Brown-throated martin

The brown-throated martin or brown-throated sand martin (Riparia paludicola) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It was first formally described as Hirundo paludicola by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot in 1817 in his Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle.[2] It was formerly regarded as conspecific with the grey-throated martin (R. chinensis) under the name "plain martin".

It has a wide range in Africa. It is a partially migratory species, with some populations making seasonal movements. It is usually associated closely with water as its specific epithet paludicola suggest.

The brown-throated martin is colonial in its nesting habits, with many pairs breeding close together, according to available space. The nests are at the end of tunnels of 30 to 60 cm in length, bored in sandbanks. The actual nest is a litter of straw and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Two to four white eggs are the normal clutch, and are incubated by both parents.

Its brown back, small size and quicker, jerkier flight separate brown-throated martin at once from most other members of the swallow family. It is most similar to the sand martin, Riparia riparia , which is its northern counterpart.

The 12 cm long brown-throated martin is brown above and white or pale brown below. It lacks the narrow brown band on the breast shown by the sand martin; the bill is black and the legs are brown. Sexes are similar, but the young have pale tips to the feathers on the rump and wings.

The races differ in size and plumage tones of the upperparts or underparts.[3]

  • R. p. paludicola, southern Africa. White underparts.
  • R. p. paludibula, western Africa. Smaller and darker above than the nominate form.
  • R. p. ducis, eastern Africa. Smaller and darker above and below than the nominate subspecies.
  • R. p. mauretanica, Morocco. Small and pale.
  • R. p. newtoni, mountains of Cameroon only. Darker above than the nominate form, brownish underparts.
  • R. p. cowani, Madagascar. Small, greyish underparts.[4]

The food of this species consists of small insects, mostly gnats and other flies whose early stages are aquatic.

The twittering song of brown-throated martin is continuous when the birds are on the wing, and becomes a conversational undertone after they have settled in the roost. There is also a harsh alarm call.

Brown-throated martin
Plain Martin - Natal - South Africa S4E6445 (16978324252)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Hirundinidae
Genus: Riparia
Species:
R. paludicola
Binomial name
Riparia paludicola
(Vieillot, 1817)
Riparia paludicola distribution map
Riparia paludicola MHNT224 Marrakech HdB
Riparia paludicola

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Riparia paludicola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in French) Vieillot, Louis Jean Pierre (1817): Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle nouvelle édition, 14, 511.
  3. ^ Turner, Angela K; Rose, Chris (November 1989). Swallows and Martins: an identification guide and handbook. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 133–136. ISBN 0-395-51174-7.
  4. ^ Linnean Society of London (1883). The Journal of the Linnean Society of London: Zoology. Academic Press. p. 322.

External links

Bokeo Province

Bokèo (Laotian: ບໍ່ແກ້ວ [bɔ̄ː kɛ̂ːw]; literally "gem mine"; previously, Hua Khong, meaning "Head of the Mekong") is a northern province of Laos. It is the smallest and least populous province in the country. Bokeo Province covers an area of 6,196 square kilometres (2,392 sq mi). Bokeo Province borders Luang Namtha Province to the northeast, Oudomxai Province to the east, Xaignabouli Province to the south, and Thailand to the southwest and Burma to the west and northwest. The province has five districts (Houay Xay, Tonpheung, Meung, Phaodom and Paktha) and is rich in deposits of precious and semiprecious stones. Bokeo's provincial capital is Houayxay on the Mekong river. The province is part of the “Golden Triangle”, at the crossing with Myanmar and Thailand. There are 34 ethnic groups in the province. Houay Xay is the border town with Thailand and regional economic centre.

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve is a nature reserve at the western limit of the Bronberg in the east of Pretoria, South Africa. It formerly formed a part of the farm Hartbeespoort 304 which belonged to H. W. Struben. On old aerial photographs it is apparent that the flood plain was utilized for crop fields, while the remainder was used for cattle grazing. The reserve constitutes the western part of the Bronberg conservation area, which was declared in 1980. Its highest point is Renosterkop (1,468 m) in the northern part of the reserve.

Grey-throated martin

The grey-throated martin or Asian plain martin (Riparia chinensis) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family.

The grey-throated martin is found in open habitats such as farmland, grassland and savannah, usually near water. It is found from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent to southern China, Taiwan, and the northern Philippines. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the "plain martin", since renamed the brown-throated martin.

List of birds of Cape Verde

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Cape Verde. The avifauna of Cape Verde include a total of 187 species, of which four are endemic, three have been introduced by humans and 75 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Cape Verde and is not included in the species count. Four species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Cape Verde.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Cape Verde

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Cape Verde

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Cape Verde as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Cape Verde although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Egypt

This is a list of the species of birds found in Egypt, a country in north-east Africa. The avifauna of Egypt include a total of 498 species of birds, of which thirteen are classified as globally threatened and five have been identified as having been introduced to Egypt. None of the species are endemic to Egypt.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. All of the birds below are included in the total bird count for Egypt.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Egypt

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Egypt as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Egypt although populations exist elsewhere

(X) Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists.

(NB) Non-breeding - a species or subspecies that does not breed in Egypt

List of birds of Eswatini

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Eswatini. The avifauna of Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) include a total of 507 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and 52 are rare or accidental. Three species listed are extirpated in Eswatini and are not included in the species count. Eleven species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Eswatini.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Eswatini

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Eswatini as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Eswatini although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Gauteng

An alphabetic list of common names of birds occurring in Gauteng, South Africa. Gauteng includes both the cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria, and numerous satellite municipalities spreading over a total of some 18 000 square km and an enormous diversity of habitat, and ranging in elevation from 1300 to 1900 metres. Gauteng lies at the junction of three major biomes – grassland to the south, arid savanna to the north-west, and moist savanna to the north-east and east – this location largely accounts for its great diversity of species.

The growing occupation of the area by man since the discovery of gold in the late 1800s has led to inevitable habitat loss and degradation, with the consequent displacement and decline of many species. The establishing of parks and suburban gardens, on the other hand, has created a multitude of niches and this, together with progressively milder highveld winters, has attracted a wealth of bushveld species from north of the Magaliesberg, and from other warmer areas. Tall office blocks and high-rise apartments have provided nesting opportunities for cliff-dwellers, while the collective, man-made forest is regarded as the world's largest. Some arrivals in Johannesburg gardens within recent times have been the hadeda ibis, green wood hoopoe, Cape starling, red-winged starling, grey go-away-bird, African grey hornbill, pin-tailed whydah, African green pigeon and southern boubou. Southern Africa's bird list numbers more than 900, with some 350 being found in Gauteng. Of the Southern Africa birds, 134 are endemic or near-endemic, while the centre of endemism is in the far west in the Karoo and Namib Desert. More species breed in Southern Africa than in Canada and the continental United States combined.

List of birds of Madagascar

Madagascar is an island nation located off the southeastern coast of Africa. Because of its long separation from neighboring continents—through tectonic movement, it split from Africa about 160 million years ago, and from India around 90 million years ago—it contains many species endemic to the island. Of the 287 bird species recorded on Madagascar, 105 are found nowhere else on earth, and a handful of others are shared only with the neighbouring Comoro Islands; one has been declared extinct.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) follows the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition.Species status comments are taken from Morris and Hawkins's Birds of Madagascar: A Photographic Guide unless otherwise noted. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts. The IUCN Red List codes are those given by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; they come from the IUCN's Red List website.

List of birds of Morocco

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Morocco. The avifauna of Morocco include a total of 454 species (Bergier & Thévenot 2006), of which five have been introduced by humans and 156 are rare or accidental. Five species listed are extirpated in Morocco and are not included in the species count. Fifteen species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the West Palearctic List Committee. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Morocco.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that only rarely occurs in Morocco; records of these species require formal acceptance by the Commission d’Homologation Marocaine (Moroccan Rare Birds Committee)

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Morocco as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Morocco although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Rwanda

This is a list of bird species recorded in Rwanda. The avifauna of Rwanda include a total of 703 confirmed species. 510 resident species. 183 visiting species (including vagrants and migrants). Ten species are considered extirpated in Rwanda.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) largely follows The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 update. However, in an attempt to make the list more accessible to a wide range of users several things have been done.

Scientific names follow those used in the linked articles.

Where there is an alternative common name (that may be used more frequently in the UK and East Africa) this is included after the Clements' common name.

Where subspecies or an eBird preferred taxon is available this is included e.g. yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava.

The species listed here are the same as used on the eBird in Rwanda.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Rwanda, where known the number of sightings for rare records is indicated.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Rwanda although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of the Gambia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Gambia. The avifauna of the Gambia include a total of 576 species, one of which has been introduced by humans and two of which are globally threatened. The country, which is very small and almost completely surrounded by Senegal, has no endemic species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. Not all species will fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Gambia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Gambia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Milnerton Racecourse Nature Reserve

The Milnerton Racecourse Nature Reserve is a lowland conservation area located in the City of Cape Town, South Africa.

It forms part of the greater Table Bay Nature Reserve, proclaimed in June 2012.

Nature's Valley

Nature's Valley is a holiday resort and small village on the Garden Route along the southern Cape coast of South Africa. Nature's Valley lies between the Salt River, the foothills of the Tsitsikamma Mountains, the Indian Ocean and the Groot River lagoon. Nature's Valley has a balmy climate and is surrounded by the de Vasselot Nature Reserve which is part of the Tsitsikamma Park, and in turn part of the Garden Route National Park.

Plain martin

The plain martin has been split into two species:

Brown-throated martin (Riparia paludicola), found in Africa and Madagascar

Grey-throated martin (Riparia chinensis), found in Asia

Riparia

Riparia is a small genus of passerine birds in the swallow family. The genus means "of the riverbank"; it is derived from the Latin ripa "riverbank".

These are small or medium-sized swallows, ranging from 11–17 cm in length. They are brown above and mainly white below, and all have a dark breast band.

These species are closely associated with water. They nest in tunnels usually excavated by the birds themselves in a natural sand bank or earth mound. They lay white eggs, which are incubated by both parents, in a nest of straw, grass, and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Some species breed colonially.

The cosmopolitan sand martin is almost completely migratory, breeding across temperate Eurasia and North America and wintering in the tropics. The other species are partial migrants or resident.

Riparia martins, like other swallows, take insects in flight over water, grassland, or other open country.

Sainyabuli Province

Xayabuli (Lao ໄຊຍະບູລີ; French: Xaignabouli; alternate spellings: Xaignabouri, Xayaboury, Sayabouli, Sayabouri) is a province of Laos, located in the northwest of the country. Xayabuli Province covers an area of 16,389 square kilometres (6,328 sq mi). The province borders Bokeo Province and Oudomxai Province to the north, Luang Prabang Province and Vientiane Province to the east, and (from the south clockwise) the Thai provinces Loei, Phitsanulok, Uttaradit, Nan and Phayao.

Xayabuli is the only Laotian province that is completely to the west of the Mekong River. (Champasak province also has several districts located west of the Mekong river including Mounlapamok, Soukama and Phontong districts.) The province is quite mountainous with the Luang Prabang Range running roughly in a north-south direction and forming a natural border with the Thai highlands. Sainyabuli town is the capital of the province. Xayabuli has the largest concentration of elephants in Laos.

The province is rich in timber and lignite, and is considered the rice basket of northern Laos, since most other northern provinces are too mountainous to grow enough rice. Other important crops include maize, oranges, cotton, peanuts, sesame, sugarcane and vegetables such as cucumbers, cabbage, and beans.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 15

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Swallow

The swallows, martins and saw-wings, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents, including occasionally in Antarctica. Highly adapted to aerial feeding, they have a distinctive appearance. The term Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow. There are around 90 species of Hirundinidae, divided into 19 genera, with the greatest diversity found in Africa, which is also thought to be where they evolved as hole-nesters. They also occur on a number of oceanic islands. A number of European and North American species are long-distance migrants; by contrast, the West and South African swallows are non-migratory.

This family comprises two subfamilies: Pseudochelidoninae (the river martins of the genus Pseudochelidon) and Hirundininae (all other swallows, martins and saw-wings). Within the Old World, the name martin tends to be used for the squarer-tailed species, and the name swallow for the more fork-tailed species; however, there is no scientific distinction between these two groups. Within the New World, "martin" is reserved for members of the genus Progne. (These two systems are responsible for the sand martin being called "bank swallow" in the New World.)

Tankwa Karoo National Park

Tankwa Karoo National Park is a national park in South Africa. The park lies about 70 km due west of Sutherland near the border of the Northern Cape and Western Cape, in one of the most arid regions of South Africa, with areas receiving less than 100 mm of average annual precipitation, moisture-bearing clouds from the Atlantic Ocean being largely stopped by the Cederberg mountains. Other low areas receive little more, as the Roodewerf station (co-ordinates: S32°14’27.9” E20°05’44.5”) with 180 mm of mean annual rainfall. In the hottest areas of the park, the mean maximum temperature in January is 38.9 °C, and in July the mean minimum temperature ranges from about 5 to 7 °C. Before this Park's proclamation, the only protected area of Succulent Karoo was the 2 square kilometre patch of the Gamkaberg Nature Reserve. Succulent Karoo has, together with the Cape Floral Kingdom, been declared a Biodiversity Hotspot by Conservation International.

Tankwa's area has been increased from an initial 260 to 1436 km2. It is bounded on the east by the Roggeveld Mountains, on the west by the Cederberg, to the north by the Kouebokkeveld Mountains and on the south by the scattered foothills of the Koedoesberge and Klein Roggeveld Mountains, and the Tankwa River. The park's headquarters are located at Roodewerf (GPS co-ordinates: S 32° 14’ 27.9” E 20° 5’ 44.5”). Distances from the nearest towns to the park's headquarters are: Ceres (180 km), Sutherland (120 km), Calvinia (110 km) and Middelpos (52 km).In 1998 Conrad Strauss sold 280 km2 of sheep farm to the South African National Parks. The park has started the reintroduction of game that used to be found naturally in the area. Research was done beforehand to ensure that introduced animals would survive on the overgrazed veld. The vegetation in the park falls within the Succulent Karoo biome and has been described as very sparse shrubland and dwarf shrubland. Several unique succulent genera occur here, such as Tanquana, Braunsia and Didymaotus. The park is home to a large variety of birds (188 species – 2015 figure), such as the black-headed canary, Ludwig's bustard, and the black-eared sparrow-lark. Peak birding season is August to October.

Swallows (family: Hirundinidae)

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