Broth

Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, or vegetables have been simmered.[1] It can be eaten alone, but it is most commonly used to prepare other dishes, such as soups, gravies, and sauces.

Commercially prepared liquid broths are available, typically for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, and vegetable broth. In North America, dehydrated meat stock in the form of tablets is called a bouillon cube. Industrially produced bouillon cubes were commercialized under the brand name Maggi in 1908,[2] and by Oxo in 1910. Using commercially prepared broths saves home and professional cooks time in the kitchen.

By 2013, broth labeled as "bone broth" became popularized as a health food trend or fad in certain parts of the United States.

Broth hg
Broth prepared from meat and vegetables
Brodo di testina in cottura
Beef broth being cooked

Stock versus broth

Many cooks and food writers use the terms broth and stock interchangeably.[3][4][5][6] In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock, broth, and bouillon "are all the same thing".[7]

While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction often differ. One possibility is that stocks are made primarily from animal bones, as opposed to meat, and therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.[5] Another distinction that is sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor.[8] A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone.[9][10]

In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base.[11] Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of meat or fish; however, nowadays it is acceptable to refer to a strictly vegetable soup as a broth.[12][13]

Bouillon (UK: /ˈbuːjɒ̃, ˈbwiː-/, US: /ˈbʊljɒn/;[14] French: [bujɔ̃]) is the French word for "broth", and is usually used as a synonym for it.[3][10]

History

In the late 18th century, Benjamin Thompson, (1753–1814) an American-born physicist in service to the Elector of Bavaria, invented and mass-produced a fully nutritious, solidified stock of bones, inexpensive meat by-products and other ingredients, using it to feed the Elector's army. His invention was the precursor of the bouillon cube.

Refining

Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, traditionally, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavor and nutrients.[15] The bones may or may not have meat still on them.

Egg whites may be added during simmering when it is necessary to clarify (i.e., purify, or refine a broth for a cleaner presentation). The egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an easily strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity.

Roasted bones will add a rich flavor to the broth but also a dark color.

A clarified broth eaten as a soup is often called a consommé.

Cultural distinctions

Japan

In Japan, "clear broth soup" may be one way to describe the suimono,[16] where hot clear broth is traditionally presented in a lacquer bowl, with a bite-size piece of seafood, chicken, tofu etc., and vegetable sunken or afloat in it.[17][18] The suimono is made from stock[17] (dashi[19])[a][19]) and flavored with salt and just a spoonful of soy sauce per batch.[20]

There is also the "noodle broth" (called kake-jiru or men tsuyu in Japanese) in which udon (wheat noodle) and soba (buckwheat noodles) are served; the noodle broth uses more soy sauce, and mirin as well.[21][22][23]

An ushio-jiru is fish broth, flavored with just a pinch of salt,[24][25] extracted from fish bones, fish head, etc. or shellfish.[26] A hamaguri ushio-jiru is a variant using clams.[24][27] An example of ushio-jiru uses tai or sea bream, and this dish is not just the liquid broth, but served with the fish head in it to be consumed, eye-ball and all.[28][29] The hamaguri ushio-jiru ("clam consommé") is also served with the meat of the clam in the clam shell.[30]

South Asia

In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of the term.[31]

Lack of scientific evidence for health benefits

By 2013, "bone broth" had become a popular health food trend, due to the resurgence in popularity of dietary fat over sugar, and interest in "functional foods" to which "culinary medicinals" such as turmeric and ginger could be added. Bone broth bars, bone broth home delivery services, and bone broth carts and freezer packs grew in popularity in the United States.[32] The fad was heightened by the 2014 book Nourishing Broth, in which authors Sally Fallon Morell and Kaayla T. Daniel state that the broth's nutrient density has a variety of health effects:[33][34] boosting the immune system; improving joints, skin and hair due to collagen content; and promoting healthy teeth and bones due to calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels.[35]

However, there is no scientific evidence to support many of the claims made for bone broth. For example, while bone broths do contain collagen, there is no evidence that consuming bone broths improves joint pain or improve skin, because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, and is not transported directly to joints or skin in the form in which it is ingested. In addition, the fact that the broth is derived from bone does not mean that therefore it will build bone or prevent osteoporosis, as the bones release very little calcium into the broth when prepared. There is little evidence that the gelatin that they contain functions as a digestive aid. A few small studies have found some possible benefit for chicken broth, such as the clearing of nasal passages. Chicken soup may also reduce inflammation; however, this effect has not been confirmed in controlled studies of adults.[34][36]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The dashi usually includes the use of kombu, a form of kelp, and katsuobushi or bonito flakes.

References

  1. ^ Rombauer, Irma S.; Marion Rombauer Becker; Ethan Becker (1997). Joy of Cooking. 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020: Scribner. p. 42. ISBN 0-684-81870-1.
  2. ^ "Maggi Bouillon Cubes".
  3. ^ a b Wright, Clifford A. (2011). The Best Soups in the World. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0544177797. I use the terms 'broth' and 'stock' interchangeably, as do many people, although technically there is a very small difference—not important to the home cook....Some English-speaking writers make a distinction between broth and bouillon, but bouillon is simply the French word for broth.
  4. ^ López-Alt, J. Kenji. "How To Make Great Vegan Soups". Serious Eats. Retrieved 2016-11-29. I don't really want to get into the muddy details of nomenclature between broth and stock...I use the words pretty much interchangeably, though I lean towards 'stock' if I mean something pretty rich that I'm gonna cook with and 'broth' if I mean something my noodles or peas are already floating in.
  5. ^ a b Souder, Amy (April 10, 2016). "What's the Difference Between Chicken Stock and Chicken Broth?". Chowhound. Retrieved 2016-11-29. Professional chefs and experienced cooks like us spout the broth and stock terms interchangeably.
  6. ^ Landis, Denise (19 November 2012). "'What's the difference between stock and broth, and which do I use for dressing and gravy?'". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2018. Stock and broth are more or less the same thing, a mixture of any combination of meats (including poultry or seafood), bones, vegetables or herbs simmered in a large quantity of water, then strained.
  7. ^ Beard, James (2015). "A stock is a broth is a bouillon". The Armchair James Beard. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781504004558. The other morning my old friend Helen McCully called me at an early hour and said, 'Now that you're revising your fish book, for heaven's sake, define the difference between a stock, a broth and a bouillon. No book does.' The reason no book does is that they are all the same thing. A stock, which is also a broth or a bouillon, is basically some meat, game, poultry, or fish simmered in water with bones, seasonings, and vegetables.
  8. ^ "Broth Basics". Martha Stewart. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  9. ^ Christensen, Emma. "What's the Difference Between Stock and Broth? — Word of Mouth". The Kitchn. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
  10. ^ a b Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 9780191040726. broth: a term which usually means the liquid in which meat has been cooked or a simple soup based thereon. It is a close equivalent to the French bouillon and the Italian brodo....It could be said that broth occupies an intermediate position between stock and soup. A broth...can be eaten as is, whereas a stock...would normally be consumed only as an ingredient in something more complex.
  11. ^ Spaull, Susan; Lucinda Bruce-Gardyne (2003). Leith's Techniques Bible. London: Bloomsbury. p. 661. ISBN 0-7475-6046-3.
  12. ^ Spaull, Susan; Lucinda Bruce-Gardyne (2003). Leith's Techniques Bible. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3 HB: Bloomsbury. p. 683. ISBN 0-7475-6046-3.
  13. ^ Smith, Delia (1992). Delia Smith's Complete Cookery Course. BBC Enterprises Ltd., Woodlands, 80 Wood Lane, London W12 0TT: BBC Books. p. 61. ISBN 0-563-36286-3.
  14. ^ Wells, John C. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Pearson Education ESL. ISBN 978-1405881180.
  15. ^ Morell, Sally. "Broth is Beautiful". Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  16. ^ Butler, Stephanie E.; Kelly, Alexis C., eds. (2009). Japan. Fodor's Travel Publications. p. 352. ISBN 9784770030498.
  17. ^ a b Tsuji, Shizuo (2007). Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art. Kodansha International. p. 151. ISBN 9784770030498.
  18. ^ Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (1975). The Book of Tofu: Food for Mankind. 1. Soyinfo Center. p. 151. ISBN 9784770030498.
  19. ^ a b Tsuji (2007), p. 153.
  20. ^ Tsuji (2007), p. 154.
  21. ^ Tsuji (2007), p. 310.
  22. ^ Shurtleff & Aoyagi (1975), p. 40.
  23. ^ Kobayashi, Katsuyo (2000). Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art. Kodansha International. p. 93. ISBN 9784770025043.
  24. ^ a b Philpott, Don (2016). The World of Wine and Food: A Guide to Varieties, Tastes, History, and Pairings. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 389, 390. ISBN 978-1-4422-6804-3.
  25. ^ "cooking, Japanese". Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan. 2. 1983. p. 22.
  26. ^ Sakamoto, Yukari (2016). Food Sake Tokyo. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 389, 390. ISBN 978-1-4422-6804-3.
  27. ^ Tsuji, Shizuo; Hata, Kōichirō (1986). Practical Japanese Cooking: Easy and Elegant. 1. Kodansha International. p. 22. ISBN 9780870117626.
  28. ^ Perkins, Dorothy (1991). "SEA BREAM (tai)". Encyclopedia of Japan: Japanese History and Culture, from Abacus to Zori. Facts on File. pp. 389, 390.
  29. ^ Iso, Naomichi 磯直道 (2006). Edo no haikai ni miru gyoshoku bunka 江戸の俳諧にみる魚食文化. Seizando-Shoten. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4422-6804-3. Invalid |script-title=: missing prefix (help)
  30. ^ Tsuji (2007), p. 155.
  31. ^ Xavier Romero-Frias, The Maldive Islanders, A Study of the Popular Culture of an Ancient Ocean Kingdom, Barcelona 1999, ISBN 84-7254-801-5
  32. ^ Denn, Rebekah (2017-08-21). "Magic or mythic? Bone broth is at the center of a brewing cultural divide". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-08-31.
  33. ^ Heid, Markham (January 6, 2016). "Science Can't Explain Why Everyone is Drinking Bone Broth". Time.
  34. ^ a b Blaszyk, Amy (February 10, 2015). "Taking Stock Of Bone Broth: Sorry, No Cure-All Here". NPR.
  35. ^ Simpson, Steph (2016-11-14). "What's All the Hype About Bone Broth?". Reader's Digest.
  36. ^ "What's the scoop on bone soup?". Harvard Health Publishing. Harvard Medical School. September 2015.
Bouillabaisse

Bouillabaisse (French pronunciation: ​[bu.ja.bɛːs]; Occitan: bolhabaissa [ˌbuʎaˈβajsɔ / ˌbujaˈbajsɔ]) is a traditional Provençal fish stew originating from the port city of Marseille. The French and English form bouillabaisse comes from the Provençal Occitan word bolhabaissa, a compound that consists of the two verbs bolhir (to boil) and abaissar (to reduce heat, i.e., simmer).

Bouillabaisse was originally a stew made by Marseille fishermen using the bony rockfish which they were unable to sell to restaurants or markets. There are at least three kinds of fish in a traditional bouillabaisse: typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa); sea robin; and European conger. It can also include gilt-head bream, turbot, monkfish, mullet, or European hake. It usually also includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins, mussels, velvet crabs, spider crab or octopus. More expensive versions may add langoustine (Norway lobster), though this was not part of the traditional dish made by Marseille fishermen. Vegetables such as leeks, onions, tomatoes, celery, and potatoes are simmered together with the broth and served with the fish. The broth is traditionally served with a rouille, a mayonnaise made of olive oil, garlic, saffron, and cayenne pepper on grilled slices of bread.

What makes a bouillabaisse different from other fish soups is the selection of Provençal herbs and spices in the broth; the use of bony local Mediterranean fish; the way the fish are added one at a time, and brought to a boil; and the method of serving. In Marseille, the broth is served first in a soup plate with slices of bread and rouille, then the fish is served separately on a large platter (see image at right); or, more simply, as Julia Child suggests, the fish and broth are brought to the table separately and served together in large soup plates.

Chicken soup

Chicken soup is a soup made from chicken, simmered in water, usually with various other ingredients. The classic chicken soup consists of a clear chicken broth, often with pieces of chicken or vegetables; common additions are pasta, noodles, dumplings, or grains such as rice and barley. Chicken soup has acquired the reputation of a folk remedy for colds and influenza, and in many countries is considered a comfort food.

Fish stock (food)

Fish stock forms the basis of many dishes, particularly fish soups and sauces. In the West, it is usually made with fish bones and fish heads and finely chopped mirepoix. This fish stock should be cooked for 20–25 minutes—cooking any longer spoils the flavour. Concentrated fish stock is called "fish fumet".

In Japan, a fish and kelp stock called dashi is made by briefly (3–5 minutes) cooking skipjack tuna (bonito) flakes called katsuobushi in nearly boiling water. Other Japanese fish stock is made from fish that have been fried and boiled for several hours, creating a white milky broth. This has a rich feel and sweet umami taste.

Stock can also be made using other seafoods. For example, prawn stock made from simmering prawn shells is used in Southeast Asian dishes such as laksa.

Fondue

Fondue (au fromage) (UK: , US: , French: [fɔ̃dy]) is a Swiss melted cheese dish served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks. It was promoted as a Swiss national dish by the Swiss Cheese Union (Schweizerische Käseunion) in the 1930s, and was popularized in North America in the 1960s.

Since the 1950s, the term "fondue" has been generalized to other dishes in which a food is dipped into a communal pot of liquid kept hot in a fondue pot: chocolate fondue, fondue au chocolat, in which pieces of fruit or pastry are dipped into a melted chocolate mixture, and fondue bourguignonne, in which pieces of meat are cooked in hot oil or broth.

Growth medium

A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.

Different types of media are used for growing different types of cells.The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture, which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi. The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths and agar plates; specialized media are sometimes required for microorganism and cell culture growth. Some organisms, termed fastidious organisms, require specialized environments due to complex nutritional requirements. Viruses, for example, are obligate intracellular parasites and require a growth medium containing living cells.

Kal-guksu

Kal-guksu (칼국수; Noodle soup; literally "knife noodles") is a Korean noodle dish consisting of handmade, knife-cut wheat flour noodles served in a large bowl with broth and other ingredients. It is traditionally considered a seasonal food, consumed most often in summer. Its name comes from the fact that the noodles are not extruded or spun, but cut.

Korean noodles

Korean noodles are noodles or noodle dishes in Korean cuisine, and are collectively referred to as "guksu" in native Korean or "myeon" (cf. mien) in Sino-Korean vocabulary. Preparations with noodles are relatively simple and dates back to around BCE 6000 to BCE 5000 in Asia. In Korea, traditional noodle dishes are onmyeon (beef broth-based noodle soup), called guksu jangguk (noodles with a hot clear broth), naengmyeon (cold buckwheat noodles), bibim guksu (cold noodle dish mixed with vegetables), kalguksu (knife-cut noodles), kongguksu (noodles with a cold soybean broth) among others. In royal court, baekmyeon (literally "white noodles") consisting of buckwheat noodles and pheasant broth, was regarded as the top quality noodle dish. Naengmyeon, with a cold soup mixed with dongchimi (watery radish kimchi) and beef brisk broth, was eaten in court during summer.

List of soups

This is a list of notable soups. Soups have been made since ancient times.

Some soups are served with large chunks of meat or vegetables left in the liquid, while a broth is a flavored liquid usually derived from boiling a type of meat with bone, a spice mix, or a vegetable mix for a period of time in a stock. A common type of broth is consommé, which are crystal clear broths or stock that have a full flavor, aroma, and body.

A potage is a category of thick soups, stews, or porridges, in some of which meat and vegetables are boiled together with water until they form into a thick mush.

Bisques are heavy cream soups traditionally prepared with shellfish, but can be made with any type of seafood or other base ingredients. Cream soups are a dairy based soup. Although they may be consumed on their own, or with a meal, the canned, condensed form of cream soup is sometimes used as a quick sauce in a variety of meat and pasta convenience food dishes, such as casseroles. Similar to a bisque, chowders are thick soups usually containing some type of starch.

Coulis were originally meat juices, and now are thick purées.

Some soups are served only cold, and other soups can optionally be served cold.

Mami soup

Mami is a Filipino noodle soup made with wheat flour noodles, broth and the addition of meat (chicken, beef, pork) or wonton dumplings. It is a type of pancit.

Menudo (soup)

Menudo, also known as pancita ([little] gut or [little] stomach, from Spanish: Panza; "Gut/Stomach") or mole de panza ("Stomach sauce"), is a traditional Mexican soup, made with cow's stomach (tripe) in broth with a red chili pepper base. It shares a name with a stew from the Philippines made with pork and pork liver.

Hominy, lime, onions, and oregano are used to season the broth.

Mixian (noodle)

Mixian (simplified Chinese: 米线; traditional Chinese: 米線; pinyin: mǐxiàn) is a type of rice noodle from the Yunnan Province, China. It is made from ordinary non-glutinous rice, and it is generally sold fresh rather than dried.

Noodle soup

Noodle soup refers to a variety of soups with noodles and other ingredients served in a light broth. Noodle soup is common dish across East and Southeast Asia. Various types of noodles are used, such as rice noodles, wheat noodles and egg noodles.

Pho

Phở or pho (UK: , US: , Canada: ; Vietnamese: [fəː˧˩˧] (listen)) is a Vietnamese soup consisting of broth, rice noodles (bánh phở), herbs, and meat – usually beef (phở bò), sometimes chicken (phở gà). Pho is a popular street food in Vietnam and served in restaurants around the world.

Pho originated in the early 20th century in northern Vietnam, and was popularized throughout the world by refugees after the Vietnam War. Because pho's origins are poorly documented, there is disagreement over the cultural influences that led to its development in Vietnam, as well as the etymology of the name. The Hanoi (northern) and Saigon (southern) styles of pho differ by noodle width, sweetness of broth, and choice of herbs.

Ramen

Ramen () (拉麺, ラーメン, rāmen, IPA: [ɾaꜜːmeɴ]) is a Japanese dish with a translation of "pulled noodles". It consists of Chinese wheat noodles served in a meat or (occasionally) fish-based broth, often flavored with soy sauce or miso, and uses toppings such as sliced pork (叉焼, chāshū), nori (dried seaweed), menma, and scallions. Nearly every region in Japan has its own variation of ramen, such as the tonkotsu (pork bone broth) ramen of Kyushu and the miso ramen of Hokkaido.

Risotto

Risotto (, Italian: [riˈzɔtto], from riso meaning "rice") is a northern Italian rice dish cooked with broth until it reaches a creamy consistency. The broth can be derived from meat, fish, or vegetables. Many types of risotto contain butter, onion, white wine, and parmesan cheese. It is one of the most common ways of cooking rice in Italy. Saffron was originally used for flavour and its signature yellow colour.Risotto in Italy is normally a first course served before the main course, but risotto alla milanese is often served with ossobuco alla milanese as a main course.

Soto (food)

Soto (also known as sroto, tauto, or coto) is a traditional Indonesian soup mainly composed of broth, meat, and vegetables. Many traditional soups are called soto, whereas foreign and Western influenced soups are called sop.

Soto is sometimes considered Indonesia's national dish, as it is served from Sumatra to Papua, in a wide range of variations. Soto is omnipresent in Indonesia, available in many warungs and open-air eateries on many street corners, to fine dining restaurants and luxurious hotels. Soto, especially soto ayam (chicken soto), is an Indonesian equivalent of chicken soup. Because it is always served warm with a tender texture, it is considered an Indonesian comfort food.Because of the proximity and significant numbers of Indonesian migrants working and settling in neighbouring countries, soto can also be found in Singapore and Malaysia, and has become a part of their cuisine.

Introduced to Suriname by Javanese migrants, it is part of the national cuisine of that country as well, where it is spelled saoto.

Soup

Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. Soups are similar to stews, and in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two; however, soups generally have more liquid (broth) than stews.In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are made from puréed shellfish or vegetables thickened with cream; cream soups may be thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés are thickened with eggs, butter, and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include egg, rice, lentils, flour, and grains; many popular soups also include pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, pig's trotters and bird's nests.

Other types of soup include fruit soups, dessert soups, pulse soups like split pea, cold soups and other styles.

Stock (food)

Stock is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes, particularly soups, stews and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor.

Udon

Udon (饂飩, usually written as うどん) is a type of thick wheat flour noodle used frequently in Japanese cuisine. It is often served hot as a noodle soup in its simplest form, as kake udon, in a mildly flavoured broth called kakejiru, which is made of dashi, soy sauce, and mirin. It is usually topped with thinly chopped scallions. Other common toppings include tempura, often prawn or kakiage (a type of mixed tempura fritter), or aburaage, a type of deep-fried tofu pockets seasoned with sugar, mirin, and soy sauce. A thin slice of kamaboko, a halfmoon-shaped fish cake, is often added. Shichimi can be added to taste.

The flavour of broth and topping vary from region to region. Usually, dark brown broth, made from dark soy sauce (koikuchi shōyu), is used in eastern Japan, and light brown broth, made from light soy sauce (usukuchi shōyu), is used in western Japan. This is noticeable in packaged instant noodles, which are often sold in two different versions for east and west. Currynanban is another popular variation, served in curry broth.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.