Brownfield land

In urban planning, brownfield land is any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not. The term is also used to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.[1][2]

Soilcontam
Example of brownfield land at a disused gasworks site after excavation, with soil contamination from removed underground storage tanks.

Definition

Canada

Environment Canada defines brownfields as "abandoned, idle or underutilized commercial or industrial properties [typically located in urban areas] where past actions have caused environmental contamination, but which still have potential for redevelopment or other economic opportunities."[3]

United States

The US EPA has defined brownfield not simply as a potential improvement site which has been previously improved, but also one that has potential impediments to improvement, such as "the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant".[4] This comports well with an available general definition of the term, which scopes to "industrial or commercial property".[5]

The term brownfields first came into use on June 28, 1992, at a U.S. congressional field hearing hosted by the Northeast Midwest Congressional Coalition. Also in 1992, the first detailed policy analysis of the issue was convened by the Cuyahoga County Planning Commission. The United States Environmental Protection Agency selected Cuyahoga County as its first brownfield pilot project in September 1993.[6] The term applies more generally to previously used land or to sections of industrial or commercial facilities that are to be upgraded.[7]

In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act (the “Brownfields Law”) which provides grants and tools to local governments for the assessment, cleanup, and revitalization of brownfields. The motivation for this act was the success of the EPA’s brownfields program, which it started in the 1990s in response to several court cases that caused lenders to redline contaminated property for fear of liability under the Superfund. As of September 2015, the EPA estimates that the Brownfields program has resulted in 56,442 acres of land readied for reuse.[8]

Mothballed brownfields are properties that the owners are not willing to transfer or put to productive reuse.[9]

Brownfield status is a legal designation which places restrictions, conditions or incentives on redevelopment and use on the site.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the term 'brownfield' has a colloquial meaning roughly equivalent to the American usage described above, i.e. vacant or derelict land or property, usually industrial in nature. In terms of British Town and Country Planning, however, the meaning of 'brownfield' is more complex, and is often conflated with the technical term 'previously developed land' (PDL). PDL was originally defined in planning policy for housing development in England and Wales, and was carefully distinguished in such policy from 'brownfield', which was undefined but considered to be different.[10]:26 The definition from the 2012 National Planning Policy Guidance, which only applies to England, uses the terms 'brownfield' and 'previously developed land' interchangeably:[11]
"Land which is or was occupied by a permanent structure, including the curtilage of the developed land (although it should not be assumed that the whole of the curtilage should be developed) and any associated fixed surface infrastructure. This excludes:

  • land that is or has been occupied by agricultural or forestry buildings;
  • land that has been developed for minerals extraction (mining) or waste disposal by landfill purposes where provision for restoration has been made through development control procedures;
  • land in built-up areas such as private residential gardens, parks, recreation grounds and allotments; and
  • land that was previously-developed but where the remains of the permanent structure or fixed surface structure have blended into the landscape in the process of time."

Locations and contaminants

Generally, brownfield sites exist in a city's or town's industrial section, on locations with abandoned factories or commercial buildings, or other previously polluting operations like steel mills, refineries or landfills.[12] Small brownfields also may be found in older residential neighborhoods, as for example dry cleaning establishments or gas stations produced high levels of subsurface contaminants.

Typical contaminants found on contaminated brownfield land include hydrocarbon spillages, solvents, pesticides, heavy metals such as lead (e.g., paints), tributyl tins, and asbestos.[12] Old maps may assist in identifying areas to be tested.

Brownfield status by country

The primary issue facing all nations involved in attracting and sustaining new uses to brownfield sites is that industries are globally oriented and respond to global market forces. This directly affects brownfield reuse, such as limiting the effective economic life of the use on the revitalized sites.

United States

United States estimates suggest there are over 500,000 brownfield sites contaminated at levels below the Superfund caliber (the most contaminated) in the country. While historic land use patterns created contaminated sites, the Superfund law has been criticized as creating the brownfield phenomenon where investment moves to greenfields for new development due to severe, no-fault liability schemes and other disincentives. The Clinton-Gore administration and US EPA launched a series of brownfield policies and programs in 1993 to tackle this problem.

Canada

Canada has an estimated 200,000 "contaminated sites" across the nation. As of 2016 Canada had about 23,078 federally contaminated sites, from abandoned mines, to airports, lighthouse stations, and military bases, which are classified into N 1,2,or 3, depending on a score of contamination, with 5,300 active contaminated sites, 2,300 suspected sites and 15,000 listed as closed because remediated or no action was necessary.[13]

The provincial governments have primary responsibility for brownfields. The provinces´ legal mechanisms for managing risk are limited, as there are no tools such as "No Further Action" letters to give property owners finality and certainty in the cleanup and reuse process. Yet, Canada has cleaned up sites and attracted investment to contaminated lands such as the Moncton rail yards. A strip of the Texaco lands in Mississauga is slated to be part of the Waterfront Trail. However, Imperial Oil has no plans to sell the 75-acre (30 ha) property which has been vacant since the 1980s.

According to their 2014 report on federally contaminated sites, the Parliamentary Budget Officer estimated that the "total liability for remediating Canada’s contaminated sites reported in the public accounts [was] $4.9 billion."[14]:1 The report listed significant sites called the Big Five with a liability of $1.8 billion: Faro mine, Colomac Mine, Giant Mine, Cape Dyer-DEW line and Goose Bay Air Base. The Port Hope, Ontario site has a liability of $1 billion.[14] Port Hope has the largest volume of historic low-level radioactive wastes in Canada, resulting from "radium and uranium processing in Port Hope between 1933 and 1988 by the former Crown corporation Eldorado Nuclear Limited and its private sector predecessors.[15][16] By 2010 it was projected that it would cost well over a billion dollars for the soil remediation project, it was the largest such cleanup in Canadian history. The effort is projected to be complete in 2022.[17] In July 2015 the $86,847,474 contract "to relocate the historic low-level radioactive waste and marginally contaminated soils from an existing waste management facility on the shoreline of Lake Ontario to the new, state-of-the-art facility about a kilometre north of the current site." was undertaken.[15] There is also "$1.8 billion for general inventory sites" and "$200 million for other sites."[14]:1 The same report claimed the inventory currently lists 24,990 contaminated sites."

The federal government exercises some control over environmental protection, the "provincial and territorial governments issue the bulk of legislation regarding contaminated sites."[14]:4–5 Under the Shared-Responsibility Contaminated Sites Policy Framework (2005), the government may provide funding for the remediation of nonfederal sites, if the contamination is related to federal government activities or national security. See Natural Resources Canada (2012)

Denmark

While Denmark lacks the large land base which creates the magnitude of brownfield issues facing countries such as Germany and the U.S., brownfield sites in areas critical to the local economies of Denmark’s cities require sophisticated solutions and careful interaction with affected communities. Examples include the cleanup and redevelopment of former and current ship building facilities along Copenhagen’s historic waterfront. Laws in Denmark require a higher degree of coordination of planning and reuse than is found in many other countries.

France

In France, brownfields are called "friches industrielles" and the Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement Durable et de l'Énergie (MEDDE) maintains a database of polluted sites named BASOL, with "more than 4000 sites".[18] of about 300 000 to 400 000 potentially polluted sites total (around 100 000 ha),[19] in a historical inventory named BASIAS, maintained by the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME).

Germany

Germany loses greenfields at a rate of about 1.2 square kilometres per day for settlement and transportation infrastructure. Each of the approximately 14,700 local municipalities is empowered to allocate lands for industrial and commercial use. Local control over reuse decisions of German brownfield sites ("Industriebrache") is a critical factor. Industrial sites tend to be remote due to zoning laws, and incur costly overhead for providing infrastructure such as utilities, disposal services and transportation. In 1989, a brownfield of the Ruhrgebiet became Emscher Park.[20]

United Kingdom

In the UK centuries of industrial use of lands which once formed the birthplace of the industrial revolution have left entire regions in a brownfield status. New legislation in the UK may provide a needed incentive for brownfield cleanup and redevelopment. Cleanup laws are centered on the premise that the remediation should be "fit for the purpose".In 2018, the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) reported that the 17,656 sites (covering over 28,000 hectares of land) identified by local planning authorities at Brownfield Land Registers would provide enough land for a minimum of 1 million homes, which could rise to over 1.1 million once all registers are published. There is also brownfield capacity in areas in which the green belt is in danger, particularly in the Northwest, where local authorities have identified enough brownfield land to provide for 12 years of housing demand[21].

Redevelopment

Valuation and financing

Acquisition, adaptive re-use, and disposal of a brownfield site requires advanced and specialized appraisal analysis techniques. For example, the highest and best use of the brownfield site may be affected by the contamination, both before and after remediation. Additionally, the value should take into account residual stigma and potential for third-party liability. Normal appraisal techniques frequently fail, and appraisers must rely on more advanced techniques, such as contingent valuation, case studies, or statistical analyses.[22] A 2011 University of Delaware study has suggested a 17.5:1 return on dollars invested on brownfield redevelopment.[23] A 2014 study of EPA brownfield cleanup grants from 2002 through 2008 found an average benefit value of almost $4 million per brownfield site (with a median of $2,117,982).[24] To expedite the cleanup of brownfield sites in the US, some environmental firms have teamed up with insurance companies to underwrite the cleanup and provide a guaranteed cleanup cost to limit land developers' exposure to environmental remediation costs and pollution lawsuits. The environmental firm first performs an extensive investigation.

Remediation strategies

Innovative remediation techniques used at distressed brownfields in recent years include in situ thermal remediation, bioremediation and in situ oxidation. Often, these strategies are used in conjunction with each other or with other remedial strategies such as soil vapor extraction. In this process, vapor from the soil phase is extracted from soils and treated, which has the effect of removing contaminants from the soils and groundwater beneath a site. Binders can be added to contaminated soil to prevent chemical leaching.[25] Some brownfields with heavy metal contamination have even been cleaned up through an innovative approach called phytoremediation, which uses deep-rooted plants to soak up metals in soils into the plant structure as the plant grows. After they reach maturity, the plants – which now contain the heavy metal contaminants in their tissues – are removed and disposed of as hazardous waste.

Research is under way to see if some brownfields can be used to grow crops, specifically for the production of biofuels.[26] Michigan State University, in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and NextEnergy, has small plots of soybean, corn, canola, and switchgrass growing in a former industrial dump site in Oakland County, Michigan. The intent is to see if the plants can serve two purposes simultaneously: assist with phytoremediation, and contribute to the economical production of biodiesel and/or ethanol fuel.

The regeneration of brownfields in the United Kingdom and in other European countries has gained prominence due to greenfield land restrictions as well as their potential to promote the urban renaissance.[7] Development of brownfield sites also presents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact on communities, and considerable assessments need to take place in order to evaluate the size of this opportunity.[27]

Barriers

Brownfields
Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties

Many contaminated brownfield sites sit unused for decades because the cost of cleaning them to safe standards is more than the land would be worth after redevelopment. However, redevelopment has become more common in the first decade of the 21st century, as developable land has become less available in highly populated areas, and brownfields contribute to environmental stigma which can delay redevelopment.[28] Also, the methods of studying contaminated land have become more sophisticated and costly.

Some states and localities have spent considerable money assessing the contamination on local brownfield sites, to quantify the cleanup costs in an effort to move the redevelopment process forward. Therefore, federal and state programs have been developed to help developers interested in cleaning up brownfield sites and restoring them to practical uses.

In the process of cleaning contaminated brownfield sites, previously unknown underground storage tanks, buried drums or buried railroad tank cars containing wastes are sometimes encountered. Unexpected circumstances increase the cost for study and clean-up. As a result, the cleanup work may be delayed or stopped entirely. To avoid unexpected contamination and increased costs, many developers insist that a site be thoroughly investigated (via a Phase II Site Investigation or Remedial Investigation) prior to commencing remedial cleanup activities.

Post-redevelopment uses

Atlantic Station central park statue
Brownfield relic serves as monument in a new park in Atlantic Station area of Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Hudson Riv WW canal Port Liberte jeh
Brownfield residential development in New Jersey
Seonyudo Park
Pedestrians walking along hillside path in Seonyudo Park

Commercial and residential

As of 2006 the Atlantic Station project in Atlanta, was the largest brownfield redevelopment in the United States.[29] Dayton, like many other cities in the region, is developing Tech Town in order to attract technology-based firms to Dayton and revitalize the downtown area.In Homestead, Pennsylvania, the site once occupied by Carnegie Steel has been converted into a successful commercial center, The Waterfront.

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has successfully converted numerous former steel mill sites into high-end residential, shopping, and offices. Examples of brownfield redevelopment in Pittsburgh include:

Regulation

United States

In the United States, Brownfield regulation and development is largely governed by state environmental agencies in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1995, the EPA launched the Brownfields Program, which was expanded in 2002 with the Brownfields Law.[24] The EPA, together with local and national government, can provide technical help and some funding for assessment and cleanup.[24] From 2002 through 2013, the EPA awarded nearly 1,000 grants for clean up, for a total of almost $190 million. It can also provide tax incentives for cleanup that is not paid for outright; specifically, cleanup costs are fully tax-deductible in the year they are incurred.[30] Many of the most important provisions on liability relief are contained in state codes that can differ significantly from state to state.[31]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, regulation of contaminated land comes from Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990; responsibility falls on local authorities to create a "contaminated land register". For sites with dubious past and present uses the Local Planning Authority may ask for a desktop study, which is sometimes implemented as a condition in planning applications.[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ Tang, Yu-Ting; Nathanail, C. Paul (2012). "Sticks and stones: the impact of the definitions of brownfield in policies on socio-economic sustainability". Sustainability. 4 (5): 840–862. doi:10.3390/su4050840.open access
  2. ^ Alker, Sandra; Joy, Victoria; Roberts, Peter; Smith, Nathan (2000). "The Definition of Brownfield". Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 43 (1): 49–69. doi:10.1080/09640560010766.(subscription required)
  3. ^ "About the Sites". Federal Contaminated Sites Portal. Environment Canada. October 3, 2016. Archived from the original on November 25, 2016.
  4. ^ "Overview of EPA's Brownfields Program". Brownfields. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  5. ^ "Glossary of Brownfields Terms". Brownfields Center. Environmental Law Institute. Archived from the original (URL) on February 26, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
  6. ^ "Brownfields Program Achievements Linked to Early Success" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. October 2006. pp. 1–3. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
  7. ^ a b Maliene V, Wignall L, Malys N (2012). "Brownfield Regeneration: Waterfront Site Developments in Liverpool and Cologne". Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management. 20 (1): 5–16. doi:10.3846/16486897.2012.659030.
  8. ^ Thomas Voltaggio and John Adams. “Superfund: A Half Century of Progress.” EPA Alumni Association. March 2016.
  9. ^ "Brownfields Showcase Community Fact Sheet" (URL). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
  10. ^ Planning Policy Statement 3: Housing June 2000. 29pp, Department for Communities and Local Government, Crown Copyright ISBN 011 753976 7.
  11. ^ National Planning Policy Framework 2012, 65 pp, Department for Communities and Local Government, ISBN 9781409834137,
  12. ^ a b "Contaminated land -Overview". UK: Crown Copyright. November 10, 2016.
  13. ^ "Inventory of Sites-How many federal contaminated sites are there in Canada?". Federal Contaminated Sites Portal, Environment Canada. October 3, 2016.
  14. ^ a b c d Rod Story, Tolga Yalkin (April 10, 2014). "Federal Contaminated Sites Cost" (PDF). Parliamentary Budget Officer (PBO). Ottawa, Ontario. p. 41. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Contracts Awarded for Port Hope Area Initiative". Natural Resources Canada. Ottawa, Ontario. July 30, 2015. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  16. ^ "Port Hope Area Initiative". Archived from the original on August 20, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  17. ^ Carola Vyhnak (November 9, 2010). "Port Hope properties tested for radiation". Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  18. ^ "9. Combien y a-t-il de sites pollués ?". Ministère de l'Écologie, du Développement Durable et de l'Énergie (MEDDE). n.d.
  19. ^ "Les friches urbaines dans les SCoT et les PLU". ADEME. August 28, 2014.
  20. ^ "Emscher Park: From dereliction to scenic landscapes". Kopenhagen: Danish Architecture Centre. n.d.
  21. ^ "What are the barriers to brownfield development?".
  22. ^ "John A. Kilpatrick Resume" (PDF). Greenfield Advisors. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2009. Article Author of "Valuation of Brownfields", Chapter 29 in Lexis-Nexis Matthew Bender's Brownfield Law and Practice, 2007.
  23. ^ Montgomery, Jeff (May 14, 2011). "Cleaning up contamination". The News Journal. New Castle, Delaware: Gannett. DelawareOnline. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011. The first online page is archived; the page containing information related here is not in the archived version.
  24. ^ a b c Kriston Capps (July 29, 2014). "How Much Cleaning Up Brownfields Is Really Worth". The Atlantic Monthly.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2006/brownfields-may-turn-green-with-help-from-michigan-state-research/
  27. ^ http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/brownfieldsites.html
  28. ^ Coming Back from Economic Despair. Henry Mayer and Micheal Greenburg. Economic Development Quarterly, August 2001
  29. ^ "Building a City Within the City of Atlanta". Nytimes.com. May 24, 2006. Retrieved June 16, 2014.
  30. ^ "Brownfields Tax Incentive" (URL). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
  31. ^ "Brownfields Overview Page". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved November 29, 2009.
  32. ^ "Desktop Study Reports - London, Bristol & Exeter". Southwest Environmental Limited. n.d. Retrieved June 16, 2014.

Further reading

External links

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The agency focuses on minimizing human health risks associated with exposure to hazardous substances. It works closely with other federal, state, and local agencies; tribal governments; local communities; and healthcare providers. Its mission is to "Serve the public through responsive public health actions to promote healthy and safe environments and prevent harmful exposures." ATSDR was created as an advisory, nonregulatory agency by the Superfund legislation and was formally organized in 1985.Although ATSDR is an independent operating agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performs many of its administrative functions. The CDC director also serves as the ATSDR administrator, and ATSDR has a joint Office of the Director with the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). The ATSDR headquarters are located in Atlanta, Georgia, at the CDC Chamblee campus. In fiscal year 2010, ATSDR had an operating budget of $76.8 million and had roughly 300 full-time employees (not including contractors).

Bawtry gasworks contamination

The Bawtry gasworks contamination involved land at Bawtry, South Yorkshire, England containing hazardous byproducts from the manufacture of coal gas. Remediation of the land was at public expense through the Environment Agency (EA), who then sought to recover the costs from National Grid Gas (NGG), then known as Transco, declaring it the "appropriate person" under Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and therefore liable on the basis that one or more of its statutory predecessors caused the contamination. NGG sought a judicial review in the High Court of Justice where Mr. Justice Forbes ruled that they were liable for the costs of the decontamination. The ruling was considered a crucial issue by NGG as, if they were deemed liable in this particular instance, then they could be found liable in a substantial number, possibly thousands, of other cases involving former gasworks.

The case was the first time that a UK business had been pursued through the courts to pay the remediation costs for land which was contaminated by utility companies that no longer existed. Phil Kirby, the managing director of NGG, said: "If this judgment were allowed to stand it would inappropriately allocate liability and discourage brownfield land being brought back into beneficial use." They appealed to the House of Lords, who overturned the previous ruling, stating "National Grid did not cause or knowingly permit any substances to be in, on or under the land. This was done by East Midlands Gas Board or its predecessor gas undertakers many years before National Grid came into existence. Nothing exists in the Act to say that an appropriate person shall be deemed to be some other person or which defines who that person shall be."

Bede Island

Bede Island is an area of Leicester, England close to the city centre, with the River Soar to the west and Grand Union Canal to the east. For many years Bede Island South was a run down area of brownfield land home to Vic Berry's locomotive scrapyard but in the 1990s urban regeneration sought to improve housing, employment opportunities and the environment in the area. The programme was successful in developing the waterfront of Leicester, a key part of the overall transformation of the city. A square includes a Tesco Metro, formerly "The Quay" bar and diner. Local streets are named after herbs and spices,these are Sage Road, Tarragon Road, Coriander Road, Mint Road and Thyme Close (these names resulted from the children at Hazel Street infants and juniors School being asked about names for the new housing development - they asked for them to be named after the pop group The Spice Girls but the Council deemed that wasn't appropriate and a compromise of the current names was the outcome!). Office blocks were built on northern side where had been the offices of the former Great Central Railway offices and the former site of the art-deco buildings of the Kirby and West dairy on The Newarke, which had relocated to Richard III Road.

Brownfield (software development)

Brownfield development is a term commonly used in the information technology industry to describe problem spaces needing the development and deployment of new software systems in the immediate presence of existing (legacy) software applications/systems. This implies that any new software architecture must take into account and coexist with live software already in situ. In contemporary civil engineering, Brownfield land means places where new buildings may need to be designed and erected considering the other structures and services already in place.

Brownfield development adds a number of improvements to conventional software engineering practices. These traditionally assume a "clean sheet of paper" or "greenfield land" target environment throughout the design and implementation phases of software development. Brownfield extends such traditions by insisting that the context (local landscape) of the system being created be factored into any development exercise. This requires a detailed knowledge of the systems, services and data in the immediate vicinity of the solution under construction.

Commercial Street Historic District (Springfield, Missouri)

The Commercial Street Historic District is a national historic district located between Washington Ave. and Grant Ave. in Springfield, Missouri, United States. The district encompasses 57 contributing buildings in Springfield's central business district. The district developed between about 1870 and 1935, and it includes representative examples of Romanesque Revival and Victorian style architecture. Notable buildings include the Thos. Murray Building (1908), Fire Station No. 2 (1904), Perkins Hotel (1902–1908), Bank of Springfield (c. 1884), Bakers' Union Hall (1908), Uncle Carl Baden's Pawn Shop (1902–1910), and Commercial Club (c. 192–1928).

It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.The six-block district is designated by the Environmental Protection Agency as a brownfield land. Key components of the revitalization will include improved stormwater management, use of alternative energy sources, and the reduction of the district's carbon footprint. EPA assistance will provide guidance on green infrastructure and green design techniques for several properties in the redevelopment district.

Compton Acres

Compton Acres is a housing development located to the south west of West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England, on the rural-urban fringe. Compton Acres also borders with the villages of Ruddington and Wilford. Most of the estate was built in the 1990s.

The name Compton Acres is taken from a garden in Poole, Dorset. Many of the streets are named after areas in Dorset, or trees.

The architecture of the area is typical for houses of its age, mostly being neo-Tudor or neo-Victorian. The district centre is Compton Acres Shopping Centre, which has a variety of general stores including a small Tesco supermarket and several restaurants. Further up Compton Acres is The Apple Tree pub. There were plans for a large Sainsbury's superstore on the site of the old Chateau public house, between The Becket School and the "Roko" gym, but these have been scrapped and the land sold to the supermarket chain Lidl. Plans to build more homes and retail units on that land have been submitted. Linden Homes are currently building 170 new houses on a floodplain between "Roko" and the new Rushcliffe Arena on an area of brownfield land, the site of a former waste tip.

The Nottingham Emmanuel School and The Becket School are two secondary schools located near Compton Acres, which both opened in 2008/2009.

The Nottingham Express Transit (tram system) runs along the disused railway line, and opened in 2015.Before construction of the estate, the area was mainly marshland punctuated with willow trees, many of which have been incorporated into the leafy feel of the area. Even though an estate there are many areas of open green, parks and the paths are all tree lined, although the new development off Wilford Lane has caused the destruction of dozens of trees and will not share the same feel as the rest of the area. A proportion of the estate to the east sits on a former waste tip. There are ponds scattered across the area where many families go to feed the ducks.

Compton Acres is itself a ward within the borough of Rushcliffe, with two councillors Alan Phillips and Gordon Wheeler. Its Member of Parliament is Kenneth Clarke. Part of Compton Acres lies within the Lutterell Ward.

The area is a popular residential location for commuters into the centre of Nottingham, approximately three miles away on the north bank of the River Trent, although about 9% of workers are based at home in a growing segment of self-employed workers.The 2018 Tour of Britain cycling race passed through the area on its way to the starting line of stage 7, on the 8th of September 2018.

Contaminated land

Contaminated land contains substances in or under the land that are actually or potentially hazardous to health or the environment. Areas with a long history of industrial production are known as brownfield land. Many such sites may be affected by their former uses such as mining, industry, chemical and oil spills and waste disposal.

Contamination can also occur naturally as a result of the geology of the area, or through agricultural use.

Etihad Campus

Etihad Campus is an area of Sportcity, Manchester which is mostly owned and operated by Manchester City Football Club. The campus includes the Etihad Stadium, the City Football Academy (CFA) training facility and club world headquarters, and undeveloped land adjacent to both of these facilities. These two main portions of the campus site are linked by a 60-metre landmark pedestrian walkway/footbridge that spans the junction of Alan Turing Way and Ashton New Road. The term Etihad Campus embraces both the stadium - which already existed when the name was coined in 2010 - as well as much of the surrounding undeveloped land that existed at that time, although the term is also frequently used as a direct synonym for just the CFA portion.The development of the southeastern portion of the Etihad Campus site is focused on the regeneration of the Clayton Aniline site which consists of 80 acres of Brownfield land. The initial phase of the campus development included the construction of the new Manchester City training facility which was completed and officially opened in December 2014. Adjacent to the CFA facility is the Connell Sixth Form College - named after Anna Connell, the founder of St Mark's Gorton which later became Manchester City Football Club - which forms part of the Beswick Community Hub. The construction of the college was jointly funded by Manchester City F.C. and Manchester City Council and it opened to receive its first students in August 2013.The Beswick Community Hub is being developed on 16 acres of the 80 acre site originally purchased by the football club in order to develop its CFA facility, but like the footbridge linking the CFA to the Etihad Stadium, the club has donated this portion of its land purchase back to the local community so that it can be jointly developed with Manchester City Council to form a southern gateway approach to the completed Etihad Campus. Also part of the jointly funded and developed Beswick Community Hub, across from it on the western side of Alan Turing Way, is the new Beswick Leisure Centre. The construction of the leisure centre is also complete and it opened to the public in October 2014.Two further pieces of the jointly funded and developed community hub will be the Manchester Institute of Health and Performance (MIHP), currently under construction and for which the official opening is scheduled for early 2016, and beyond the completion of the MIHP there are plans to develop commercial office space, shops and retail opportunities on the northwestern side of the hub.The transformation of East Manchester forms a key part of the city's core development strategy for the Manchester region from 2012 to 2027, and likewise the scheme forms an integral part of Manchester City's aim to develop a homegrown squad by 2027, as well as the club's goal of increasing the seating capacity of the Etihad Stadium to around 61,000.

Gigafactory 2

The Tesla Gigafactory 2 is a photovoltaic (PV) cell factory, leased by Tesla subsidiary SolarCity in Buffalo, New York. The factory, owned by the State of New York, was built on brownfield land remediated from a former steel mill. Construction on the factory started in 2014 and was completed in 2016–17.

In 2013, the site of Gigafactory 2 was planned as a clean energy business incubation center. As SolarCity acquired Silevo in 2014 and merged into Tesla two years later, the factory was planned. The factory, in a partnership with Panasonic, started limited assembly of photovoltaic modules in 2017 using imported Japanese PV cells. It began commercial production of modules in 2017. In 2018, SolarCity began production of individual solar cells.After the initiation of Gigafactory 1 near Reno, Nevada in 2016, Tesla began to refer to the SolarCity Gigafactory as Gigafactory 2.

Greenfield project

In many disciplines a greenfield project is one that lacks constraints imposed by prior work. The analogy is to that of construction on greenfield land where there is no need to work within the constraints of existing buildings or infrastructure.

Longbridge

Longbridge is an area of south-west Birmingham, England. For local government purposes it is a ward within the district of Northfield Kings Norton.

RiverPlace

RiverPlace is a mixed-use district of Downtown Portland, Oregon. Although not an officially recognized neighborhood, its borders can be considered to be Naito Parkway to the west, the Willamette River to the east, and the Marquam Bridge (which carries I-5) to the south. The area was formerly brownfield land before it was developed.

St. Modwen Properties

St. Modwen Properties plc (LSE: SMP) is a British-based property investment and development business specialising in the regeneration and remediation of brownfield land and urban environments. It is headquartered in Birmingham and has a network of seven regional offices across the UK. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Teardown (real estate)

A teardown is the demolition and replacement of a home or other building that was recently purchased for that purpose. Frequently, the new building is larger than the previous one. Reasons for developers to tear down can include increasing the appeal of the property to prospective buyers or taking advantage of rising property values. The process is especially common in older suburbs, where people wish to have larger homes, and yet do not want to move to distant exurbs or new developments.

Replacement often brings modernization, new structures being built to modern building codes, energy efficiency standards, and aesthetics. They may be in different architectural style, thus not fitting the historic character of the neighborhood. However, not all older homes have historical or architectural value. Finally, an existing house may have no value relative to the land it sits on, such as in wealthy cities like Vancouver, British Columbia. The redevelopment of brownfield land also usually involves teardowns; for example Rockefeller Center was built on land vacated by tearing down older buildings. However, the term is often limited to residential properties.

Thames Gateway

The Thames Gateway is an area of land stretching 70 kilometres (43 mi) east from inner east London on both sides of the River Thames and the Thames Estuary. The area, which includes much brownfield land was designated during the early years of the Blair ministry a national priority for urban regeneration, taking advantage of the development opportunities realised by the completion of the High Speed 1 (officially known as the Channel Tunnel Rail Link). First named by the UK government, which is unusual in the United Kingdom, uptake of and appreciation of the term varies, with many people preferring the traditional term, the Thames Estuary.It stretches from Westferry in Tower Hamlets to the Isle of Sheppey/Southend-on-Sea and extends across three ceremonial counties. Development that is supplemental to councils' own development plans is delivered through Local Authorities (Councils), special purpose development corporations and local enterprise partnerships, all of which are eligible for grants from government departments funded by HM Treasury. Additional government funds were supplied to the Regional Development Agencies who supported some projects in the Gateway.

Uniform Environmental Covenants Act

The Uniform Environmental Covenants Act (UECA) is one of the uniform acts drafted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. The act is intended to provide clear rules for perpetual real estate interests – an environmental covenant – to regulate the use of brownfield land when real estate is transferred from one owner to another. The Uniform Law Commissioners completed the proposed act in 2003. Several states have adopted the Act.

Vaux Site

The Vaux Site is an area of brownfield land in the centre of Sunderland, Tyne and Wear currently undergoing development. The area of the former Vaux Breweries until its closure in 1999, the council are recreating the site in a multi-million pound joint venture with Carillion. The development will create up to 19 new buildings for leisure, retail, living and office purposes.. Phase one of construction started in 2016 with work on a series of offices valued at £25 million

Westlands Solar Park

The Westlands Solar Park is a planned, large-scale solar power project in Kings County south of Fresno, California. It intends to build a large number of photovoltaic power plants with a capacity totaling upwards of 2,000 megawatts (MW), larger than the world's largest photovoltaic power plants operating as of 2017. It will be constructed on brownfield land owned by the Westlands Water District that is unusable for agriculture due to excess salt pollution.Initial operation of a 2 MW demonstration project began in 2016, with the power sold to Anaheim Public Utilities. Additional projects of 20 MW and 250 MW are in various stages of planning, as of 2017. The developers plan to have 700 MW online by 2021, with full build-out by 2025. The real estate investment firm CIM Group joined the project in 2014. In 2017, plans for the site were downsized from 2,400 MW to 2,000 MW and 24,000 acres (9,700 ha) to 21,000 acres (8,500 ha).

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