed him. On July 22, 2005, Selig heard Rogers' appeal of his suspension. Selig decided to uphold the 20 games, however, an independent arbitrator ruled that Selig had exceeded his authority and reduced it to 13 games, but upheld the fine.

Performance-enhancing drugs

In 2005, Selig faced Congress on the issue of steroids. After the Congressional hearings in early 2005, and with the scrutiny of the sports and national media upon this issue, Selig put forth a proposal for a stricter performance-enhancing drug testing regime to replace the current system. This proposal also included the banning of amphetamines, a first for the major North American sports leagues. The MLB Players Association and MLB reached an agreement in November on the new policy.[31]

Selig's testimony on the subject has been contradictory. In 2005, Selig told reporters, "I never even heard about them [steroids] until 1998 or 1999. I ran a team and nobody was closer to their players and I never heard any comment from them. It wasn't until 1998 or '99 that I heard the discussion."[32] But a year later, testifying to Congress in 2006, Selig claimed personal credit for spotting the problem early: "In 1994, before anybody was really talking about steroids in baseball, we proposed a program of testing for such substances to the MLBPA. As early as 1998, I began formulating a strategic plan to eliminate the use of performance-enhancing substances from the game."[33] During the 1988 ALCS, Oakland's Jose Canseco had been repeatedly taunted by Boston fans with a chant of "ster-oids, ster-oids, ster-oids."[34] Speaking at the 2013 All-Star Game, Selig complained, "People say, 'Well, you were slow to react.' We were not slow to react. In fact, I heard that this morning, and it aggravated me all over again."[35]

By early 2006, Selig was forced to deal with the issue of steroid use. On March 30, 2006, as a response to the controversy of the use of performance-enhancing drugs and the anticipated career home run record to be set by Barry Bonds, Selig asked former U.S. Senator George J. Mitchell to lead an independent investigation into the use of steroids in baseball's recent past. Joe Sheehan from Baseball Prospectus wrote that the commission has been focusing "blame for the era exclusively on uniformed personnel", and failing to investigate any role played by team ownership and management.[36]

Much controversy surrounded Selig and his involvement in Bonds' all-time home run record chase. For months, speculation surrounded Selig and the possibility that he and Henry Aaron would not attend Bonds' games as he closed in on the record. Selig announced in July 2007 when Bonds was near 755 home runs that he would attend the games. Selig was in attendance for Bonds' record-tying home run against the San Diego Padres, sitting in Padres owner John Moores' private suite. When Bonds hit his 755th home run, Selig refused to applaud Bonds' accomplishment, instead choosing to keep his hands in his pockets and have a look of disdain on his face. Bud Selig also did not attend the San Francisco Giants' game on August 7 when Barry Bonds hit his record-breaking 756th home run against the Washington Nationals; after the event, Selig released a statement congratulating Bonds.

On December 13, 2007, former senator Mitchell released his report on the use of performance-enhancing substances by MLB players. The report names many current and former players who allegedly used performance-enhancing drugs during their career.

Selig has been widely criticized for not taking an active enough role to stem the tide of steroid use in baseball until it had blossomed into a debilitating problem for the industry. Chicago Sun-Times columnist Jay Mariotti called Selig the "Steroids Commissioner."[37] Selig has been called to Congress several times to testify on performance-enhancing drug use. Congressman Cliff Stearns said in December 2007 that Selig should resign because of use of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball during his tenure.[6]

Post-season schedule

Selig's decision to extend the traditional post-season schedule into November in an attempt to increase Nielsen ratings was met with widespread disdain, both inside and outside the baseball community. Mike Scioscia, manager of the American League West Division Champion Los Angeles Angels, dismissed the decision as "Ridiculous. I don't know. Can I say it any clearer than that? We should have never had a day off last Wednesday. We should never have three days off after the season. You shouldn't even have two days off after the season."[38]

Controversies

Related to the contraction controversy in 2001, Rob Dibble posted an open letter to Bud Selig, criticizing his actions for benefiting only the Milwaukee Brewers.[39] Dibble cites that the contraction of the Twins would benefit the Brewers, as they would potentially claim the Twins' share of the upper Midwest market.

Selig has made some decisions involving the Houston Astros that were unpopular with their supporters. He ordered the roof at Minute Maid Park to be opened for games three and four of the 2005 World Series, pre-empting the authority held by the Astros. The roof was closed for all prior playoff games and similar weather conditions.[40] For Hurricane Ike in 2008, Selig mandated that the Astros play two home games against the Chicago Cubs in his hometown of Milwaukee despite proximity to the visiting Cubs; the home ballparks for the Texas Rangers and Atlanta Braves were both available to host the games. The Astros subsequently were victims of a no-hitter by Carlos Zambrano and recorded a single hit in the following game.[41] In the midst of the playoff race, this decision and its impact deeply affected the playoff race and seedings with eight teams holding winning records at the moment. The Milwaukee Brewers benefited from these events by qualifying in the playoffs as a Wild Card team, only to lose in the NLDS to the Philadelphia Phillies, the eventual World Series winner. In 2011, Selig also demanded that the Astros move to the American League West as a condition of the sale of the franchise to businessman Jim Crane; the team switched leagues in 2013 in return for $70 million discount in the purchase price.[42]

United States bankruptcy judge Kevin Gross rendered a stern warning to Selig in regards to the 2011 Los Angeles Dodgers ownership dispute. Treating other teams differently in regards to their media contracts drew accusations that Selig did not act in good faith with respect to the Los Angeles Dodgers. Selig rejected the television deal that Frank McCourt negotiated that intended to bring the franchise out of bankruptcy, claiming McCourt violated the Baseball Agreement. In comparison, no action was taken against New York Mets owner Fred Wilpon despite being in a similar position. Gross stated, "Should the Commissioner falter in proving alleged wrongdoing, the Court may allow LAD (Los Angeles Dodgers) to take further, limited discovery."[43] Some critics have used Selig's handling of the Dodgers to point out a double standard in treatment of MLB owners. More specifically in regards to the Mets, critics point out that with Selig's personal relationship with Wilpon has motivated him to stall any possible removal of Wilpon as that club's principal owner.

Selig also notably failed to resolve a 6-year conflict between the San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics regarding the Athletics' proposed move to San Jose.[44] Selig established a blue-ribbon panel in 2009 to resolve the dispute;[45] however, despite years to find a resolution, the blue-ribbon panel completely failed to make any progress toward resolving the issue, leading San Jose to sue MLB. The lawsuit, which is currently ongoing, questions the league's anti-trust exemption and its ability to enforce particular clubs' geographic territories.[46]

Term of service

On December 1, 2006, Selig announced that he would be retiring as commissioner of baseball upon the expiration of his contract in 2009. Selig earned $14.5 million from MLB over the timespan October 31, 2005 to October 31, 2006.[47] However, in January 2008, Selig agreed to a three-year contract extension, announcing he planned to retire after the 2012 season.[48] He further decided against retirement, and after a two-year extension for the previous deal was agreed to on January 12, 2012, it was announced that Selig would remain commissioner until the end of the 2014 season.[11]

Notable changes to Major League Baseball

Bud Selig has overseen the following changes in Major League Baseball:

During Selig's terms as Executive Council Chairman (from 1992–1998) and Commissioner, new stadiums have opened in Arizona, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Colorado, Detroit, Houston, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Arlington, St. Louis, Washington, D.C., New York City (Flushing, Queens and the Bronx), Minneapolis, and Miami.

Israel Baseball League

Selig and his family served a supportive role on the Advisory Board of the Israel Baseball League during its inaugural season in 2007. In response to issues with the league's financial management, after the season, the Selig family requested that their names be removed from the list of board members.[50]

Selig Experience

In May 2015, the Milwaukee Brewers honored Bud Selig with the unveiling of the Selig Experience exhibit at Miller Park. The Selig Experience is a fifteen-minute documentary showing Bud Selig's life and work for the Milwaukee Brewers.[51][52]

Personal life

Selig has been married twice. He married his first wife, Donna, in the 1950s, and they had two children: Sari (born 1957) and Wendy (born 1960). The couple divorced in 1976 after 19 years of marriage on the grounds that Selig had been "unduly absenting yourself from the home of the parties and isolating yourself ... in pursuit of your baseball interests to the detriment of your marriage."[53] Donna Selig later stated that ended the marriage because her husband "divorced me and married baseball." Since 1977, Selig has been married to the former Suzanne Steinman, who has a daughter from a previous marriage.[54]

Teaching

In 2009, Selig began teaching as an adjunct professor of sports law and policy at Marquette University Law School.[55] His classes have covered numerous topics, including "the history of collective bargaining and free agency, baseball's antitrust exemption, revenue sharing – as well as finer points of sports law like intellectual property rights, ambush marketing, and why baseball does not allow game footage on YouTube."[56]

In 2010, Selig endowed the Allan H. Selig Chair in the History of Sport and Society in the United States, as well as a Distinguished Lecture Series in Sport and Society at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin – Madison. The inaugural lecture was given by Adrian Burgos[57] and Prof. Sean Dinces has held the Chair since 2013.[58]

In February 2016, Selig joined the Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State University.[59]

Honors

Selig was awarded the U.S. Department of the Army Outstanding Civilian Service Award in April 2015 for supporting soldiers, veterans and their families through his work in Major League Baseball.[60] On April 6, 2015, the Milwaukee Brewers retired uniform number 1 in his honor.[61]

On December 4, 2016, it was announced Selig was elected into the National Baseball Hall of Fame class of 2017.[62]

In 2016, Selig was honored with the "Lombardi Award of Excellence" from the Vince Lombardi Cancer Foundation. The award was created to honor Coach Lombardi's legacy, and is awarded annually to an individual who exemplifies the spirit of the Coach.

Publications

  • Foreword to American Jews and America's Game: Voices of a Growing Legacy in Baseball by Larry Ruttman. Lincoln, Nebraska and London, England: University of Nebraska Press, 2013.

References

  1. ^ "Bud Selig – Chronology". jrank.org. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  2. ^ "John Schuerholz, Bud Selig Elected to National Baseball Hall of Fame by Today's Game Committee" (Press release). National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. December 4, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
  3. ^ Posnanski, Joe (October 29, 2008). "In appreciation of Bud Selig". Time. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
  4. ^ Bodley, Hal (March 27, 2007). "Selig: Creature of habit, agent of change". USA Today. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
  5. ^ Microsoft Corporation (2008). "Bud Selig". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d e f ANDREW BAGNATO (January 18, 2008). "Selig Given 3-Year Contract Extension". Sfgate.com. Archived from the original on May 21, 2009. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  7. ^ "Selig emerges as the best of all of baseball's bosses". Usatoday.com. August 20, 2004. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  8. ^ "Mitchell Report" (PDF). pp. 310–311. Retrieved December 13, 2007.
  9. ^ Schulman, Henry (December 15, 2007). "Selig unlikely to penalize Giants execs Assigning blame could be difficult". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  10. ^ Barry M. Bloom. "The Official Site of Major League Baseball: News: Major League Baseball News". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  11. ^ a b Bloom, Barry (January 12, 2012). "Selig's contract extended through 2014; Commissioner paved way for Interleague, Wild Cards, testing". MLB.com. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  12. ^ "MLB Commissioner Bud Selig to formally announce retirement". Baltimore News Journal. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  13. ^ "Selig will retire as Commissioner in January 2015". MLB.com. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
  14. ^ "Bud Selig named Commissioner Emeritus, to make $6M pension". CBS Sports. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  15. ^ Andrew Zimbalist (2007). In the Best Interests of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. p. 111. ISBN 0-470-12824-0.
  16. ^ a b c "MLB Bio". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  17. ^ Automotive Fleet (2011). "Encyclopedia: Rose, Sid". Automotive Fleet. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  18. ^ "Interview with Fay Vincent". Bizofbaseball.com. November 9, 2005. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  19. ^ Schoenfield, David (February 5, 2002). "Still 30 teams: Contraction timeline". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  20. ^ Chass, Murray (July 17, 2002). "A Group's Racketeering Suit Brings Baseball to Full Bristle". New York Times. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  21. ^ Joseph, Dave (July 17, 2002). "Keep An Eye On Selig, Loria". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  22. ^ Grace, Francie (July 17, 2002). "Racketeering Suit Names Baseball Execs". CBS News. Reuters. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  23. ^ Talalay, Sarah (November 16, 2002). "Suit Against Marlins' Loria Put On Hold Pending Arbitration Ruling". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved February 11, 2016. Kessler was also not disappointed by the judge's ruling, which allows the partners to come back to court to request an injunction to prevent the Expos from being relocated, should baseball try to move them before the arbitration is resolved.
  24. ^ "Once panel makes decision, other options then unfold". ESPN.com. Associated Press. November 15, 2002. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  25. ^ Vardi, Nathan (November 14, 2011). "How Jeff Loria became the miracle Marlin". Forbes. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  26. ^ a b http://www.twincities.com/2014/07/10/contraction-nearly-stole-twins-baseball-from-minnesota/
  27. ^ a b Nightengale, Bob (July 11, 2007). "Tie in '02 All-Star Game mattered". USA Today.
  28. ^ "All-Star Game Television Ratings on Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  29. ^ "SI.com — MLB - 2006 All Star Game — Ratings up for All-Star Game, HR Derby — Wednesday July 12, 2006 6:41PM". Sports Illustrated. July 12, 2006. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  30. ^ "Rangers pitcher threatens and confronts cameramen". ESPN.com. Associated Press. June 30, 2005. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  31. ^ "MLBPA/MLB joint announcement". MLBPA. November 15, 2005. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  32. ^ Bashing Bush: Jose Canseco Comes Clean Archived June 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Independent Investigation – Statement Of Commissioner Allan H. (Bud) Selig". baseballinvestigation.com. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  34. ^ David Ezra. "Baseball's Steroid Era Was No Surprise, So Hall of Fame Voters Should Accept It". US News & World Report. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  35. ^ Evan Weiner. "MLB commissioner Bud Selig knows drugs bans may define his legacy". The Guardian. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  36. ^ Sheehan, Joe (May 22, 2007). "Prospectus Today — Break with the Past". Baseball Prospectus. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
  37. ^ Selig's only legacy: S-T-E-R-O-I-D-S Archived March 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Another Day Off for Yankees and Angels, and It’s Not Exactly Welcome" The New York Times, October 25, 2009
  39. ^ Rob Dibble. (December 1, 2001). "Open letter to Bud Selig". ESPN.com. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  40. ^ John Shea. (October 25, 2005). "WORLD SERIES NOTES Roof's not an open and shut case". Hearst Communications. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  41. ^ Karen Crouse. (September 17, 2008). "Hurricane Sent Astros Into a Spin". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  42. ^ Bloom, Barry M. (November 17, 2011). "Astros sale to Crane, move to AL approved". MLB Advanced Media. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  43. ^ Bill Shaikin (October 17, 2011). "Judge sides with MLB, but warns Bud Selig". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  44. ^ sfgate.com. "Oakland situation leaves a hole in Selig's legacy". Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  45. ^ espn. "Time for MLB to let the A's move". Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  46. ^ cbs. "San Jose gets day in court with MLB over antitrust claim in planned A's move". Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  47. ^ Press, Canadian (April 3, 2007). "MLB: Selig made $14.5 million last year". The Sports Network (TSN). Archived from the original on January 22, 2008. Retrieved September 12, 2007.
  48. ^ Nightengale, Bob (January 18, 2008). "MLB gives Selig contract extension through 2012". USA Today. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  49. ^ Division Race Just Got Harder For Mets The New York Times
  50. ^ Wohlgelernter, Elli (July 24, 2008). "Field of Failed Dreams". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on September 16, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  51. ^ Selig Experience: It's worth the visit
  52. ^ Selig Experience
  53. ^ Reiter, Ben. "FOR LOVE AND MONEY". Vault. Retrieved 2018-12-12.
  54. ^ Zimbalist, Andrew (2007-06-22). In the Best Interests of Baseball: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470128244.
  55. ^ Selig Named Adjunct Law Professor At Marquette Archived June 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  56. ^ Selig Finally Finds Peace as He Looks Toward Next Job
  57. ^ "Professor to present first Selig Distinguished Lecture in Sport and Society (Jan. 21, 2011)". News.wisc.edu. January 21, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  58. ^ "UW-Madison Department of History: 2013 History Department Newsletter". history.wisc.edu. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  59. ^ "Bud Selig to teach at Arizona State's College of Law". ESPN.com. Associated Press. February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 11, 2016.
  60. ^ "Department of the Army Outstanding Civilian Service Award". April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  61. ^ "Honored by Brewers, Selig throws out first pitch". Major League Baseball. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  62. ^ "Selig, Schuerholz elected to Hall of Fame". Major League Baseball. Retrieved December 4, 2016.

Further reading

  • Ruttman, Larry (2013). "Allan H. "Bud" Selig: Innovative and Controversial Commissioner of Major League Baseball". American Jews and America's Game: Voices of a Growing Legacy in Baseball. Lincoln, Nebraska and London, England: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 325–335. ISBN 978-0-8032-6475-5. This chapter in Ruttman's history, based on a January 16, 2009 interview with Selig conducted for the book, discusses Selig's American, Jewish, baseball, and life experiences from youth to the present.
  • Zimbalist, Andrew (2006). In the Best Interests of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-73533-7.

External links

Sporting positions
New office Owner of the Milwaukee Brewers franchise
1970–1998
Succeeded by
Wendy Selig-Prieb
Honorary titles
New title Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball
2015–present
Incumbent
1969 Chicago White Sox season

The 1969 Chicago White Sox season was the team's 69th season in the major leagues, and its 70th season overall. They finished with a record 68–94, good enough for fifth place in the newly established American League West, 29 games behind the first-place Minnesota Twins.

The White Sox nearly left Chicago in 1969. White Sox owner Arthur Allyn, Jr. considered overtures from Bud Selig and other Milwaukee interests to move the club to County Stadium. Instead, he sold to his brother, John. The newly established Seattle Pilots would move there a year after their inaugural season.

2001 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2001 followed the system in use since 1995. The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and elected two: Kirby Puckett and Dave Winfield. The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions and selected two people from multiple classified ballots: Bill Mazeroski and Hilton Smith.

Induction ceremonies in Cooperstown, New York, were held August 5 with Commissioner Bud Selig presiding.

2002 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2002 proceeded in keeping with rules enacted in 2001. The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) held an election to select from among recent players. The Veterans Committee did not hold an election; the 2001 rules changes provided that elections for players retired over 20 years would be held every other year, with elections of non-players (managers, umpires and executives) held every fourth year. The Committee held elections in 2001 for players who were active no later than 1979. The next Veterans Committee election, for both categories, was in 2003.

The induction ceremonies were held on July 28 in Cooperstown, with Commissioner Bud Selig presiding.

2003 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2003 proceeded in keeping with rules enacted in 2001. The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) held an election to select from among recent players. The Veterans Committee held elections both for players who were active no later than 1981 and for non-players (managers, umpires and executives).

The induction ceremonies were held on July 27 in Cooperstown, with Commissioner Bud Selig presiding.

2004 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2004 proceeded in keeping with rules enacted in 2001. The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) held an election to select from recent players. The Veterans Committee did not hold an election; the 2001 rules changes provided that elections for players retired over 20 years would be held every other year, with elections of non-players (managers, umpires and executives) held every fourth year. The Committee held elections in 2003 in both categories, including players who were active no later than 1981. The next election for players was in 2005; elections in both categories would again be held in 2007.

The induction ceremonies were held on July 25 in Cooperstown, with Commissioner Bud Selig presiding.

2011 Los Angeles Dodgers ownership dispute

The Los Angeles Dodgers major league baseball team underwent a period of turmoil in management in 2011-2012 that began when Major League Baseball seized control of the team from owner Frank McCourt on April 20, 2011 and ended when the team was sold to new owners on May 1, 2012.Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig announced that the takeover was due to concerns over the team's finances, and a loss of confidence in the ability of owner Frank McCourt to run the team. Selig announced his intention to appoint an overseer to supervise the day-to-day financial management of the Dodgers. In June, as the Dodgers struggled to meet payroll, Selig rejected a TV contract that would have pumped money into the organization. This led to the Dodgers filing for bankruptcy, and being forced to negotiate a loan with the MLB to keep the club operating.

After a year of negotiations and court proceedings, the dispute ended with the sale of the team to Guggenheim Baseball Management LLC.

2015 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 2015 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 86th edition of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. The game was played at Great American Ball Park in Cincinnati, Ohio on Tuesday, July 14. It was televised nationally on Fox. The American League All-Stars defeated the National League All-Stars by a score of 6–3.

On January 21, 2013, then-Major League Baseball (MLB) Commissioner Bud Selig, announced the 2015 All-Star Game would be hosted by the Cincinnati Reds. This was the first time the city of Cincinnati has hosted the All-Star Game since the 1988 All-Star Game was played at Riverfront Stadium.On July 15, 2014, Selig also announced that Pete Rose would not be prohibited from participating in the 2015 All-Star Game ceremonies. Rose was an All-Star for 13 of the 19 seasons he played on the Reds and was a member of the Big Red Machine. In 1991, Rose was permanently banned from MLB for baseball betting. Rose, wearing a red sport coat, appeared on the field in front of the pitcher's mound before the game and received a standing ovation alongside former teammates Johnny Bench, Barry Larkin, and Joe Morgan.

On May 12, 2015, the Reds announced that Todd Frazier would serve as the 2015 All-Star Game spokesperson.Mike Trout, an outfielder for the Los Angeles Angels, was named the 2015 All-Star Game Most Valuable Player for the second straight year.

2016 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 2016 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 87th edition of the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. The game was hosted by the San Diego Padres and was played at Petco Park on July 12, 2016. It was televised nationally on Fox. The American League All-Stars defeated the National League All-Stars by a score of 4–2 to win home field advantage for the 2016 World Series (which went to the Cleveland Indians). This was also the last time home-field advantage for the World Series was determined by the outcome of the All-Star Game.

The host city was announced on January 15, 2015, by then-Major League Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig. This was the third time the city of San Diego hosted the All-Star Game and the first time since 1992.Eric Hosmer, an infielder for the Kansas City Royals, was named the 2016 All-Star Game Most Valuable Player.

2017 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 2017 proceeded according to rules most recently amended in 2016. As in the past, the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from a ballot of recently retired players, with results announced on January 18, 2017. The BBWAA elected Jeff Bagwell, Tim Raines, and Iván Rodríguez to the Hall of Fame.

The three voting panels that replaced the more broadly defined Veterans Committee following a July 2010 rules change were replaced by a new set of four panels in July 2016. The newly created Today's Game Committee convened early in December 2016 to select from a ballot of retired players and non-playing personnel who made their greatest contributions to the sport after 1987. John Schuerholz and Bud Selig were elected by this committee.

Arthur Allyn Jr.

Arthur Allyn Jr. (December 24, 1913 in Chicago, Illinois – March 22, 1985 in Sarasota, Florida) was the co-owner of the Chicago White Sox of the American League with his brother John Allyn from 1961 through 1969. A few years after purchasing the franchise from Bill Veeck, Allyn tried to sell the team to a number of different parties, including Lamar Hunt and Bud Selig (who planned to move the team to Milwaukee, Wisconsin), before selling his share of the White Sox to his co-owner and brother John. Allyn also owned Chicago Mustangs soccer club that were charter members of the United Soccer Association in 1967. The Mustangs became part of the newly formed North American Soccer League the following year after merging with the NPSL.

Commissioner of Baseball

The Commissioner of Baseball is the chief executive of Major League Baseball (MLB) and the associated Minor League Baseball (MiLB) – a constellation of leagues and clubs known as organized baseball. Under the direction of the Commissioner, the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. The commissioner is chosen by a vote of the owners of the teams. The current commissioner is Rob Manfred, who assumed office on January 25, 2015.

Gerry Davis (umpire)

Gerald Sidney Davis (born February 22, 1953) is an umpire in Major League Baseball. Having worked in the National League from 1982 to 1999, he became a member of the unified umpiring staff for Major League Baseball in 2000. He has been a crew chief since 1999. He has umpired five World Series, nine League Championship Series and eleven League Division Series. He has also worked in the All-Star Game four times. Davis has worn uniform number 12 throughout his career.

As of the start of the 2017 season, Davis is MLB's second-most senior umpire (after Joe West), although Davis has the longest uninterrupted tenure due to West being forced to sit out two seasons (2000-01) after the failed mass resignation strategy of former Major League Umpires Association executive director Richie Phillips in July 1999. Davis, along with all National League umpires at the time, tendered his resignation, but rescinded it, and was not chosen as one of the 22 MLB umpires to lose their jobs by commissioner Bud Selig and MLB executive vice president Sandy Alderson.

Davis' 2017 crew consists of Tony Randazzo, Rob Drake and Pat Hoberg.

Juiced (book)

Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant 'Roids, Smash Hits & How Baseball Got Big is a 2005 book by Jose Canseco and his personal account of steroid usage in Major League Baseball. The book is autobiographical, and it focuses on Canseco's days as a major leaguer, his marriages, his daughter, and off-field incidents including his bar room brawl in 2001. The book deals primarily with anabolic steroids, drawing upon the personal experiences of Canseco. He takes personal credit for introducing steroids to baseball, and names former teammates Mark McGwire, Juan González, Rafael Palmeiro, Iván Rodríguez, and Jason Giambi as fellow steroid users. He also believes he was blackballed by baseball when Bud Selig decided that the league needed to be cleaned up.

One of Juiced's central precepts is that steroid use is not in and of itself a bad thing, as long as the person is being monitored by a physician, and the dosages are small. Canseco believes that steroids can not only improve the game of baseball, but also improve and lengthen lives, and more research needs to be done on the topic. Canseco claims to discredit many of the myths regarding steroids, asserting that they do not break down a person's body if used correctly, and can actually help a person recover quickly from injuries. During the A&E Network's one-hour documentary, Jose Canseco: The Last Shot, Canseco said he "regrets mentioning players [as steroid users]. I never realized this was going to blow up and hurt so many people."

Laurel Prieb

Laurel Prieb, the husband of Wendy Selig-Prieb, son-in-law of former Major League Baseball commissioner Bud Selig, was until recently the Vice President of Corporate Affairs for the Milwaukee Brewers. Shortly after the 2005 sale of the Brewers to Los Angeles investor Mark Attanasio, Prieb became Vice President for Western Operations and Special Projects for Major League Baseball. Prieb started his baseball career as the Traveling Secretary with the Minnesota Twins and remained in that position until working for the Brewers.

Mark Attanasio

Mark L. Attanasio (born September 29, 1957) is a Los Angeles businessman and owner of the Milwaukee Brewers. In September 2004, he reached a deal, on behalf of an investment group, to purchase the Brewers from the family of Major League Baseball (MLB) commissioner Bud Selig for an estimated US$223 million. The deal was approved by MLB at the owners' winter meeting on January 13, 2005.

Mike Sirotka

Michael Robert Sirotka (born May 13, 1971) is a former Major League Baseball left-handed pitcher. He is an alumnus of Louisiana State University.

Drafted by the Chicago White Sox in the 15th round of the 1993 Major League Baseball Draft, Sirotka made his major league debut in 1995, pitching in 6 starts that season.

The 1996 and 1997 seasons saw Sirotka appear in only 22 games combined between both seasons.

After impressing in spring training, Sirotka opened the 1998 season in the White Sox rotation. Sirotka went on to pitch in 33 starts, pitching 5 complete games and recording a win-loss record of 14-15 in ​211 2⁄3 innings.

In 1999, Sirotka lowered his ERA one run lower than the previous season, finishing at an even 4.00. He pitched 3 complete games to go along with a record of 11-13 in 32 starts.

The 2000 season saw Sirotka have a breakout year. He had a career high 15 wins with a career low 3.79 ERA for the White Sox, and made his first postseason appearance for the team in the 2000 American League Division Series, starting a game against the Seattle Mariners. In the offseason he traveled to Japan as part of the 2000 MLB Japan All-Star Series and pitched for the MLB squad.

On January 14, 2001, he was traded to the Toronto Blue Jays with Kevin Beirne and Brian Simmons for Matt DeWitt and David Wells in a deal that would infamously become labeled by White Sox General Manager Kenny Williams as "Shouldergate", as Sirotka would never pitch again, labeled "damaged goods" by then-Toronto GM Gord Ash. Ash believed that Williams did not turn over all information pertaining to Sirotka's shoulder. Ash later appealed the trade to MLB Commissioner Bud Selig, but Selig refused to overturn the trade.Sirotka underwent major reconstructive shoulder surgery in April 2001 and an arthroscopic procedure in July 2002 in an attempt to get off the disabled list, but neither surgery was successful. The Blue Jays released him after the 2002 season.

In October 2002, Sirotka signed a minor league contract with the Chicago Cubs and was invited to spring training. If he made the Cubs' 25-man major league roster on Opening Day, his contract allowed him to make as much as $4 million with incentives. At the time of the signing, Sirotka attributed his "Shouldergate" injuries to pitching with a hurt elbow late in 2000 for the Sox, followed by pitching six innings in Japan that extended the damage into his shoulder.When shoulder problems persisted during the spring, the Cubs sent Sirotka to minor-league camp on March 26, 2003.While with the White Sox, Sirotka surrendered the sole career hit to country music superstar Garth Brooks, who at the time was participating in spring training with the San Diego Padres. Brooks' spring training hitting record was one hit in 22 at-bats.

Pace of play

Pace of play is an issue concerning college baseball and professional baseball regarding the length of games.

Game length in Major League Baseball (MLB) began increasing, with the 1988 New York Yankees being the first team to average over three hours per game. From 2004 through 2014, MLB games had increased from an average of 2.85 hours to 3.13 hours. This was in spite of decreases in scoring, with MLB teams scoring 4.1 runs per game in 2014, down from 5.14 in 2000.In college baseball, the Southeastern Conference experimented with a 20-second pitch clock during the 2010 season, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association instituted the pitch clock before the 2011 season for when no runners are on base.

During the 2014 season, the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball instituted its own changes. These included a 12-second pitch clock, reducing timeouts, warm-up pitches, making intentional walks automatic by signalling the umpire, rather than throwing four intentional balls. The Arizona Fall League began using a pitch clock in 2014 and the Double-A and Triple-A levels of Minor League Baseball followed suit in 2015. Those levels saw a 12-minute reduction in game times.Towards the end of the 2014 season, Commissioner of Baseball Bud Selig announced the formation of a committee to examine the issue. John Schuerholz chaired the committee, which also included Sandy Alderson, Tony Clark, Rob Manfred, Joe Torre, and Tom Werner. Manfred, having succeeded Selig as the Commissioner in 2015, instituted rule changes to MLB before the start of the 2015 MLB season to address pace of play, including having batters remain in the batters box and the installation of time clocks to limit the time spent around commercial breaks. In 2015, MLB had a committee discuss bringing back the bullpen car.Prior to the 2017 MLB season, the rules were amended to allow a manager to order an automatic intentional walk. MLB and the MLB Players Association (MLBPA) discussed the possibility of introducing the pitch clock at the major league level for the 2018 season. MLB opted against imposing it unilaterally, over the opposition of the MLBPA. Before the 2018 season, MiLB took major actions, including adding pitch clocks at all levels and beginning each extra inning with a runner on second base. Also, the Arizona Diamondbacks of MLB announced they would introduce their first bullpen car in 2018.

Rob Manfred

Robert D. Manfred Jr. (born September 28, 1958) is an American lawyer and business executive who is the tenth and current Commissioner of Baseball. He previously served as the Chief Operating Officer of Major League Baseball (MLB) and succeeded Bud Selig as Commissioner on January 25, 2015.

Selig Monument

The Selig Monument is a public art work by artist Brian Maughan. It is located in front of the Miller Park stadium west of downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The sculpture depicts Bud Selig, the former Commissioner of Baseball and former owner of the Milwaukee Brewers baseball team. It was dedicated on August 24, 2010.

Seattle Pilots (1969)
Milwaukee Brewers (1970–present)
Pitchers
Catchers
First basemen
Second basemen
Third basemen
Shortstops
Outfielders
Designated hitters
Managers
Executives /
pioneers
Umpires
BBWAA Vote
Veterans Committee
J. G. Taylor Spink Award
Ford C. Frick Award
Buck O'Neil Lifetime Achievement Award

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.