Bruce Sundlun

Bruce Sundlun (born Bruce George Sundlun;[1] January 19, 1920 – July 21, 2011) was an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as 71st Governor of Rhode Island between 1991 and 1995.

He was Rhode Island's second Jewish governor, and the only Jewish governor in the United States during his two terms. In addition to politics, Sundlun had a varied career as a military pilot, federal attorney, practicing lawyer, corporate executive and university lecturer.[2]

Bruce Sundlun
Bruce Sundlun
71st Governor of Rhode Island
In office
January 1, 1991 – January 3, 1995
LieutenantRoger N. Begin
Robert Weygand
Preceded byEdward D. DiPrete
Succeeded byLincoln Almond
Personal details
Born
Bruce George Sundlun

January 19, 1920
Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
DiedJuly 21, 2011 (aged 91)
Jamestown, Rhode Island, U.S.
Resting placeTemple Beth El Cemetery
Providence, Rhode Island
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Madeleine Schiffer (Eisner) Gimbel
(m. 1949; div. 1965)

Pamela (Soldwedel) Barrett
(m. 1966; div. 1974)

Joyanne Thomas Carter
(m. 1974; div. 1985)

Marjorie Lee
(m. 1985; div. 1999)

Susan Dittelman (m. 2000)
Alma materWilliams College
Harvard Law School
ProfessionLawyer, businessman, politician
AwardsDistinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart, Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters, Military Order of Foreign Wars, Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur, Israeli Prime Minister's Medal
Signature
Bruce Sundlun's signature
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Army Air Forces
United States Air Force
Years of service1942–1945 (active) 1945–1980 (reserves)
RankCaptain (active)
Colonel (Air Force Reserves)
CommandsB-17F Damn Yankee
Battles/warsWorld War II, Combined Bomber Offensive, Eighth Air Force; 384th Bomb Group; 545th Squadron; Grafton Underwood
Portrait in Rhode Island Statehouse

Early life and education

Sundlun was born in Providence on January 19, 1920, to Walter Irving Sundlun and Jennette "Jan" Zelda (née Colitz) Sundlun. His grandparents were Lithuanian Jewish immigrants.[3]

Sundlun attended the Gordon School, Classical High School (Providence) and the Tabor Academy (Marion, Massachusetts). In 1933, while attending Boy Scout camp at Camp Yawgoog, he fell through ice on a pond and was rescued by a young John Chafee; and while in high school, he was a track star and excelled in long jump events.[4]

Upon finishing college classes begun in 1938, he received a B.A. from Williams College in 1946 after serving during World War II in the United States Army Air Forces flying B-17 bombers in the 8th Air Force in England. He attended Harvard Law School, graduating with an LL.B. in 1949.[2]

Military service

Sundlun-Orangeburg-1942
U.S. Army Air Corps Aviation Cadet Bruce Sundlun at Orangeburg Army Airfield, South Carolina in early 1942 alongside his Boeing-Stearman PT-17 Flight Trainer

While still in college, Sundlun volunteered for service in the U.S. Army Air Forces Aviation Cadet Program on December 8, 1941, at Westover Field.[5] He was trained as a four-engine bomber pilot at Maxwell Field in Alabama, after basic flight training at the USAAC Southeast Training Center at Orangeburg, South Carolina, the Greenville Army Air Field at Greenville, Mississippi, and George Field in Lawrenceville, Illinois.[5]

During overseas active duty beginning in June 1943, Sundlun served as a B-17 Flying Fortress pilot in the England-based 545th Bombardment Squadron, 384th Bomb Group of the Eighth Air Force at Grafton-Underwood Air Base. On 1 December 1943 during his 13th bombing mission, his plane the Damn Yankee[6] was damaged by flak during the bombing of Solingen, Germany, knocking out one of the engines and jamming the bomb bay doors in an open position.[7]

On the slowed return trip to England, the damaged Damn Yankee was intercepted by a squadron of Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighters while over Nazi-occupied Jabbeke, Belgium, and they inflicted further damage to the plane causing its crash. Sundlun and his copilot Lt. Andrew J. Boles were able to bank the airplane hard to the left to avoid crashing into the town center and ditched it safely into a turnip field at Zomerweg 41, south of Jabbeke. A monument commemorating the crash was erected on the side of the road near the crash site by the citizens of Jabbeke in 2009 and he was named an honorary citizen because his action saved countless lives in the town center of Jabbeke.[8][9] Of the ten-man crew, four were killed while in the plane, five were quickly captured by German forces on the ground, with Sundlun the only crew member able to evade capture.[5]

Damn-Yankee1943
Four of ten crew members of B-17F Damn Yankee. L-R. Top turret gunner, Sgt. William Ramsey; waist gunner, Sgt. Michael J. Cappelletti; bombardier, Sgt. George Hayes; and pilot, Lt. Bruce Sundlun in October 1943
Damn Yankee Crash Site-Zomerweg
Roadside marker at Zomerweg Jabbeke, Belgium commemorating the crash of USAAF B-17 Damn Yankee on 1 December 1943

Sundlun made his way across Belgium and France by stealing bicycles in the morning near the market centers of small towns and seeking aid from local Catholic priests in the evening.[10]

After six months time cooperating with the French Resistance under the code name Salamander, he made several attempts to enter Spain near Biarritz, and later near Foix. But after deciding that there was too much danger of capture or loss in the snowy Pyrenees, he made his way on stolen bicycles north-eastward across France and escaped into Switzerland on May 5, 1944, near Fêche-l'Église. Before escaping into Switzerland, he was engaged with the Maquis in acts of sabotage near Belfort against German Army units under the command of Russian defector General Andrey Vlasov.[2][11]

Later, he was recruited by Allen Dulles to work out of the U.S. Embassy in Bern under the auspices of the Office of Strategic Services in the early preparations for Operation Sunrise. Later under the orders of Dulles, he reentered France to act as a bombardment spotter for the Allied invasion of Marseille in mid-August 1944. After a brief service as a pilot of C-54 Skymaster cargo planes into Karachi, and over "The Hump" to Kunming after VE Day, he ferried bombers (B-24 Liberators and B-29 Superfortresses) from the U.S. mainland to Tinian in the Mariana Islands and into other bases in the Pacific Theater of Operations.[2]

In August 1945, Sundlun attained the rank of captain, and left active service at the end of the war. He received the Purple Heart, Distinguished Flying Cross, and Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters from the U.S. military, and in 1977 he received the Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur from the French government.[12]

Despite ending his active service in 1945, he remained in the U.S. Air Force Reserve and rose through the officer ranks until he retired as a colonel in 1980 after serving with the 376th Troop Carrier Squadron at Hanscom Air Force Base in Massachusetts, and the 459th Troop Carrier Group, Medium at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland[13] He was a member of the Rhode Island Commandery of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, a military society of commissioned officers who served during wartime and their descendants.[14]

In September 1948 Sundlun flew surplus B-17 bombers from Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in Arizona to the newly created state of Israel to help form the Israeli Air Force. Later on November 27, 1979, he was awarded the Prime Minister's Medal by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin for his services to the State of Israel.[15][16]

Military awards and decorations

COMMAND PILOT WINGS
Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon Purple Heart ribbon
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Air Medal ribbon
American Campaign Medal ribbon
Bronze star
Bronze star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal ribbon
World War II Victory Medal ribbon AFRM with Hourglass Device (Gold) Legion Honneur Chevalier ribbon
USAAF Command pilot
Distinguished Flying Cross Purple Heart Air Medal with 2 Oak leaf clusters
American Campaign Medal European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal Armed Forces Reserve Medal with gold hourglass device Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur (France)

Legal and business career

From 1949 to 1972, Sundlun was a practicing attorney. In 1949, he was appointed by Attorney General J. Howard McGrath to serve as an Assistant United States Attorney in Washington, D.C., and later served as a Special Assistant to the U.S. Attorney General. From 1954 to 1972, he was in private law practice in both Washington, D.C. and Providence, with the law firms of Amram, Hahn, and Sundlun and Sundlun, Tirana and Scher.[4]

BruceSundlun-COMSAT-1962
Bruce Sundlun, Founding Director of COMSAT, 1962

Sundlun was active as a businessman from the 1960s through the 1990s. He was a pioneer in the jet charter industry in 1964 by being one of the founding members on the board of directors of Executive Jet Aviation (EJA), along with Air Force generals Curtis E. LeMay and Paul Tibbetts, and entertainers James Stewart and Arthur Godfrey, with retired Air Force Brigadier General Olbert F. "Dick" Lassiter as president and chairman of the board.[17][18] Shortly after incorporation in Ohio, Sundlun arranged financing for EJA by engineering a stock purchase by American Contract Company of Wilmington, Delaware, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad. EJA initially began operations in 1964 with a fleet of ten Learjet 23 aircraft.[19]

Several years later, a number of financial and legal improprieties were made by Lassiter including the purchase of Boeing 707 and Boeing 727 aircraft in violation of federal law prohibiting railroad ownership of large aircraft. An order by the Civil Aeronautics Board for EJA to either dispose of the large airplanes or for the Penn Central Railroad to divest its $22 million investment led to the near collapse of EJA in 1970.[20] The company's creditors reacted by demanding the removal of Lassiter as president.[21]

On July 2, 1970, Sundlun was installed as EJA president, and he set out to rebuild the company. Under his leadership, the big jets were sold and he brought the company into the black. In the process, Sundlun, Robert Lee Scott, Jr. and Joseph Samuels "Dody" Sinclair, grandson of one of the founders of The Outlet Company of Providence, borrowed $1.25 million from the Industrial Trust Company of Providence to buy out Penn Central's interest in EJA. That purchase was completed in 1972 as part of the Penn Central Railroad's bankruptcy proceedings. When Paul Tibbetts became president of EJA in 1976, he said the company's turn around, under Sundlun's guidance, was one of the nation's great business success stories of that decade.[22] By the end of Sundlun's presidency, EJA was doing business with approximately 250 contract flying customers and logging more than three million miles per year. Sundlun remained on the board of directors of EJA until it was sold in 1984 to a group of investors led by Richard Santulli. The company is still in business with the name of NetJets as one of the holdings of Berkshire Hathaway.[23]

From 1976 to 1988, Sundlun was president and chief executive officer of The Outlet Company, a department store and broadcast communications company in Providence. In close association with Dody Sinclair, he led the diversification of the corporation by expanding its radio and television broadcast communications portfolio in the 1970s and 1980s until it had 147 retail stores and 11 radio and television stations.[24] He presided over the corporation during the 1981 sale of the company's flagship Providence department store, sale of several radio stations, the merger of The Outlet Company with the Rockefeller Group in 1984, and the renaming of the company to Outlet Communications.[25][24]

In 1986 after the Rockefeller family voted to not expand further into broadcast communications, a group of Outlet Communications executives, led by Sundlun and Dody Sinclair, executed a leveraged buyout of the company.[26] Remaining as president throughout the entire merger and leveraged buyout sequence, Sundlun led the doubling of Outlet Communications holdings of licensed television broadcast stations from 4 to 11 across the country. During his last three years as president (1986–88), he led the sale of the Outlet Communications stations in Orlando, San Antonio and Sacramento.[4]

Politics and public service

Sundlun ran twice but lost the Rhode Island governorship races in 1986 and 1988, but won it on his third try in 1990, defeating incumbent governor Edward D. DiPrete in a landslide victory 74%-26%, the largest majority for any Rhode Island governor at the time. He won reelection in 1992, but in 1994, he failed to win the Democratic primary against Myrth York, and she was defeated in the general election.[27] Rhode Island would not have another Democratic governor in office until former Republican Lincoln Chafee switched to the Democratic party in 2013, having been elected as an Indepenedent candidate in 2010.

Only one hour after Sundlun's inauguration as governor on January 1, 1991, he announced the closure of 45 banks and credit unions in the state due to the collapse of their private insurer, the Rhode Island Share and Deposit Indemnity Corporation (RISDIC).[28] Resolution of the crisis was through Sundlun's creation of the Rhode Island Depositor's Economic Protection Corporation (DEPCO) to manage the assets of closed banks and assure depositor repayment. Sundlun served as the chairman of the DEPCO board of directors and was primarily aided by his director of policy Sheldon Whitehouse. Despite considerable political resistance and the permanent closure of several institutions due to their failure to acquire Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or National Credit Union Administration insurance, all depositor funds were repaid in full plus interest, after two and a half years.[29]

BruceSundlunTerminal2009
Bruce Sundlun Terminal at T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI

During Sundlun's two terms as governor, he took particular interest in expanding Rhode Island as a destination for conventions and tourism by championing the building the Rhode Island Convention Center. Later, noting that a shortage of hotels in Providence hindered the city's development as a convention destination, he urged the Rhode Island Convention Center Authority to facilitate the building of a hotel that eventually became The Westin Providence.[30][31] He created the Rhode Island Airport Corporation as an entity to revitalize and operate Rhode Island's state airports, and he was responsible for a complete redesign and rebuild of the passenger terminal and airport approach roads at T. F. Green Airport in Warwick.[32][33] In 1992, he aided in the establishment of the Quonset Air Museum at the Quonset State Airport in North Kingstown.[34] He was also responsible for building the Jamestown Verrazzano Bridge, and the Jamestown Expressway, as well as arranging the financing of Providence Place Mall, and the relocation of the Woonasquatucket River to permit the construction of Waterplace Park and the Citizens Bank Building in downtown Providence.[35] The Bruce Sundlun Terminal at T.F. Green Airport is named in his honor, and the airport now generates over $2 billion in economic activity annually.[36] He was the last Rhode Island governor to be elected to a two-year term, as his successor, Lincoln Almond was the first governor to be elected to a four-year term, which Rhode Island enacted in 1994.

Sundlun served as a co-chairman of the inaugural parade committee for President John F. Kennedy in 1960 and 1961, and was appointed by President Kennedy in October 1962 as an incorporating member of the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), where he served for 30 years as a director.[37] In 1978, President Jimmy Carter appointed him as a member of the Board of Visitors of the United States Air Force Academy where he served two four-year terms,[38] and that same year, he was appointed by Governor Garrahy as a Rhode Island Commodore. He served a four-year term as a director of the National Security Education Board, appointed by President Bill Clinton in 1993.[39]

Sundlun was a delegate to Democratic National Convention in 1964, 1968, 1980, 1988, and 2000, as well as to the Rhode Island Constitutional Convention of 1985. He was a member of the Providence School Board from 1984 to 1990. And from 1995 until his death, Sundlun had been teaching political science and Rhode Island history at the University of Rhode Island as Governor in Residence.[40]

Personal life

From the 1970s to the late 1980s, Sundlun maintained a residence at Salamander Farm, a 130-acre (0.53 km2) estate in The Plains, Virginia, which he named after his wartime identity with the French Underground.[41][42] From 2004 until his death in 2011, he lived in Jamestown, Rhode Island, with his fifth wife, Susan, a professional photographer and owner of East Greenwich Photo.[43]

Sundlun was married five times and had four children. He was the father of WFSB news anchor Kara (Hewes) Sundlun and father-in-law to Dennis House.[44] He admitted paternity after Hewes filed suit in 1993 alleging that Sundlun had fathered her in a relationship with her mother, Judith Vargo, a.k.a. Judith Hewes. During the initial stages of the suit, Sundlun said that a payment to Judith Hewes of $35,000 in 1976 and Kara's adoption by Robert Hewes in the late 1970s had fully absolved him of financial responsibility in the matter.[45] However, Sundlun accepted Kara Hewes fully as his daughter assuring that her college education was fully financed. Kara has two children (Helena and Julian) by her husband, WFSB news anchor Dennis House.[2][46]

Sundlun also had three sons from his first marriage (to Madeleine Schiffer Gimbel):

Sundlun died on July 21, 2011, aged 91, at his home in Jamestown, Rhode Island.[51][52]

Sundlun was accorded full state and military honors prior to and at his funeral and burial on July 24, 2011.[53] He was buried at Temple Beth El Cemetery in Providence, Rhode Island.[54]

Media reports and popular controversy

In July 1993, when he thought three raccoons on his 4-acre (16,000 m2) estate in Newport were rabid, Sundlun shot at them with a 12-gauge shotgun. Later the Providence Journal-Bulletin reported that the act was illegal according to state fish and game laws. The day of the publication, Sundlun turned himself in to the state police for arrest stating that ethics was the cornerstone of his administration. The state police reluctantly complied, so the case went to court and Sundlun pleaded guilty. But state officials and his own lawyer, Robert Flanders, convinced Sundlun that his actions were not a crime because his estate did not constitute a "compact area" and because the threat of rabies that year had led the state to waive restrictions on shooting raccoons. His guilty plea was withdrawn and all charges were dropped.[55]

After the raccoon shooting incident, Sundlun agreed to pose for a calendar photo for local charity wearing only a raccoon hat while aiming a shotgun and displaying his 8th Air Force tattoo on his shoulder, and he occasionally showed up at downtown eateries in the middle of the night in pajamas and bathrobe to pick up coffee and a late-night snack.[56]

In December 1997, in East Greenwich, Sundlun attempted to purchase some plastic forks after hours from a nearby CVS Pharmacy for a Christmas party he was attending. Employees had closed their registers for the day, yet had not secured the premises. CVS workers apologized for the misunderstanding but said they could not accept payment as the transaction could not be registered due to deactivation of their cash registers. Police were called after an argument let out between Sundlun and the employees. Sundlun eventually issued an apology to the employees and the pharmacy chain for his actions.[57]

On February 24, 2009, Sundlun was involved in a dispute over his place in line at a branch of Citizens Bank in East Greenwich. Sundlun was pushed to the ground by Charles Machado, 59, of Warwick. Sundlun hit his head and was stunned, but he declined to press charges against Machado.[58]

In his later years, Sundlun had been involved in some traffic accidents and traffic violations, which led two Rhode Island police departments, North Kingstown in 2007 and Jamestown in 2009, to convince the state Department of Motor Vehicles to evaluate Sundlun's ability to drive. In 2008, he was admonished by authorities of University of Rhode Island about his driving on the campus after separate incidents in which he drove on a sidewalk, nearly hit a professor who was walking with a cane, and allegedly hit a parked car. Sundlun passed the first driving test which was the result of the North Kingstown request. On April 30, 2009, Sundlun voluntarily surrendered his license.[59][60]

On June 4, 2009, Sundlun was on a WPRO radio talk show in which he claimed that he flew a private plane owned by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Arthur Votolato, 79, from T.F. Green Airport to Hartford, Connecticut. Within days, Judge Votolato and Sundlun had issued a statement that the judge was in fact in full control of the aircraft. While Votolato's pilot's license had been maintained up to date, Sundlun's commercial pilot's license had expired in the late 1970s.[61]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As a result of his being repeatedly annoyed with the Providence Journal constantly inserting his middle initial into news stories against his wishes, Sundlun requested and was granted legal elimination of his middle name by the Rhode Island District Court in Newport, Rhode Island, in 1986.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Bruce at 86: A different kind of man". by G. Wayne Miller, Providence Journal (2006). Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2009.
  3. ^ "Bruce Sundlun Fiery Former RI Governor Dies". Providence Journal. July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c "Bruce Sundlun's remarkable Rhode Island life". Providence Journal. July 24, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Tim Gray. "Above and Beyond: The Incredible Escape of Jewish-American B-17 Pilot Bruce Sundlun from Nazi-Occupied Europe in World War II". World War II Foundation. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  6. ^ "Assault on Damn Yankee, by Domenic DeNardo". Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  7. ^ "384 Bomb Group Mission Log". December 1, 1943. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2009.
  8. ^ "Bruce Sundlun Citizen of Jabbeke (in Flemish)". Hendrik Bogaert. April 27, 2009. Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
  9. ^ Johan Willaert. "My 68th Anniversary Tribute to B17-F Damn Yankee". U.S. Militaria Forum. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  10. ^ Tim Gray Media and David F. Alfonso (June 24, 2013). "Above and Beyond". World War II Foundation, Kingston, Rhode Island. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
  11. ^ "Bruce Sundlun: World War II gave me indelible lesson in separation of church and state". Providence Journal. December 3, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2009.
  12. ^ "Rhode Island State House Resolution 2008-H-7186" (PDF). Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  13. ^ "Rhode Island Governor Bruce G. Sundlun". National Association of Governors. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  14. ^ "Military Order of Foreign Wars Membership Roster 31 December 2001". Military Order of Foreign Wars. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  15. ^ "Program for presentation of Israel's Prime Minister's Medal to Sundlun". Fitzhugh Green, Jr. Papers, Box 2 Folder 47, Georgetown University Special Collections. November 27, 1979. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  16. ^ "Image of Menachem Begin (1977 version) Prime Minister Medal (obverse)". israelidecorations.net. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  17. ^ p. 58 in: U.S. Congress, House Committee on Banking and Currency. (1972). The Penn Central Failure and the Role of Financial Institutions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 336pp.Google Books result
  18. ^ "Homage to Dick Lassiter". International Air Bahama Crew Association. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  19. ^ "Netjets History". Archived from the original on April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  20. ^ "Sundlun v. Executive Jet Aviation, Inc., 273 A.2d 282 (Del. Ch., 1970)". Chancery court of Delaware, Newcastle county. Retrieved June 24, 2009.
  21. ^ p. 176 in: Daughen, Joseph R. and Peter Binzen. (1999). The Wreck of the Penn Central (2nd ed), Beard Books, Frederick, Md.; ISBN 978-1-893122-08-6
  22. ^ Di Freeze, "Paul Tibbets: A Rendezvous with History". Airport Journals. Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  23. ^ "NetJets History". NetJets. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  24. ^ a b "Outlet Company Records". Rhode Island Historical Society. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
  25. ^ Michael Blumstein (July 6, 1982). "A Slimmer Outlet, Undaunted by Rebuff, Still Seeks Merger". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  26. ^ Leslie Wayne, "Reverse LBO's Bring Riches". New York Times. April 23, 1987. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  27. ^ "1994 RI gubernatorial election results". Rhode Island Secretary of State. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
  28. ^ "Banking Crisis Still Grips Rhode Island". New York Times. January 2, 1992. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  29. ^ "Sundlun DEPCO Papers". Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  30. ^ "Rhode Island Convention Center Authority". Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
  31. ^ Sundlun, B., 1997. Growing Rhode Island: big projects have been a big help. Providence Journal-Bulletin November 16, p. D.14
  32. ^ "Rhode Island Airport Corporation". Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  33. ^ "Rhode Island Airport Corporation authorizing legislation GLRI 1-2-7.1". Rhode Island General Assembly. Retrieved May 22, 2009.
  34. ^ "About the Quonset Air Museum". Quonset Air Museum, Inc. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  35. ^ "David Preston: Bruce Sundlun: A model of strong leadership". Providence Journal. January 25, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  36. ^ "T.F. Green Airport Economic Impact Report 2006" (PDF). Rhode Island Airport Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  37. ^ "Stockholders Back COMSAT Management". St. Petersburg Times. September 18, 1964. Retrieved May 17, 2009.
  38. ^ "John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online]". Santa Barbara, CA: University of California. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  39. ^ "Three New Inductees to the URI College of Business Hall of Fame". University of Rhode Island. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
  40. ^ "Bruce Sundlun Biographical Notes". University of Rhode Island Special Collections. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  41. ^ "Salamander Farm Story". Sheila Crump Johnson Salamander Resort and Spa. Retrieved July 10, 2009.
  42. ^ "Well-Bred Design: The Sundluns at Home". The Washington Dossier. April 1980. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  43. ^ "About Soozie Sundlun". East Greenwich Photo. Archived from the original on November 16, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
  44. ^ "Marriages: Kara Sundlun and Dennis House". Milford Daily News. November 15, 2003. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  45. ^ "Paternity Suit Just Another Crisis in Rhode Island". New York Times. June 11, 1993. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
  46. ^ Zezima, Katie (August 10, 2003). "Weddings, Celebrations & Vows: Kara Sundlun and Dennis House". New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2010.
  47. ^ "Marathon Brings Out 20,000 Runners – and An Economic Boost". San Diego Business Journal. May 31, 2004. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  48. ^ "Tracy Sundlun, Rock 'n' Roll Marathon". San Diego Rotary Club. May 5, 2011. Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  49. ^ "Profile: Stuart A. Sundlun". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
  50. ^ "Peter Sundlun profile". Linked-In. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  51. ^ Margalit Fox (July 22, 2011). "Bruce Sundlun, Rhode Island Governor With Flair, Dies at 91". The New York Times.
  52. ^ "Sundlun dies at 91". News 10 Providence. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
  53. ^ "Public invited to honor former Gov. Bruce Sundlun Saturday". Providence Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  54. ^ "Bruce Sundlun at Find a Grave". Retrieved August 10, 2011.
  55. ^ "A Governor Shoots, But His Guilty Plea Is Wide of the Mark". New York Times October 3, 1993. October 3, 1993. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  56. ^ Rudy Cheeks, "O Captain, my Captain". The Boston Phoenix. July 27, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
  57. ^ "Apology offered to CVS workers". Boston Globe. December 17, 1997. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  58. ^ "Sundlun involved in altercation at bank". WJAR-10 Television. February 24, 2009. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  59. ^ Amanda Milkovits, "State DMV asked to evaluate Sundlun's ability to drive". Providence Journal. April 29, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  60. ^ "Former Gov. Bruce Sundlun turns in license". Providence Journal. May 1, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
  61. ^ "Sundlun says now he didn't fly judge's plane to Hartford". Providence Journal. June 6, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Edward D. DiPrete
Governor of Rhode Island
1991–1995
Succeeded by
Lincoln Almond
1986 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 1986 Rhode Island gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1986. Incumbent Republican Edward D. DiPrete defeated Democratic nominee Bruce Sundlun with 64.70% of the vote.

1988 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 1988 Rhode Island gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1988. Incumbent Republican Edward D. DiPrete defeated Democratic nominee Bruce Sundlun with 50.83% of the vote.

1988 United States gubernatorial elections

United States gubernatorial elections were held on November 8, 1988 in 12 states and two territories. Going into the elections, eight seats were held by Republicans, and four by Democrats. After the elections, the Democrats had a net gain of one seat. The elections coincided with the United States House elections, United States Senate elections and presidential election.

1990 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 1990 Rhode Island gubernatorial election was held on November 6, 1990. Democratic nominee Bruce Sundlun defeated incumbent Republican Edward D. DiPrete with 74.15% of the vote.

1992 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 1992 Rhode Island gubernatorial election was held on November 3, 1992. Incumbent Democrat Bruce Sundlun defeated Republican nominee Elizabeth A. Leonard with 61.55% of the vote.

1992 United States gubernatorial elections

United States gubernatorial elections were held on November 3, 1992 in 12 states and two territories. Going into the elections, six of the seats were held by Democrats and six by Republicans. After the elections, eight seats were held by Democrats and four by Republicans. The elections coincided with the presidential election.

This was the last year in which Rhode Island held a gubernatorial election in the same year as the presidential election. The length of gubernatorial terms for Rhode Island's governor would be extended from two to four years, with elections taking place in midterm election years.

1994 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 1994 Rhode Island gubernatorial election took place on November 7, 1994. Republican Lincoln Almond defeated Democrat Myrth York.

It was the first to elect the governor to a term of 4-years, as opposed to 2-years.

2014 Rhode Island gubernatorial election

The 2014 Rhode Island gubernatorial election took place on November 4, 2014, to elect the Governor of Rhode Island, concurrently with the election of Rhode Island's Class II U.S. Senate seat, as well as other elections to the United States Senate in other states and elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.

Incumbent Democratic Governor Lincoln Chafee was eligible to run for re-election to a second term but decided to retire. In primary elections held on September 9, 2014, the Democrats nominated Rhode Island Treasurer Gina Raimondo and the Republicans nominated Cranston Mayor Allan Fung. Also on the ballot were Robert J. Healey of the Moderate Party and two Independent candidates. Raimondo won the election, becoming the first Democrat to be elected governor since Bruce Sundlun in 1992 (Chafee had been elected as an Independent in 2010, switching to the Democratic Party during his term). Raimondo became the first female Governor in Rhode Island history.

Edward D. DiPrete

Edward Daniel DiPrete (born July 8, 1934) is an American Republican Party politician and convicted felon from Rhode Island. He served as the 70th Governor of Rhode Island for three two-year terms, serving from 1985 to 1991. Convicted of numerous corruption charges, he is the only Rhode Island governor to have gone to prison.

Francis Darigan Jr.

Francis J. Darigan Jr is a retired Rhode Island politician who has served in numerous public offices–most notably as Associate Justice of the Rhode Island Superior Court.

Francis Flaherty (judge)

Francis X. Flaherty (born January 8, 1947) is an Associate Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court. Flaherty was appointed to the Supreme Court by Governor Donald Carcieri in 2003. Prior to his service on the Supreme Court, his career included service as a member of the Rhode Island Board of Governors for Higher Education, the mayor of the city of Warwick, and the private practice of law.Flaherty is a graduate of Suffolk University Law School and Providence College. Between college and law school, he served in the United States Army from 1968 to 1970. His service included deployment to Vietnam where he earned the Bronze Star for Valor as a platoon leader.After graduating from law school, Flaherty was an Assistant City Solicitor in Warwick from 1975 until 1978. His political career then began with election to the City Council in 1978 and eventual election to three terms as mayor of Warwick serving from 1985 to 1990. He ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic Party Primary for Governor of Rhode Island in 1990 and 1992, though he came narrowly close to victory over the incumbent, Governor Bruce Sundlun, in 1992. In the years after, Flaherty returned to private law practice, served on the Rhode Island Board of Governors for Higher Education from 1998 to 2003, and was appointed to the Supreme Court in 2003.

Lincoln Almond

Lincoln Carter Almond (born June 16, 1936) is an American attorney, politician and member of the Republican Party. Almond served as United States Attorney for the District of Rhode Island from 1969 to 1978 and 1981 to 1993 and later the 72nd Governor of Rhode Island, serving from 1995 to 2003.

List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (S)

The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.

List of governors of Rhode Island

The governor of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations is the head of the executive branch of the government of Rhode Island and serves as commander-in-chief of the state's Army National Guard and Air National Guard. The current governor is Gina Raimondo.

List of lieutenant governors of Rhode Island

The lieutenant governor of Rhode Island is Daniel McKee. He assumed office January 6, 2015.

In Rhode Island, the lieutenant governor and governor of Rhode Island are elected on separate tickets.

Rhode Island Convention Center

The Rhode Island Convention Center is an exposition center in downtown Providence, RI. Opened in 1993, it is the largest convention center in Rhode Island, with about 130,000 square feet (12,000 m2) of exhibition space, including a 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) exhibit hall. It is connected by skybridges to the Dunkin' Donuts Center, and the adjacent Omni Hotels Omni Providence Hotel (formerly The Westin). The ground level features a main exhibition hall with 100,000 square feet, and the upper level has a ballroom and meeting halls. The building has a five-story glass front with a large space outside the meeting rooms and exhibit halls where visitors can gather and mingle.

Rhode Island banking crisis

The Rhode Island banking crisis took place in the early 1990s, when approximately a third of the US state of Rhode Island's population lost access to funds in their bank accounts. The events were triggered by the failure of a Providence bank, Heritage Loan & Investment, due to long-term embezzlement by its president. News of its problems led to a bank run in which customers tried to withdraw money from the bank which did not have enough money available. In normal circumstances, depositors would be protected by the bank's insurance, but the state's private insurer had a long history of problems and was unable to fulfill its commitments. When the insurer collapsed, Governor Bruce Sundlun announced the closure of 45 credit unions and banks just hours after his inauguration.

In the first banking emergency in the state since the Great Depression, 300,000 depositors lost access to their money. Though some of the institutions reopened relatively quickly after obtaining federal insurance, many did not qualify and remained closed for an extended period of time. The state government set up an agency to manage the crisis, selling $697 million in bonds to repay people while filing about 300 lawsuits against the closed institutions and other companies that played a role in the crisis.

The shutdown sparked demonstrations and protests. Corruption hearings added to public frustration, when several executives and public officials were called to testify about their last minute withdrawals from banks just before their closure. The manhunt for the Heritage Loan & Investment president, who had fled to Utah, took nearly 18 months before he turned himself in. He was convicted, and given what at that time was the state's most severe sentence for a "white collar" offense.

Though all depositors were eventually repaid, most had to wait months or years for compensation. Most of the big banks remained closed for more than a year, and several never reopened.

T. F. Green Airport

T. F. Green International Airport (officially Theodore Francis Green Memorial State Airport) (IATA: PVD, ICAO: KPVD, FAA LID: PVD) is a public international airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, United States, six miles (9.7 km) south of the state's capital and largest city of Providence. Opened in 1931, the airport was named for former Rhode Island governor and longtime senator Theodore Francis Green. Rebuilt in 1996, the renovated main terminal was named for former Rhode Island governor Bruce Sundlun. It was the first state-owned airport in the United States.The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021 categorized it as a small hub primary commercial service facility.T. F. Green Airport is a regional airport serving the FAA's New England Region in the FAA System Plan. The airport is the largest and most active airport among the six operated by the Rhode Island Airport Corporation (RIAC).

T. F. Green Airport Connector Road

The Airport Connector Road, also known as the T. F. Green Airport Connector Road or simply the T. F. Green Airport Connector, is a short, unnumbered highway in the U.S. state of Rhode Island that connects Interstate 95 with T. F. Green Airport. The route, which is 1.1 miles (1.8 km) long, is a limited-access freeway for its entire length. The road is situated entirely in the city of Warwick, and is accessible from Interstate 95 via exit 13. The Airport Connector Road has two eastbound interchanges with Jefferson Boulevard and Post Road (U.S. Route 1) before terminating at the Bruce Sundlun Terminal of T. F. Green Airport.

A bill introduced to the Rhode Island General Assembly on March 12, 1998 aimed to rename the freeway the Mary Brennan Parkway, after Mary Brennan, a Cumberland resident who served as Director of Marketing for the Rhode Island Airport Corporation until 1995. Brennan, who was instrumental in promoting the airport's renovation project, died in 1996. The bill passed unanimously in the Rhode Island State Senate and the House of Representatives, officially renaming the road in 1999.

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