Brown-crowned tchagra

The brown-crowned tchagra (Tchagra australis) is a species of bird in the family Malaconotidae.

Brown-crowned tchagra
Brown-crowned Tchagra
Nominate race at Marakele N. P., South Africa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Malaconotidae
Genus: Tchagra
Species:
T. australis
Binomial name
Tchagra australis
(Smith, 1836)
Synonyms
  • Telophonus trivirgatus

Range and habitat

It is found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, DRC, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and dry savanna.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Tchagra australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.

External links

Blouberg Nature Reserve

Blouberg Nature Reserve is a protected area situated close to Vivo, west of Louis Trichardt in the Limpopo Province, of South Africa. It covers an area of 9,360 hectares (23,100 acres) from the eastern portion of the Blouberg mountain range down to the savanna near the Brak River, and is managed and administrated by the Limpopo Provincial Government.

Bushshrike

The bushshrikes are smallish passerine birds. They were formerly classed with the true shrikes in the family Laniidae, but are now considered sufficiently distinctive to be separated from that group as the family Malaconotidae.

This is an African group of species which are found in scrub or open woodland. They are similar in habits to shrikes, hunting insects and other small prey from a perch on a bush. Although similar in build to the shrikes, these tend to be either colourful species or largely black; some species are quite secretive.

Some bushshrikes have flamboyant displays. The male puffbacks puff out the loose feathers on their rump and lower back, to look almost ball-like.

These are mainly insectivorous forest or scrub birds. Up to four eggs are laid in a cup nest in a tree.

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve

Faerie Glen Nature Reserve is a nature reserve at the western limit of the Bronberg in the east of Pretoria, South Africa. It formerly formed a part of the farm Hartbeespoort 304 which belonged to H. W. Struben. On old aerial photographs it is apparent that the flood plain was utilized for crop fields, while the remainder was used for cattle grazing. The reserve constitutes the western part of the Bronberg conservation area, which was declared in 1980. Its highest point is Renosterkop (1,468 m) in the northern part of the reserve.

Groenkloof Nature Reserve

The Groenkloof Nature Reserve, located adjacent to the Fountains Valley at the southern entrance to Pretoria, was the first game sanctuary in Africa. The reserve of 600 ha is managed by the Department of Nature Conservation. The National Heritage Monument is located within the reserve. It is flanked by Christina de Wit Avenue and Nelson Mandela Drive, that separate it from the Voortrekker Monument and Klapperkop Nature Reserves. In aggregate these reserves conserve some 1,400 ha of bankenveld vegetation which is threatened in Gauteng. The reserve is open to day visitors from 5:30 to 19:00 in summer, and 7:00 to 18:00 in winter.

List of birds of Botswana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Botswana. The avifauna of Botswana include a total of 589 species, of which 97 are accidental, 100 are uncommon, and four have been introduced by humans. None are endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of BirdLife Botswana's Checklist for Southern Africa. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of BirdLife Botswana are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents; the tags follow the BirdLife Botswana list usage.

(A) Accidental - a species which has been recorded 10 or fewer times in Botswana

(B) Uncommon - a species which has been recorded more than 10 times but for which BirdLife Botswana wishes to receive more records so as to better assess their status

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Botwana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population.

List of birds of Burkina Faso

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Burkina Faso. The avifauna of Burkina Faso include a total of 499 species, of which seven are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Burkina Faso and is not included in the species count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Burkina Faso.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Burkina Faso

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Burkina Faso although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Eswatini

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Eswatini. The avifauna of Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) include a total of 507 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and 52 are rare or accidental. Three species listed are extirpated in Eswatini and are not included in the species count. Eleven species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Eswatini.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Eswatini

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Eswatini as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Eswatini although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Ghana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ghana. The avifauna of Ghana include a total of 749 confirmed species, of which 64 are accidental. An additional two species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count. None are endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's (ABC) Checklist of the Birds of Ghana. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ghana (also called a vagrant)

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Ghana

List of birds of Ivory Coast

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ivory Coast. The avifauna of Ivory Coast include a total of 758 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and nineteen are rare or accidental. Eleven species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Ivory Coast.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ivory Coast

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ivory Coast as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Liberia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Liberia. The avifauna of Liberia include a total of 695 species, of which one is endemic, three have been introduced by humans and three are rare or accidental. Twelve species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Liberia.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Liberia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Liberia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Liberia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Malawi

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Malawi. The avifauna of Malawi include a total of 650 species, of which one has been introduced by humans and thirty-one are rare or accidental. Ten species are globally threatened. Several bird subspecies are endemic to Malawi. One of these, the yellow-throated apalis, is treated as a full endemic species by some authors. Several species such as the Thyolo alethe are near-endemic to Malawi with only a restricted range outside the country.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Malawi.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a rarely occurring species with no more than about five records in Malawi

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Malawi as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Malawi although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Mozambique

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Mozambique. The avifauna of Mozambique include a total of 740 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and thirteen are rare or accidental. Twenty species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Mozambique.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Mozambique

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Mozambique as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Namibia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Namibia. The avifauna of Namibia include a total of 676 confirmed species, of which one is endemic, 15 are near endemic, four have been introduced by humans, and 56 are vagrants. An additional 35 species are unconfirmed and are not included in the total above.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Namibia Bird Records Committee (NBRC). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the NBRC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Namibia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Namibia

(NE) Near endemic - a species with "90% or more of its population in Namibia" per the NBRC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Namibia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population

(U) Unconfirmed - a "species reported to occur in Namibia but for which there is as yet no unequivocal evidence" per the NBRC

List of birds of Rwanda

This is a list of bird species recorded in Rwanda. The avifauna of Rwanda include a total of 703 confirmed species. 510 resident species. 183 visiting species (including vagrants and migrants). Ten species are considered extirpated in Rwanda.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) largely follows The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 update. However, in an attempt to make the list more accessible to a wide range of users several things have been done.

Scientific names follow those used in the linked articles.

Where there is an alternative common name (that may be used more frequently in the UK and East Africa) this is included after the Clements' common name.

Where subspecies or an eBird preferred taxon is available this is included e.g. yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava.

The species listed here are the same as used on the eBird in Rwanda.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Rwanda, where known the number of sightings for rare records is indicated.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Rwanda although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Togo

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Togo. The avifauna of Togo include a total of 670 species, of which 65 are rare or accidental.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Togo.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Togo

List of birds of Uganda

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uganda. The avifauna of Uganda include a total of 1031 confirmed species, of which 58 are accidental. An additional 19 species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count. One species is endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's (ABC) Checklist of the Birds of Uganda. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uganda (also called a vagrant)

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Uganda

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Uganda

List of birds of Zimbabwe

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Zimbabwe. The avifauna of Zimbabwe include a total of 694 species, of which three have been introduced by humans and 29 are rare or accidental. Twelve species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Zimbabwe.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Zimbabwe

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Zimbabwe as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Sibley-Monroe checklist 13

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Tchagra

The tchagras are passerine birds in the bushshrike family, which are closely related to the true shrikes in the family Laniidae, and were once included in that group.

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