Bruce Lincoln

Bruce Lincoln (born 1948) is Caroline E. Haskell Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of the History of Religions in the Divinity School of the University of Chicago, where he also holds positions in the Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Committee on the Ancient Mediterranean World, Committee on the History of Culture, and in the departments of Anthropology and Classics (Associate Member). Before his arrival at the University of Chicago, Lincoln taught at the University of Minnesota (1976–1994), where he co-founded the Program in Comparative Studies in Discourse and Society.

For many years his primary scholarly concern was the study of Indo-European religion, where his work came to criticize the ideological presuppositions of research on purported Indo-European origins. Over the last decade or so, his work has dealt extensively with methodological problems, and issues concerning religion, power and politics.

Bruce Lincoln
ResidenceChicago, Illinois, United States
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materUniversity of Chicago
Haverford College
Scientific career
FieldsHistory of Religions,
Indo-Iranian Religion,
InstitutionsUniversity of Chicago
Doctoral advisorMircea Eliade
InfluencesAntonio Gramsci
Pierre Bourdieu
Max Gluckman


Lincoln graduated from Haverford College in 1970 with a B.A. in Religion, and then took his Ph.D. in the History of Religions from The University of Chicago in 1976, where he wrote his dissertation, "Priests, Warriors, and Cattle: A Comparative Study of East African and Indo-Iranian Religious Systems" under Mircea Eliade. During this time, he also studied under J.A.B. van Buitenen, Carsten Colpe, and Charles Long.[1]



  • Priests, Warriors, and Cattle: A Study in the Ecology of Religions (University of California Press, 1980)
  • Emerging from the Chrysalis: Studies in Rituals of Women's Initiation (Harvard University Press, 1981)
  • (ed.) Religion, Rebellion, Revolution: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Collection of Essays (St. Martin's Press, 1985)
  • Discourse and the Construction of Society (1989)
  • Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice (1991)
  • Authority: Construction and Corrosion (1995)
  • Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship (1999)
  • Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11 (2002)
  • Religion, Empire, and Torture: The Case of Achaemenian Persia, with an appendix on Abu Ghraib (University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  • Gods and Demons, Priests and Scholars: Critical Explorations in the History of Religions (University of Chicago Press, 2012)
  • Happiness for Mankind: Achaemenian Religion and the Imperial Project (Louvain, 2012)
  • Comparer en histoire des religions antiques, coedited with Claude Calame (Liège, 2012)
  • Politique du paradis: religion et empire en Perse achéménide (Genève, 2015)
  • Between History and Myth: Stories of Harald 'Fairhair' and the Founding of the State (University of Chicago Press, 2014)
  • Apples and Oranges: Explorations In, On, and With Comparison (University of Chicago Press, 2018)


  1. ^ "Faculty and Research: Bruce Lincoln". University of Chicago Divinity School. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  2. ^ "Fellows: Bruce Lincoln (1982, Religion)". John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 18 October 2012.

External links

1999 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1999.

Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies

The Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies (ASEEES) is a scholarly society dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about the former Soviet Union (including Eurasia) and Eastern and Central Europe. The ASEEES supports teaching, research, and publication relating to the peoples and territories within this area.

As the premier organization in the world dedicated to the advancement of Slavic studies, ASEEES has cultivated the field’s intellectual landscape for over fifty years through its chief publication, Slavic Review, its Annual Convention, its book prizes, and its organizational newsletter. Slavic Review is the leading scholarly journal in the field, with c.3,800 subscribers around the world. It features articles that can take any disciplinary approach, and are deemed to be original and significant to the field by peer-reviewers. The journal also features reviews and critiques of recent research within the field.

In addition to providing access to current research and scholarship in Slavic studies through Slavic Review, ASEEES has also held an Annual Convention for decades. These conventions have been established as the center of intellectual vitality in Slavic, East European, and Eurasian studies by creating the international forum wherein over 2,000 attendees (scholars, professionals, and graduate students—domestic and international) exchange new research and information face-to-face on an annual basis. The convention lasts four days and features approximately 500 panels and round-tables and 40 meetings.

The Annual Convention also provides the opportunity to recognize outstanding scholarship in the field by awarding prizes to works of merit published within the preceding year. ASEEES awards nine book prizes, a dissertation prize, and a graduate essay prize. These prizes work to motivate scholars to perform at the highest of standards, therefore strengthening the field of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian studies.

ASEEES’ organizational newsletter serves as the informal medium for coverage of the news of the field and profession. Distributed to their 3,000 members five times a year, it reports the activities of members and affiliates, notes members’ recent publications, provides a calendar of conferences, features articles and speeches, lists summer programs and fellowship/grant opportunities, and lists job postings from their over fifty institutional members.


Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient; the term is usually applied to political states or their economic systems. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade. If a self-sufficient economy also refuses all trade with the outside world then it is called a closed economy. The term "closed economy" is also used technically as an abstraction to allow consideration of a single economy without taking foreign trade into account – i.e. as the antonym of open economy. Autarky in the political sense is not necessarily an economic phenomenon; for example, a military autarky would be a state that could defend itself without help from another country, or could manufacture all of its weapons without any imports from the outside world.

Autarky as an ideal or method has been embraced by a wide range of political ideologies and movements, especially left-wing creeds like African socialism, mutualism, council communism, Swadeshi, syndicalism (especially anarcho-syndicalism) and leftist populism. It has also been used in temporary, limited ways by conservative, centrist and nationalist movements, such as the American system, Juche, mercantilism, the Meiji Restoration, social corporatism, and traditionalist conservatism. Fascist and far-right movements occasionally claimed to strive for autarky in platform or propaganda, but in practice crushed existing movements towards self-sufficiency and established extensive capital connections in efforts to ready for expansionist war and genocide while allying with traditional business elites.Autarky may be a policy of a state or other entity when it seeks to be self-sufficient as a whole, but also can be limited to a narrow field such as possession of a key raw material. For example, many countries have a policy of autarky with respect to foodstuffs and water for national security reasons. By contrast, autarky may be a result of economic isolation or external circumstances in which a state or other entity reverts to localized production when it lacks currency or excess production to trade with the outside world.

Cattle raiding

Cattle raiding is the act of stealing cattle. In Australia, such stealing is often referred to as duffing, and the perpetrator as a duffer. In North America, especially in the Wild West cowboy culture, cattle theft is dubbed rustling, while an individual who engages in it is a rustler.

Charles S. Dutton

Charles Stanley Dutton (born January 30, 1951) is an American stage, film, and television actor and director, best known for his roles as "Fortune" in the film Rudy, "Dillon" in Alien 3, and the title role in the television sitcom Roc which originally ran on the Fox network from 1991 until 1994.

David Frawley

David Frawley (Sanskrit title: वामदेव शास्त्री, IAST: Vāmadeva Śāstrī), born 1950, is an American Hindu teacher (acharya) and author, who has written more than thirty books on topics such as the Vedas, Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Yoga, Ayurveda and Vedic astrology, published both in India and in the United States. He is the founder and director of the American Institute of Vedic Studies in Santa Fe, New Mexico which offers educational information on Yoga philosophy, Ayurveda, and Vedic astrology.

His wife Yogini Shambhavi Chopra joins him in his teachings. He is a frequent contributor to the magazine Hinduism Today. He is associated with a number of Vedic and yogic organizations in several countries. He is a Vedic teacher (Sanskrit: Vedacharya), Vaidya (Ayurvedic doctor), and a Jyotishi (Vedic astrologer). Frawley has been repeatedly recognized as a highly esteemed spiritual teacher, especially of Yoga.

In 2015, he was honored by the President of India with the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award granted by the Government of India for "distinguished service of a high order to the nation."

In 1980, Frawley founded the Vedic Research Center, reestablished as the American Institute of Vedic Studies in 1988, which represents his work and teachings and which makes available online many resources to the public. In 2016, he founded Vedic Management Center along with U Mahesh Prabhu.


In Norse mythology, Garmr or Garm (Old Norse "rag") is a wolf or dog associated with both Hel and Ragnarök, and described as a blood-stained guardian of Hel's gate.

Georges Dumézil

Georges Dumézil (French: [ʒɔʁʒ dymezil]; 4 March 1898 – 11 October 1986, Paris) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society. He is considered one of the major contributors to mythography, in particular for his formulation of the trifunctional hypothesis of social class in ancient societies.

Jean Haudry

Jean Haudry (born 1934) is a linguist, and a founder of the Institut d'études indo-européennes at the Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 (France) with Jean-Paul Allard and Jean Varenne. Under his leadership the Institut published, between 1982 and 1998, the Études indo-européennes. He was a professor of Sanskrit and dean of the faculty of letters at the University Lyon 3 and a directeur d'études at the 4th section of the École Pratique des Hautes Études. He became professor emeritus in 2002. Jean Haudry was a member of the Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne, and acted as chairman of its 13th symposium in 1978. He contributed to the creation of the periodical Nouvelle École. He was also a member of the "Scientific Council" of the Front National of Jean-Marie Le Pen, till the split of the Front National, after which he followed Bruno Mégret in the new Mouvement National Républicain. Jean Haudry also participates in the activities of the group Terre et Peuple founded by Pierre Vial, another professor of the University Lyon 3.

Soon after Jean Haudry's retirement, the French Ministry of Education appointed a commission to investigate whether Haudry's institute was not too closely associated with the extreme political right. The work of the commission was mooted when Haudry's successor, Jean-Paul Allard dissolved the institute and reconstituted it as an association free from state supervision.

Bruce Lincoln calls Haudry an 'excellent linguist' and mentions that Haudry supports the Arctic hypothesis of the origin of Indo-Europeans.

List of religious studies scholars

Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.

Edwin David Aponte

Raymond Apple, Australian Rabbi, writer on Jewish, interfaith and freemasonic issues

Karen Armstrong, author of A History of God

Miguel Asín Palacios, Spanish Arabist, work on the mutual influence between Christianity and Islam

Robert Baker Aitken, author of numerous academic books on Zen Buddhism

Reza Aslan, author of Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth, professor of creative writing at the University of California, Riverside

Edmond La Beaume Cherbonnier, professor and scholar, author of Hardness of Heart (1955)

Catherine Bell, ritual studies scholar

Herbert Berg, scholar of Islamic origins

Peter Berger, author of The Sacred Canopy

Pascal Boyer, author of Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought

Joseph Epes Brown, author of The Sacred Pipe and Teaching Spirits: Understanding Native American Religious Traditions

Rudolf Bultmann

Frank G. Carver

John Corrigan, co-author of Religion in America, editor of the "Chicago History of American Religion" book series (University of Chicago Press)

Frank M. Cross, emeritus professor Harvard Divinity School, interpreter of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Ioan P. Culianu, author of The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions and Out of This World

Miguel A. De La Torre

Arti Dhand, associate professor at the University of Toronto, Department for the Study of Religion

Wendy Doniger, (formerly published as Wendy O'Flaherty) is a leading researcher in Hinduism among other topics on religion.

Émile Durkheim, author of The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, a seminal work on sociology of religion

Diana L. Eck

Bart Ehrman, author, and James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mircea Eliade, author of The Sacred and the Profane and History of Religious Ideas, vol.I-III

Steven Engler, Canadian scholar of religion

Desiderius Erasmus

Carl W. Ernst, specialist in Islamic studies, author of Sufism: An Introduction to the Mystical Tradition of Islam

Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard

James George Frazer, author of The Golden Bough

Sigmund Freud, author of Totem and Taboo, The Future of an Illusion, and Moses and Monotheism

Rajmohan Gandhi, author of Revenge and Reconciliation

Arnold van Gennep

Anthony Giddens

René Girard, whose theological works include Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World

Stephen D. Glazier, editor of The Encyclopedia of African and African American Religions

Richard Gombrich

Justo Gonzalez, author of The Story of Christianity and a leading figure in Hispanic theology

Wouter Hanegraaff, author of New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought

Ishwar C. Harris

Nathan O. Hatch, author of "The Democratization of American Christianity"

Friedrich Heiler

Steven Heine, scholar of East Asian Buddhism, especially Zen and Dogen

Susan Henking, scholar of religion, gender and sexuality, and president of Shimer College

Peter L Hobson, author of The Hermeneutics of Followship: Relocating Narratives of Discipleship

Zora Neale Hurston, author of Mules and Men and Hoodoo in America

Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz

William James, author of The Varieties of Religious Experience

Grace Jantzen

Carl G. Jung

Klaus Klostermaier

Adam Kotsko, author of Zizek and Theology and The Politics of Redemption, and translator of Agamben

Hans Küng, Catholic theologian, author of Tracing the Way. Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions

Gerardus van der Leeuw

Peggy Levitt

Bruce Lincoln (University of Chicago), author of Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11, Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship and Discourse and the Construction in Society

Philip Lindholm

Bronislaw Kaspar Malinowski

Martin E. Marty (University of Chicago), author of the series Modern American Religion, editor of The Fundamentalism Project

John Macquarrie, Christian Existentialist and Systematic Theologian

Russell T. McCutcheon

Josef W. Meri

George Foot Moore, scholar and theologian, author of History of Religions (two wolumes – 1914, 1919) and Judaism (two volumes, 1927)

Friedrich Max Müller, editor of Sacred Books of the East

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, author of Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization

Rudolf Otto, author of The Idea of the Holy

Elaine Pagels, author of The Gnostic Gospels

Christopher Partridge, author of The Re-enchantment of the West

Geoffrey Parrinder, former professor at King's College London and author of What World Religions Teach Us (1968)

F. E. Peters, Professor at New York University and author of numerous books on Christianity, Judaism and Islam

Stephen Prothero, Professor at Boston University and author of "American Jesus"; "Religious Literacy"; and "God Is Not One."

Roy Rappaport

Olivier Roy

Arne Runeberg (1912–1979), Finnish sociologist, anthropologist and linguist

Annemarie Schimmel, author of Mystical Dimensions of Islam

Wilhelm Schmidt

Arvind Sharma, author of Women in World Religions

Christian Smith, author of Soul Searching: the Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers

Huston Smith, author of The World's Religions

Jonathan Z. Smith (University of Chicago), author of Map is Not Territory; Imagining Religion: From Babylon to Jonestown and To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual

Wilfred Cantwell Smith

William Robertson Smith, Scottish theologian, early work in the "higher criticism" of the Bible

Ninian Smart, author of Dimensions of the Sacred

Nathan Söderblom

Rodney Stark

Michael Stausberg

John Shelby Spong, author The Sins of Scripture: Exposing the Bible's Texts of Hate to Reveal the God of Love and other works

Einar Thomassen

Toulmin, Joshua (1740–1815), English radical Dissenting minister

Edward Burnett Tylor

Joachim Wach

James Webb, author of The Occult Underground and The Harmonious Circle

Max Weber

Christian K. Wedemeyer

Wesley Wildman

Linda Woodhead, MBE. Director of The Religion and Society Programme

Zakir Naik

Heinrich Robert Zimmer, Indologist, author of Philosophies of India and Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization

Volker Zotz

Ghil'ad Zuckermann, linguist, revivalist, scholar of language, religion and nationhood


Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Myths are often endorsed by rulers and priests and are closely linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths, legends and history together, considering myths to be true accounts of their remote past. Creation myths particularly, take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its later form. Other myths explain how a society's customs, institutions and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals.

The study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies, philology, and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject. The academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology.


In Norse mythology, Naglfar or Naglfari (Old Norse "nail farer") is a boat made entirely from the fingernails and toenails of the dead. During the events of Ragnarök, Naglfar is foretold to sail to Vígríðr, ferrying hordes that will do battle with the gods. Naglfar is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. The boat itself has been connected by scholars with a larger pattern of ritual hair and nail disposal among Indo-Europeans, stemming from Proto-Indo-European custom, and it may be depicted on the Tullstorp Runestone in Scania, Sweden.

Nicholas I of Russia

Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, tr. Nikolay I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He is best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. In his public persona, says Riasanovsky, "Nicholas I came to represent autocracy personified: infinitely majestic, determined and powerful, hard as stone, and relentless as fate." His reign had an ideology called "Official Nationality" that was proclaimed officially in 1833. It was a reactionary policy based on orthodoxy in religion, autocracy in government, and Russian nationalism. He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. His aggressive foreign policy involved many expensive wars, having a disastrous effect on the empire's finances.

He was successful against Russia's neighbouring southern rivals as he seized the last territories in the Caucasus held by Persia (comprising modern day Armenia and Azerbaijan) by successfully ending the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). By now, Russia had gained what is now Dagestan, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia from Persia, and had therefore at last gained the clear upper hand in the Caucasus, both geo-politically as well as territorially. He ended the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829) successfully as well. Later on, however, he led Russia into the Crimean War (1853–56) with disastrous results. Historians emphasize that his micromanagement of the armies hindered his generals, as did his misguided strategy. Fuller notes that historians have frequently concluded that "the reign of Nicholas I was a catastrophic failure in both domestic and foreign policy." On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its geographical zenith, spanning over 20 million square kilometers (7.7 million square miles), but in desperate need of reform.


The concept of an otherworld in historical Indo-European religion is reconstructed in comparative mythology.

Its name is a calque of orbis alius (Latin for "other Earth/world"), a term used by Lucan in his description of the Celtic Otherworld.

Comparable religious, mythological or metaphysical concepts, such as a realm of supernatural beings and a realm of the dead, are found in cultures throughout the world. Spirits are thought to travel between worlds, or layers of existence in such traditions, usually along an axis such as a giant tree, a tent pole, a river, a rope or mountains.

Proto-Indo-European mythology

Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and stories associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Although these stories are not directly attested, they have been reconstructed by scholars of comparative mythology based on the similarities in the belief systems of various Indo-European peoples.

Various schools of thought exist regarding the precise nature of Proto-Indo-European mythology, which do not always agree with each other. The main mythologies used in comparative reconstruction are Vedic, Roman, and Norse, often supported with evidence from the Baltic, Celtic, Greek, Slavic, and Hittite traditions as well.

The Proto-Indo-European pantheon includes well-attested deities such as *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr, the god of the daylit skies, his daughter *Haéusōs, the goddess of the dawn, the divine twins, and the storm god *Perkwunos. Other probable deities include *Péh2usōn, a pastoral god, and *Seh2ul, a female solar deity.

Well-attested myths of the Proto-Indo-Europeans include a myth involving a storm god who slays a multi-headed serpent that dwells in water and a creation story involving two brothers, one of whom sacrifices the other to create the world. The Proto-Indo-Europeans may have believed that the Otherworld was guarded by a watchdog and could only be reached by crossing a river. They also may have believed in a world tree, bearing fruit of immortality, either guarded by or gnawed on by a serpent or dragon, and tended by three goddesses who spun the thread of life.

Siberian Route

The Siberian Route (Russian: Сибирский тракт; Sibirsky trakt), also known as the Moscow Highway (Moskovsky trakt, Московский тракт) and Great Highway (Bolshoi trakt, Большой тракт), was a historic route that connected European Russia to Siberia and China.


Teispids (descendants of Teispes) (ca. mid-7th century BC- 522 BC) were an Iron Age dynasty originally ruling southern Zagros, in ancient Anshan. The dynasty’s realm was later expanded under Cyrus II who conquered a vast area in southwestern Asia, later happened to be known as Achaemenid Empire under Darius I.

The titulary of Teispids is recorded in Cyrus Cylinder, in which Cyrus II identifies himself and his ancestors with the title King of Anshan, as an Elamite tradition.

Teispes being the eponymous ancestor and founder, the dynasty furthermore included Cyrus I, Cambyses I, Cyrus II, Cambyses II and Bardiya.

According to Maria Brosius and Bruce Lincoln, the Teispid line was succeeded by the Achaemenids with Darius I seizing the throne, after killing the last members of the Teispids. To legitimate his claim to the throne Darius attempted to construct a lineage through common ancestry to the Teispid kings. To do so he created the impression that they were Achaemenids. He did so by means of inscriptions. He presented Cyrus II as a member of Achaemenids, in the Pasargadae inscriptions (CMa). All of these inscriptions which are dated back ca. 510 repeating "I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian". In Behistun inscription Darius created the image of a double line of royal rulers through a common ancestor named Teispes, and a putative eponymous ancestor Achaemenes.Even if Darius had a Teispes among his ancestors, he has been a man with the same name as great-grandfather of Cyrus II. Indeed, there is no text that Darius' father was a king.

Vassili Poyarkov

Vassili Danilovich Poyarkov (Василий Данилович Поярков in Russian, ? - after 1668) was the first Russian explorer of the Amur region.

The Russian expansion into Siberia began with the conquest of the Khanate of Sibir in 1582. By 1639 they reached the Pacific 65 miles southeast at the mouth of the Ulya River. East of the Yenisei River there was little land fit for agriculture, except Dauria, the land between the Stanovoy Mountains and the Amur River which was nominally controlled by China. Poyarkov was sent to explore this land.

In 1640 he was in Yakutsk as pismenyy golova (roughly, in charge of records and correspondence). In June 1643, Poyarkov with 133 men started out from Yakutsk. They were sent by the voevoda of Yakutsk, Peter Golovin. Having no idea of the proper route, Poyarkov traveled up the rivers Lena, Aldan, Uchur, Gonam. Delayed by 64 portages, it was early winter before he reached the Stanovoy watershed. Leaving 49 men to overwinter, he pushed south over the mountains in December to reach the upper Zeya River in Daur country, where he found a land of farmers with domestic animals, proper houses and Chinese trade goods who paid tribute to the Manchus who were just starting their conquest of China. He built a winter fort near the mouth of the Umelkan river. To extract supplies from the natives, he employed excessive brutality, thereby provoking their hostility and making supplies harder to get. His men survived on a diet of pine bark, stolen food, stray forest animals and native captives whom they cannibalized.By the spring of 1644 only forty of his men were left alive. Joined now by the overwintering party, they pushed down the Zeya to the Amur. Their reputation having preceded them, they had to fight their way down the Amur through numerous ambushes. By fall they reached the Gilyak country at the mouth of the Amur. With so many enemies behind him, Poyarkov thought it unwise to return by the same route. That winter they built boats and the next spring worked their way up the Sea of Okhotsk coast to the Ulia River and spent the next winter in the huts that had been built by Ivan Moskvitin six years earlier. The next spring, they followed Moskvitin's route along the Maya River back to Yakutsk, arriving almost exactly three years after they left.

Like so many Russian explorers and colonists in Siberia, Poyarkov received no reward. His brutal treatment of Siberian natives had made enemies even among his own men. The voevoda of Yakutsk sent him to Moscow for trial and an unknown fate. Whatever the authorities thought of Poyarkov himself, they were happy with the information he supplied. The next Russian expedition to the Amur was led by Yerofei Khabarov in 1650. See also Russian-Manchu border conflicts.

W. Bruce Lincoln

William Bruce Lincoln (September 6, 1938 – April 9, 2000) was an American scholar and author who wrote a number of widely-read books on Russian history. An expert noted for his narrative skills, he explained that he began "to write for a broader audience in the hope that my efforts to explain Russia's past may enable readers to better understand Russia's present.".

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