Bud

In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.

Fagus sylvatica bud
European beech (Fagus sylvatica) bud

Overview

The buds of many woody plants, especially in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which tightly enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance which serves as added protection. When the bud develops, the scales may enlarge somewhat but usually just drop off, leaving a series of horizontally-elongated scars on the surface of the growing stem. By means of these scars one can determine the age of any young branch, since each year's growth ends in the formation of a bud, the formation of which produces an additional group of bud scale scars. Continued growth of the branch causes these scars to be obliterated after a few years so that the total age of older branches cannot be determined by this means.

In many plants scales do not form over the bud, and the bud is then called a naked bud.[1] The minute underdeveloped leaves in such buds are often excessively hairy. Naked buds are found in some shrubs, like some species of the Sumac and Viburnums (Viburnum alnifolium and V. lantana)[2] and in herbaceous plants. In many of the latter, buds are even more reduced, often consisting of undifferentiated masses of cells in the axils of leaves. A terminal bud occurs on the end of a stem and lateral buds are found on the side. A head of cabbage (see Brassica) is an exceptionally large terminal bud, while Brussels sprouts are large lateral buds.

Since buds are formed in the axils of leaves, their distribution on the stem is the same as that of leaves. There are alternate, opposite, and whorled buds, as well as the terminal bud at the tip of the stem. In many plants buds appear in unexpected places: these are known as adventitious buds.[3]

Often it is possible to find a bud in a remarkable series of gradations of bud scales. In the buckeye, for example, one may see a complete gradation from the small brown outer scale through larger scales which on unfolding become somewhat green to the inner scales of the bud, which are remarkably leaf-like. Such a series suggests that the scales of the bud are in truth leaves, modified to protect the more delicate parts of the plant during unfavorable periods.

Types of buds

Plant Buds clasification
Plant buds classification
Ficus bud
Terminal, vegetative bud of Ficus carica

Buds are often useful in the identification of plants, especially for woody plants in winter when leaves have fallen.[4] Buds may be classified and described according to different criteria: location, status, morphology, and function.

Botanists commonly use the following terms:

  • for location:
    • terminal, when located at the tip of a stem (apical is equivalent but rather reserved for the one at the top of the plant);
    • axillary, when located in the axil of a leaf (lateral is the equivalent but some adventitious buds may be lateral too);
    • adventitious, when occurring elsewhere, for example on trunk or on roots (some adventitious buds may be former axillary ones reduced and hidden under the bark, other adventitious buds are completely new formed ones).
  • for status:
    • accessory, for secondary buds formed besides a principal bud (axillary or terminal);
    • resting, for buds that form at the end of a growth season, which will lie dormant until onset of the next growth season;
    • dormant or latent, for buds whose growth has been delayed for a rather long time. The term is usable as a synonym of resting, but is better employed for buds waiting undeveloped for years, for example epicormic buds;
    • pseudoterminal, for an axillary bud taking over the function of a terminal bud (characteristic of species whose growth is sympodial: terminal bud dies and is replaced by the closer axillary bud, for examples beech, persimmon, Platanus have sympodial growth).
  • for morphology:
    • scaly or covered (perulate), when scales, also referred to as a perule (lat. perula, perulaei) (which are in fact transformed and reduced leaves) cover and protect the embryonic parts;
    • naked, when not covered by scales;
    • hairy, when also protected by hairs (it may apply either to scaly or to naked buds).
  • for function:
    • vegetative, if only containing vegetative pieces: embryonic shoot with leaves (a leaf bud is the same);
    • reproductive, if containing embryonic flower(s) (a flower bud is the same);
    • mixed, if containing both embryonic leaves and flowers.

Image gallery

Tilia platyphallos bud

Tilia bud

Buds of Fraxinus excelsior 03

Black buds of a European ash, Fraxinus excelsior

Bud1web

An opening inflorescence bud at left, that will develop like the one to its right

Flower bud of Sunflower - Helianthus

Inflorescence bud of a sunflower

Quince Blossom with removed watermark

A quince's flower bud with spirally folded petals

Flower Buds.jpeg

Opening Nelumbo flower buds

Coreopsis tinctoria cultivar Uptick Cream and Red 8

Opening Coreopsis tinctoria flower buds

Within botany

The term bud (as in budding) is used by analogy within zoology as well, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which develops into a new individual. It is a form of asexual reproduction limited to animals or plants of relatively simple structure. In this process a portion of the wall of the parent cell softens and pushes out. The protuberance thus formed enlarges rapidly while at this time the nucleus of the parent cell divides (see: mitosis, meiosis). One of the resulting nuclei passes into the bud, and then the bud is cut off from its parent cell and the process is repeated. Often the daughter cell will begin to bud before it becomes separated from the parent, so that whole colonies of adhering cells may be formed. Eventually cross walls cut off the bud from the original cell.

References

  1. ^ Walters, Dirk R., and David J. Keil. 1996. Vascular plant taxonomy. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. page 598.
  2. ^ Cronquist, Arthur, and Henry A. Gleason. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Bronx, New York: New York Botanical Garden Press. page 512.
  3. ^ Coulter, John G. 1913. Plant life and plant uses; an elementary textbook, a foundation for the study of agriculture, domestic science or college botany. New York: American book company. page 188
  4. ^ Trelease, W. (1967) [1931], Winter botany: An Identification Guide to Native Trees and Shrubs, New York: Dover Publications, Inc, ISBN 0486218007
Abbott and Costello

Abbott and Costello were an American comedy duo composed of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, whose work on radio and in film and television made them the most popular comedy team of the 1940s and early 1950s. Their patter routine "Who's on First?" is one of the best-known comedy routines of all time in the world, and set the framework for many of their best-known comedy bits.

Air Bud

Air Bud is a 1997 American-Canadian sports comedy film that sparked the franchise centered on the real-life dog Air Buddy, a cross-bred Golden Retriever, who shoots basketball hoops and appears as Buddy. The film was financially successful, grossing $4 million in its opening weekend and totaling $27.8 million in its run against an estimated $3 million budget.

Anheuser-Busch brands

Anheuser-Busch, a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, is the largest brewing company in the United States, with a market share of 45 percent in 2016.The company operates 12 breweries in the United States and nearly 20 in other countries, which increased recently since Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV acquired SABMiller.

Brands include Budweiser, Busch, Michelob, Bud Light, and Natural Light.

Annual growth cycle of grapevines

The annual growth cycle of grapevines is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy. From a winemaking perspective, each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine. Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate, vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break, flowering, fruit set, veraison, harvesting, leaf fall and dormancy-reacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management, irrigation, vine training and the use of agrochemicals. The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life. The amount of time spent at each stage of the growth cycle depends on a number of factors-most notably the type of climate (warm or cool) and the characteristics of the grape variety.

Beer pong

Beer pong, also known as Beirut, is a drinking game in which players throw a ping pong ball across a table with the intent of landing the ball in a cup of beer on the other end. The game typically consists of opposing teams of two or more players per side with 6 or 10 cups set up in a triangle formation on each side. Each team then takes turns attempting to shoot ping pong balls into the opponent's cups. If a ball lands in a cup (known as a 'make'), the contents of that cup are consumed by the other team and the cup is removed from the table. The first team to eliminate all of the opponent's cups is the winner.

Bud Abbott

William Alexander "Bud" Abbott (October 2, 1897 – April 24, 1974) was an American actor, best known for his film comedy double act, as straight man to Lou Costello.

Groucho Marx declared Abbott "the greatest straight man ever."

Bud Black

Harry Ralston "Bud" Black (born June 30, 1957) is an American former professional baseball player, coach, and current manager of the Colorado Rockies. He played in Major League Baseball as a pitcher from 1981 through 1995, most notably for the Kansas City Royals and Cleveland Indians. He coached the Anaheim Angels / Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim from 2000 through 2006, and managed the San Diego Padres from 2007 through 2015. He was named the National League Manager of the Year in 2010.

Bud Grant

Harry Peter "Bud" Grant Jr. (born May 20, 1927) is a former head coach and player of American football, Canadian football, and a former basketball player in the NBA. Grant served as the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL) for eighteen seasons; he was the team's second (1967–83) and fourth (1985) head coach. Before coaching the Vikings, he was the head coach of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League (CFL) for ten seasons, winning the Grey Cup four times. Grant is the most successful coach in Vikings history, and the third most successful professional football coach overall (behind Don Shula and George Halas), with a combined 290 wins in the NFL and CFL. Grant was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1983 and to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1994. He was the first coach in the history of professional football to guide teams to the Grey Cup and the Super Bowl.

Grant attended the University of Minnesota and was a three-sport athlete, in football, basketball, and baseball. After college, he played for the Minneapolis Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Philadelphia Eagles of the NFL, and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the CFL. A statue of Grant stands in front of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers' current stadium, Investors Group Field.

Bud Powell

Earl Rudolph "Bud" Powell (September 27, 1924 – July 31, 1966) was an American jazz pianist. Though Thelonious Monk was a close friend and influence, his greatest piano influence was Art Tatum.Along with Charlie Parker, Monk, and Dizzy Gillespie, Powell was a leading figure in the development of modern jazz, or bebop. His virtuosity led many to call him the Charlie Parker of the piano. Powell was also a composer, and many jazz critics credit his works and his playing as having "greatly extended the range of jazz harmony."

Bud Selig

Allan Huber "Bud" Selig (; born July 30, 1934) is an American baseball executive who currently serves as the Commissioner Emeritus of Baseball. Previously, he served as the ninth Commissioner of Baseball. He initially served as the acting commissioner beginning in 1992 before being named the official commissioner in 1998. Selig oversaw baseball through the 1994 strike, the introduction of the wild card, interleague play, and the merging of the National and American Leagues under the Office of the Commissioner. He was instrumental in organizing the World Baseball Classic in 2006. Selig also introduced revenue sharing. He is credited for the financial turnaround of baseball during his tenure with a 400 percent increase in the revenue of MLB and annual record breaking attendance.During Selig's term of service, the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs became a public issue. The Mitchell Report, commissioned by Selig, concluded that the MLB commissioners, club officials, the Players Association, and the players all share "to some extent in the responsibility for the steroid era." Following the release of the Mitchell Report, Congressman Cliff Stearns called publicly for Selig to step down as commissioner, citing his "glacial response" to the "growing stain on baseball." Selig has pledged on numerous occasions to rid baseball of performance-enhancing drugs, and has overseen and instituted many rule changes and penalties to that end.A Milwaukee native, Selig was previously the owner and team president of the Milwaukee Brewers. The franchise, originally known as the Seattle Pilots, was acquired by Selig in bankruptcy court in 1970, and renamed after the minor league team of the same name that he had watched in his youth and had existed until the arrival of the Braves in Milwaukee in 1953. Selig was credited with keeping baseball in Milwaukee. The Brewers went to the 1982 World Series (but were defeated in seven games by the St. Louis Cardinals, an event that Selig laments to this very day), and won seven Organization of the Year awards during his tenure. Selig remains a resident of Milwaukee.

On January 17, 2008, Selig's contract was extended through 2012, after which he planned to retire, but he then decided to stay as commissioner until the end of the 2014 season, a move approved by the owners on January 12, 2012, which would take his leadership past his 80th birthday. Selig made $14.5 million in the 12-month period ending October 31, 2005. Selig announced on September 26, 2013, that he would retire in January 2015. On January 22, 2015, MLB announced that Selig would formally step down from the office when his current term expired on January 24, 2015. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 2017.

Bud Shank

Clifford Everett "Bud" Shank, Jr. (May 27, 1926 – April 2, 2009) was an American alto saxophonist and flautist. He rose to prominence in the early 1950s playing lead alto and flute in Stan Kenton's Innovations in Modern Music Orchestra and throughout the decade worked in various small jazz combos. He spent the 1960s as a first-call studio musician in Hollywood. In the 1970s and 1980s, he performed regularly with the L. A. Four. Shank ultimately abandoned the flute to focus exclusively on playing jazz on the alto saxophone. He also recorded on tenor and baritone sax. He is also well known for the alto flute solo on the song "California Dreamin'" recorded by The Mamas & the Papas in 1965.

Bud Spencer

Carlo Pedersoli (31 October 1929 – 27 June 2016), known professionally as Bud Spencer, was an Italian actor, professional swimmer and water polo player. He was known for action-comedy and Spaghetti Western roles with his long-time film partner Terence Hill. The duo "garnered world acclaim and attracted millions to theater seats". Spencer and Hill appeared in, produced and directed over 20 films together.

A successful swimmer in his youth, he obtained a law degree and registered several patents. Spencer also became a certified commercial airline and helicopter pilot, and supported and funded many children's charities, including the Spencer Scholarship Fund.

Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport

Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport (Hungarian: Budapest Liszt Ferenc Nemzetközi Repülőtér) (IATA: BUD, ICAO: LHBP), formerly known as Budapest Ferihegy International Airport and still commonly called just Ferihegy, is the international airport serving the Hungarian capital city of Budapest, and by far the largest of the country's four commercial airports. The airport is located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) southeast of the center of Budapest (bordering Pest county) and was renamed in 2011 in honour of the most famous Hungarian composer Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferenc, in Hungarian) on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth.It offers international connections primarily within Europe, but also to Africa, to the Middle East, to North America and to the Far East. In 2018, the airport handled 14.8 million passengers. The airport is the headquarters and primary hub for Wizz Air and base for Ryanair. In 2012 it experienced a significant drop in aircraft movements and handled cargo, primarily due to the collapse of Malév Hungarian Airlines earlier in the year, hence losing a large portion of connecting passengers. It had been the hub for Malév until the airline's bankruptcy on 3 February 2012.In 2015 North-American and Middle-Eastern carriers announced direct flights to Budapest. Together with the continuously expanding network of low-cost carriers, the airport was not only able to survive but to grow in a way that was unprecedented in the region. In 2018 LOT Polish Airlines made Budapest their first hub outside Poland, with flights to New York–JFK, Chicago–O'Hare, Kraków and London City Airport. Nowadays, the Budapest hub of Wizz Air is the largest of all with more than 60 destinations.

Budweiser

Budweiser () is an American-style pale lager produced by Anheuser-Busch, currently part of the transnational corporation Anheuser-Busch InBev and produced in various breweries around the world. There is an unrelated lager also called Budweiser, originating centuries ago in Budweis, Bohemia and made by Budweiser Budvar Brewery of nowadays České Budějovice, Czech Republic; this has given rise to a trademark dispute preventing Anheuser-Busch from using the "Budweiser" name in some regions, leading to the exclusive use of "Bud" in those markets.

Introduced in 1876 by Carl Conrad & Co. of St. Louis, Missouri, Budweiser has become one of the largest-selling beers in the United States. The lager is available in over 80 countries, though not under the Budweiser name where Anheuser-Busch does not own the trademark. Budweiser is a filtered beer, available on draft and in bottles and cans, made, unlike the Czech lager, with up to 30% rice in addition to the hops and barley malt used by all lagers.

Cannabis edible

A cannabis edible, also known as a cannabis-infused food or simply an edible, is a food product that contains cannabinoids, especially tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Although edible may refer to either a food or a drink, a cannabis-infused drink may be referred to more specifically as a liquid edible or drinkable.

Most edibles contain a significant amount of THC, which can induce a wide range of effects, including relaxation, euphoria, increased appetite, fatigue, and anxiety. THC-dominant edibles are consumed for recreational and medical purposes. Some edibles contain a negligible amount of THC and are instead dominant in other cannabinoids, most commonly cannabidiol (CBD). These edibles are primarily used for medical purposes only.Foods and beverages made from non-psychoactive cannabis products are known as hemp foods.

Cannabis strains

Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrid varieties of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.

Varieties are developed to intensify specific characteristics of the plant, or to differentiate the strain for the purposes of marketing or to make it more effective as a drug. Variety names are typically chosen by their growers, and often reflect properties of the plant such as taste, color, smell, or the origin of the variety. Cannabis strains commonly refer to those varieties with recreational and medicinal use. These varieties have been cultivated to contain a high percentage of cannabinoids. Several varieties of Cannabis, known as hemp, have a very low cannabinoid content, and are instead grown for their fiber and seed.

Cotton swab

Cotton swabs (American English) or cotton buds (British English) consist of one or two small wads of cotton wrapped around one or both ends of a short rod made of wood, rolled paper or plastic. Concerns about marine pollution are leading to some countries banning the plastic-stemmed versions in favour of the biodegradable alternatives.

Cotton swabs are commonly used in a variety of applications including first aid, cosmetics application, cleaning, and arts and crafts. Although physicians have warned for years that it is not safe to use cotton swabs for ear cleaning, that remains the most common use.

Rose

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.

Taste bud

Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells. The taste receptors are located around the small structures known as papillae found on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus, the cheek, and epiglottis. These structures are involved in detecting the five elements of taste perception: salty, sour, bitter, sweet and umami. A popular myth assigns these different tastes to different regions of the tongue; in reality these tastes can be detected by any area of the tongue. Via small openings in the tongue epithelium, called taste pores, parts of the food dissolved in saliva come into contact with the taste receptors. These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves.

On average, the human tongue has 2,000–8,000 taste buds.

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