Brown-headed nuthatch

The brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) is a small songbird found in pine forests throughout the Southeastern United States. The Bahama nuthatch was and still is considered a subspecies (S. p. insularis) by several authorities including the IOC, but the IUCN and BirdLife International have reclassified it as its own separate species.[2] The bird, like other nuthatches, possesses a sharp black nail-like beak, which it uses to pound open seeds. It is a frequent visitor to feeding stations and is highly fond of sunflower seeds and suet cakes.

Bold and inquisitive, this bird is readily approachable by humans. The bird is frequently observed using a small chip of bark held in its beak as a tool to dig for insects.

Despite the other species' common name, the brown-headed nuthatch is about the same size as the pygmy nuthatch and the two species are the world's smallest nuthatches. In the brown-headed nuthatch, the total length is 9–11 cm (3.5–4.3 in), wingspan is 16–18 cm (6.3–7.1 in) and body mass is 10–12 g (0.35–0.42 oz).[3][4] This species sports a brown cap with narrow black eyeline and buff white cheeks, chin, and belly. Its wings are bluish-gray in color. A small white spot is found at the nape of the neck. The bird's call is a sharp whee-hyah sounding very similar to a "rubber duck" toy and particularly is loud for a bird its size. They also make softer "pit pit pit" calls while in flight as well as other squeaking noises. If heard or seen well, this species is virtually unmistakable in the wild, since it overlaps only with the very differently marked and larger red-breasted and white-breasted nuthatches.[5]

Brown-headed nuthatch
Brown-headed Nuthatch-27527-4c
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sittidae
Genus: Sitta
Species:
S. pusilla
Binomial name
Sitta pusilla
Latham, 1790
Subspecies

S. p. caniceps
S. p. pusilla
S. p. insularis

Brown-headed Nuthatch-rangemap
Range of S. pusilla
Brown-headed Nuthatch RWD13b
At Ash, North Carolina

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Sitta pusilla". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Hayes, William K.; Robert X. Barry; Zeko McKenzie; Patricia Barry (2004). "Grand Bahama's Brown-headed Nuthatch: A Distinct and Endangered Species" (PDF). Bahamas Journal of Science. 12 (1): 21–28.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ [3]

External links

Apalachee Wildlife Management Area

Apalachee Wildlife Management Area (WMA) consists of 7,952 acres of upland longleaf pine and wetland habitat three miles north of Sneads in Jackson County, Florida. The area is broken up into three management zones, all located along Lake Seminole and the Chattahoochee River.

Bahama nuthatch

The Bahama nuthatch (Sitta pusilla insularis) is an endangered subspecies of nuthatch endemic to the pineyards of Grand Bahama island in the Bahamas. It is usually considered a subspecies of the brown-headed nuthatch, although some authorities recognize it as a distinct species. It has some notable differences from its mainland counterpart, including a darker brown facial stripe, a longer bill, shorter wings, and a unique warbling call. Research using genetic markers indicates that both species likely diverged around 685,000 years prior. Due to its very restricted range, it is highly threatened by habitat destruction and degradation, fires, and hurricane damage. Invasive species may also play a role. Surveys indicate a population size of only 1,800 individuals, but even this may be optimistic, as only 23 individuals were spotted in 2007, and likely even lower following Hurricane Matthew.

A 2018 joint study conducted by the University of East Anglia and the University of the Bahamas on Grand Bahama island indicates that after habitat damage sustained by Hurricane Matthew, as few as two individuals may be left in the wild, making it one of the most critically endangered bird species currently known. Prior to the study the bird was feared extinct as there had been no sightings between 2016 and 2018.

Beautiful nuthatch

The beautiful nuthatch (Sitta formosa, sometimes called Callisitta formosa) is a bird species in the Sittidae family, collectively known as nuthatches. It is a large nuthatch, measuring 16.5 cm (6.5 in) in length, that is not sexually dimorphic. Its coloration and markings are dramatic, the upper parts being black and azure, streaked with white and pale blue on the head and lined with the same colors on the wing feathers. The underparts are orange, and the eyebrow and throat are ochre. An irregular, dark eyestripe highlights its eye. S. formosa's ecology is not fully described, but it is known to feed on small insects and larvae found on the trunks and epiphyte-covered branches of trees in its range. Reproduction takes place from April to May; the nest is placed in the hole of an oak, rhododendron, or other large tree. The nest is made of plant material and fur in which the bird typically lays four to six eggs.

Although the species is found in most of the countries making up the mainland of Southeast Asia, it appears to be rare throughout its range, its population being highly localized where it is found. The bird nests predominantly in mountain forests at an altitudinal range from 950 m (3,120 ft) up to nearly 2,300 m (7,500 ft), with some seasonal height adjustment, down to around 300 m (980 ft) in winter. Its apparent localization within its range makes rigorous estimates of its population difficult, but its habitat is threatened by deforestation and the species appear to be in decline. It has been classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Blue nuthatch

The blue nuthatch (Sitta azurea) is a bird species in the Sittidae family, collectively known as nuthatches. It is a medium-sized nuthatch, measuring 13.5 cm (5.3 in) in length. The species, which lacks sexual dimorphism, has dramatic coloration unlike any other member of its genus. Its head is black or blackish-blue dark blue upper parts close to purple with azure feathers. The wings are edged with black. The throat and chest are white or a washed buff color, contrasting with the upper and the belly of a very dark blue; the feathers are generally clear, blue-gray or purplish.

The blue nuthatch is found in the Malay Peninsula and in Indonesia, on the islands of Sumatra and Java, inhabiting subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests above 900 m (3,000 ft) in altitude. Its ecology is poorly known, but it feeds on small invertebrates found on trees; reproduction takes place from April to June or July.

Three subspecies are distinguished: S. a. expectata, S. a. nigriventer and S. a. azurea, which vary chiefly in the coloring of their mantles, chests and bellies. The species' apparent closest relatives are the velvet-fronted nuthatch (S. frontalis), the yellow-billed nuthatch (S. solangiae) and the sulphur-billed nuthatch (S. oenochlamys). The population of the species has not been rigorously estimated but the species appears to be at low risk of extinction because of the extent of its distribution. It has been classified as of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Eastern savannas of the United States

The eastern savannas of the United States covered large portions of the southeast side of the continent until the early 20th century. These were in a fire ecology of open grassland and forests with low ground cover of herbs and grasses.

The frequent fires which maintained the savannas were started by the region's many thunderstorms and Native Americans, with most fires burning the forest understory and not affecting the mature trees above. Before the arrival of humans about 15,000 years ago, lightning would have been the major source of ignition, the region having the most frequent wind and lightning storms in North America. The European settlers who displaced the natives blended the local use of fire with their customary use of fire as pastoral herdsmen in the British Isles, Spain, and France.In the southern pine savanna, each area burned about every 1–4 years; after settlers arrived burning happened about every 1–3 years. In oak–hickory areas, estimates range from 3 to 14 years, although trails were kept open with fire.

Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail

The Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail is a state-designated system of trails, bird sanctuaries, and nature preserves along the entire length of the Texas Gulf Coast in the United States. As the state of Texas hosts more bird species than any other in the U.S. the trail system offers some of the most unusual opportunities for bird-watching in the world. The "trail" is actually 43 separate hiking and driving trails that include 308 birding sites. The sites themselves feature a variety of viewing opportunities with boardwalks, observation decks, and other amenities. The trails boast more than 450 bird species. The trail system is managed by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department as part of the Great Texas Wildlife Trails which also include the Heart of Texas Wildlife Trail, the Panhandle Plains Wildlife Trail, and the Prairies and Pineywoods Wildlife Trail.

Apart from bird watching the trail system includes many nature preserves which feature a wide variety of wildlife. In addition the various sites cover many types of natural terrain and flora including forests, marshes, and beaches.

This trail network was the first of its kind in the U.S. though many states have since followed. The trail system remains the nation's largest. One of the most well-known locations along the trail system is the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, which holds the winter home of the only natural flock of whooping cranes in the world.

List of birds of Maryland

This list of birds of Maryland includes species credibly documented in the U.S. state of Maryland and accepted by the Maryland / District of Columbia Records Committee (MRC) of the Maryland Ornithological Society as of March 2019. There are 453 species included in the official list. Eight additional species of questionable origin and two of exotic origin per the MRC are also included in this page. Of the 453 species, 114 are rare anywhere in the state, 64 are rare in some part of the state, six have been introduced to North America, three are extinct, and one has been extirpated.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Maryland as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used to designate some species:

(R) Rare - "Reviewable if found anywhere in Maryland" per the MRC

(R*) Rare (limited area) - "Reviewable if found in certain specified ranges in Maryland" per the MRC

(QO) Questionable origin - "Accepted species that may or may not be wild or naturally occurring" per the MRC

(EO) Exotic origin - "Accepted species whose natural history precludes wild or natural occurrence" per the MRC

(I) Introduced - a species that has been introduced to North America by the actions of humans, either directly or indirectly

(X) Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(E) Extirpated - a species which is no longer found in Maryland, but still exists elsewhere

List of birds of North Carolina

This list of birds of North Carolina includes species documented in the U.S. state of North Carolina and accepted by the North Carolina Bird Records Committee (NCBRC) of the Carolina Bird Club. As of January 2019, there are 469 species and a species pair definitively included in the official list. Twelve additional species, one of which is identified only at the genus level, are on the list but classed as provisional. Of the 482 species, 85 are rare anywhere in the state, 92 are rare in some part of the state or in a single season, six have been introduced to North America, and four are extinct.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in North Carolina as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used to designate some species:

(R) - Rare - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found anywhere in North Carolina

(RC) - Rare coastal - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found along the coast

(RD) - Rare downstate - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found in the southern part of the state

(RI) - Rare inland - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found away from the coast

(RM) - Rare in mountains - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found in the mountainous part of the state

(RS) - Rare in spring - a species whose report is reviewable by the NCBRC if the bird is found in the spring

(I) - Introduced - a species introduced to North America by humans, either directly or indirectly

(E) - Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(P) - Provisional list - a species that has been approved by the NCBRC but is known only from sight records

List of birds of South Carolina

This list of birds of South Carolina includes species documented in the U.S. state of South Carolina and accepted by the South Carolina Bird Records Committee (SCBRC) of the Carolina Bird Club. As of June 2019, there are 424 species definitively included in the official list. Thirteen additional species are on the list but classed as Provisional I (see definitions below). Of the 437 species on the primary list, 108 are rare anywhere in the state, 36 are rare away from the coast, five have been introduced to North America, and four are extinct. Fifteen additional species are classed as Provisional II and nine as Hypothetical as defined below.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in South Carolina as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used to designate some species:

(R) - Rare - a species whose report is reviewable by the SCBRC if the bird is found anywhere in South Carolina

(RI) - Rare inland - a species whose report is reviewable by the SCBRC if the bird is found away from the coast

(I) - Introduced - an established species introduced to North America by humans, either directly or indirectly

(E) - Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists

(P1) - Provisional I list - species which have been approved by the SCBRC but are known only from sight records

(P2) - Provisional II list - "Species whose occurrence in South Carolina is believed to be the result of human assistance, and which have not become established" per the SCBRC

(H) - Hypothetical - "Species which are undocumented to the committee but reported in North American Birds or The Chat" (the journal of the Carolina Bird Club)

List of birds of Virginia

This list of birds of Virginia includes species credibly documented in the U.S. state of Virginia by the Virginia Avian Records Committee of the Virginia Society of Ornithology (VARCOM). As of June 2018 the list contained 472 species and three species pairs. Of them, 91 are considered accidental and 90 are considered rare. Seven species were introduced to North America, one is extinct, and one has been extirpated. Four additional species, now extinct, are believed to have occurred in Virginia, but there is insufficient evidence to include them in the main list. The published list includes identifiable subspecies which are not presented here.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in Virginia as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to designate some species:

(A) - Accidental - a species that has "less than six accepted physical or written records in the past 50 years" according to VARCOM

(R) - Rare - "A species that is so scarce that it cannot be expected with any certainty, or one that occurs in a very specific and extremely limited habitat" according to VARCOM

(I) - Introduced - a species introduced to North America by humans

(H) - Historical - "Species believed to have occurred historically" according to VARCOM

List of birds of the Bahamas

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Bahamas. The avifauna of the Bahamas include a total of 372 species, according to Bird Checklists of the World as of July 2018. Five additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 377 species, six are endemic, 22 have been introduced by humans, and 207 are rare or accidental. Two species listed are extinct (including one of the endemics) and two have been extirpated.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Bahamas

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to the Bahamas

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Bahamas as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Et) Extinct - a species which has ceased to exist

(Ed) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in the Bahamas although populations exist elsewhere

List of endemic birds of eastern North America

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the World's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

This article covers eastern North America, i.e. the regions of the United States and Canada which lie east of the Rocky Mountains.

List of endemic birds of the West Indies

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

Longleaf pine

The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) is a pine native to the Southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from East Texas to southern Maryland, extending into northern and central Florida. It reaches a height of 30–35 m (98–115 ft) and a diameter of 0.7 m (28 in). In the past, before extensive logging, they reportedly grew to 47 m (154 ft) with a diameter of 1.2 m (47 in). The tree is a cultural symbol of the Southern United States, being the official state tree of Alabama and the unofficial state tree of North Carolina.

Middle Atlantic coastal forests

The Middle Atlantic coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forest mixed with patches of evergreen broadleaved forests (closer to the Atlantic coast) along the coast of the southeastern United States.

Nuthatch

The nuthatches constitute a genus, Sitta, of small passerine birds belonging to the family Sittidae. Characterised by large heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet, nuthatches advertise their territory using loud, simple songs. Most species exhibit grey or bluish upperparts and a black eye stripe.

Most nuthatches breed in the temperate or montane woodlands of the Northern Hemisphere, although two species have adapted to rocky habitats in the warmer and drier regions of Eurasia. However, the greatest diversity is in Southern Asia, and similarities between the species have made it difficult to identify distinct species. All members of this genus nest in holes or crevices. Most species are non-migratory and live in their habitat year-round, although the North American red-breasted nuthatch migrates to warmer regions during the winter. A few nuthatch species have restricted ranges and face threats from deforestation.

Nuthatches are omnivorous where they eat mostly insects, nuts, and seeds. They forage for insects hidden in or under bark by climbing along tree trunks and branches, sometimes upside-down. They forage within their territories when breeding, but they may join mixed feeding flocks at other times. Their habit of wedging a large food item in a crevice and then hacking at it with their strong bills gives this group its English name.

Passerine

A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or – less accurately – as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching, amongst other features specific to their evolutionary history in Australaves.

With more than 140 families and some 6,600 identified species, Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates. Passerines are divided into three suborders, Acanthisitti (New Zealand wrens), Tyranni (suboscines) and Passeri (oscine).The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds. Most passerines are omnivorous, while the shrikes are carnivorous.

The terms "passerine" and "Passeriformes" are derived from the scientific name of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus, and ultimately from the Latin term passer, which refers to sparrows and similar small birds.

Pygmy nuthatch

The pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea) is a tiny songbird, about 10 cm (4 inches) long and about 10 grams in weight. It ranges from southern British Columbia south through various discontinuous parts of the western U.S. (northwest U.S., Sierra Nevada range, southern Rockies, etc.), to central Mexico. It is usually found in pines (especially ponderosa pines), Douglas-firs, and other conifers. Pygmy nuthatches clamber acrobatically in the foliage of these trees, feeding on insects and seeds; less often they creep along limbs or the trunk like bigger nuthatches.

Pygmy nuthatches nest in cavities in dead stubs of conifers, lining the bottom of the cavity with pine-cone scales, plant down, and other soft plant and animal materials. They may fill cracks or crevices around the entrance with fur; the function of this behavior is unknown. The female lays 4–9 eggs, which are white with fine reddish-brown spotting. She does most of the incubation, which lasts about 16 days. The young leave the nest about 22 days after hatching.

This species is highly gregarious. A nesting pair may have other birds as helpers. Outside the breeding season, this bird wanders in noisy flocks. It also roosts communally; over 100 birds have been seen huddled in a single tree cavity.

All plumages are similar, with a warm gray cap, blue-gray upper-parts, and whitish underparts. The only feature not seen in the photograph is a whitish spot on the nape, particularly in worn plumage (summer). Vocalizations are highly varied chirps, peeps, and chattering.

This species is very similar to the brown-headed nuthatch of the southeastern U.S. Their ranges have no overlap.

The pygmy nuthatch features prominently in the climax of the 2000 film Charlie's Angels, in which Cameron Diaz's character, Natalie, discovers the location of the villains' fortress by identifying the call of the pygmy nuthatch, which she says only live in Carmel, California—though the bird shown is not a pygmy nuthatch, which in any case is found in a much wider range. (The Hollywood impostor is a Venezuelan troupial, Icterus icterus.)

Sibley-Monroe checklist 15

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.